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The Virtue of Wudu`

Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِذَا تَوَضَّأَ الْعَبْدُ الْمُسْلِمُ أَوِ الْمُؤْمِنُ فَغَسَلَ وَجْهَهُ، خَرَجَ مِنْ وَجْهِهِ، كُلُّ خَطِيئَةٍ نَظَرَ إِلَيْهَا بِعَيْنَيْهِ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ آخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ، فَإِذَا غَسَلَ يَدَيهِ خَرَجَ مِنْ يَدَيْهِ كُلُّ خَطِيئَةٍ بَطَشَتْهَا يَدَاهُ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ آخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ، فَإِذَا غَسَلَ رِجْلَيْهِ خَرَجَتْ كُلُّ خَطِيئةٍ مَشَتْهَا رِجْلَاهُ مَعَ الْمَاءِ أَوْ مَعَ آخِرِ قَطْرِ الْمَاءِ، حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ نَقِيًّا مِنَ الذُّنُوب »

(When the Muslim or the believing servant performs Wudu' and washes his face, every sin that he looked at with his eyes will depart from his face with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his hands, every sin that his hands committed will depart from his hands with the water, or with the last drop of water. When he washes his feet, every sin to which his feet took him will depart with the water, or with the last drop of water. Until, he ends up sinless.) Muslim also recorded it. Muslim recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ash`ari said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« الطُّهُور شَطْرُ الْإِيمَانِ، وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ تَمْلَأُ الْمِيزَانَ، وَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ تَمْلَأُ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ، وَالصَّوْمُ جُنَّةٌ، وَالصَّبْرُ ضِيَاءٌ، وَالصدَقَةُ بُرْهَانٌ، وَالقُرْآنُ حُجَّةٌ لَكَ أَوْ عَلَيْكَ، كُلُّ النَّاسِ يَغْدُو، فَبَائِعٌ نَفْسَهُ فَمُعْتِقُهَا أَوْ مُوبِقُهَا »

(Purity is half of faith and Al-Hamdu Lillah (all the thanks are due to Allah) fills the Mizan (the Scale). And Subhan Allah and Allahu Akbar (all praise is due to Allah, and Allah is the Most Great) fills what is between the heaven and earth. As-Sawm (the fast) is a Junnah (a shield), Sabr (patience) is a light, Sadaqah (charity) is evidence (of faith) and the Qur'an is proof for, or against you. Every person goes out in the morning and ends up selling himself, he either frees his soul or destroys it.) Muslim recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَا يَقْبَلُ اللهُ صَدَقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ، وَلَا صَلَاةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُور »

(Allah does not accept charity from one who commits Ghulul, or prayer without purity.)

﴿ وَٱذۡڪُرُواْ نِعۡمَةَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَمِيثَـٰقَهُ ٱلَّذِى وَاثَقَكُم بِهِۦۤ إِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَا‌ۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّٲمِينَ لِلَّهِ شُہَدَآءَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ‌ۖ وَلَا يَجۡرِمَنَّڪُمۡ شَنَـَٔانُ قَوۡمٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَعۡدِلُواْ‌ۚ ٱعۡدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوَىٰ‌ۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ‌ۙ لَهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٌ۬ وَأَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ۬ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ إِذۡ هَمَّ قَوۡمٌ أَن يَبۡسُطُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمۡ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ فَكَفَّ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ عَنڪُمۡ‌ۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ

(7. And remember Allah's favor to you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said: "We hear and we obey.'' And have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Knower of that which is in the breasts.) (8. O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as just witnesses; and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just, that is nearer to Taqwa; and have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.) (9. Allah has promised those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, that for them there is forgiveness and a great reward (i.e. Paradise).) (10. And they who disbelieve and deny Our Ayat are those who will be the dwellers of the Hell-fire.) (11. O you who believe! Remember the favor of Allah unto you when some people desired (made a plan) to stretch out their hands against you, but (Allah) held back their hands from you. So have Taqwa of Allah. And in Allah let the believers put their trust.)

Reminding the Believers of the Bounty of the Message and Islam

Allah reminds His believing servants of His bounty by legislating this glorious religion and sending them this honorable Messenger. He also reminds them of the covenant and pledges that He took from them to follow the Messenger , support and aid him, implement his Law and convey it on his behalf, while accepting it themselves. Allah said,

﴿ وَٱذۡڪُرُواْ نِعۡمَةَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡ وَمِيثَـٰقَهُ ٱلَّذِى وَاثَقَكُم بِهِۦۤ إِذۡ قُلۡتُمۡ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَا‌ۖ

(And remember Allah's favor upon you and His covenant with which He bound you when you said, "We hear and we obey.") This is the pledge that they used to give to the Messenger of Allah when they embraced Islam. They used to say, "We gave our pledge of obedience to the Messenger of Allah to hear and obey, in times when we are active and otherwise, even if we were passed on for rights, and not to dispute leadership with its rightful people.'' Allah also said,

﴿ وَمَا لَكُمۡ لَا تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ‌ۙ وَٱلرَّسُولُ يَدۡعُوكُمۡ لِتُؤۡمِنُواْ بِرَبِّكُمۡ وَقَدۡ أَخَذَ مِيثَـٰقَكُمۡ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ

(And what is the matter with you that you believe not in Allah! While the Messenger invites you to believe in your Lord; and He has indeed taken your covenant, if you are real believers.) It was also said that this Ayah (5:7) reminds the Jews of the pledges and promises Allah took from them to follow Muhammad and adhere to his Law, as `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas stated. Allah then said,

﴿ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ

(And have Taqwa of Allah.) in all times and situations. Allah says that He knows the secrets and thoughts that the hearts conceal,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمُۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ

(Verily, Allah is All-Knower of the secrets of (your) breasts.)

The Necessity of Observing Justice

Allah said,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّٲمِينَ لِلَّهِ

(O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah...) meaning, in truth for the sake of Allah, not for the sake of people or for fame,

﴿ شُہَدَآءَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ‌ۖ

(as just witnesses) observing justice and not transgression. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said, "My father gave me a gift, but `Amrah bint Rawahah, my mother, said that she would not agree to it unless he made Allah's Messenger as a witness to it. So, my father went to Allah's Messenger to ask him to be a witness to his giving me the gift. Allah's Messenger asked,

« أكل ولدك نحلت مثله؟ »

(`Have you given the like of it to everyone of your offspring') He replied in the negative. Allah's Messenger said,

« اتَّقُوا اللهَ وَاعْدِلُوا فِي أَوْلَادِكُم »

(Have Taqwa of Allah and treat your children equally.) And said;

« إِنِّي لَا أَشْهَدُ عَلى جَوْر »

(I shall not be witness to injustice.) My father then returned and took back his gift.'' Allah said;

﴿ وَلَا يَجۡرِمَنَّڪُمۡ شَنَـَٔانُ قَوۡمٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَعۡدِلُواْ‌ۚ

(and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. ) The Ayah commands: Do not be carried away by your hatred for some people to avoid observing justice with them. Rather, be just with every one, whether a friend or an enemy. This is why Allah said,

﴿ ٱعۡدِلُواْ هُوَ أَقۡرَبُ لِلتَّقۡوَىٰ‌ۖ

(Be just: that is nearer to Taqwa) this is better than if you abandon justice in this case. Although Allah said that observing justice is `nearer to Taqwa', there is not any other course of action to take, therefore `nearer' here means `is'. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ خَيۡرٌ۬ مُّسۡتَقَرًّ۬ا وَأَحۡسَنُ مَقِيلاً۬

(The dwellers of Paradise will, on that Day, have the best abode, and have the fairer of places for repose.) Some of the female Companions said to `Umar, "You are more rough and crude than the Messenger of Allah ,'' meaning, you are rough, not that the Prophet is rough at all. Allah said next,

﴿ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ

(and have Taqwa of Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do.) and consequently, He will reward or punish you according to your actions, whether good or evil. Hence Allah's statement afterwards,

﴿ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ‌ۙ لَهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٌ۬

(Allah has promised those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, that for them there is forgiveness) for their sins,

﴿ وَأَجۡرٌ عَظِيمٌ۬

(and a great reward.) which is Paradise, that is part of Allah's mercy for His servants. They will not earn Paradise on account of their good actions, but rather on account of His mercy and favor, even though they will qualify to earn this mercy on account of their good actions. Allah has made these actions the cause and path that lead to His mercy, favor, pardon and acceptance. Therefore, all this is from Allah Alone and all thanks are due to Him. Allah said next,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَكَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ

(And they who disbelieve and deny our Ayat are those who will be the dwellers of the Hell-fire.) This only demonstrates Allah's perfect justice, wisdom and judgment, He is never wrong, for He is the Most Wise, Most Just and Most Able.

Among Allah's Favors is that He Prevented the Disbelievers from Fighting the Muslims

Allah said,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ إِذۡ هَمَّ قَوۡمٌ أَن يَبۡسُطُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمۡ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ فَكَفَّ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ عَنڪُمۡ‌ۖ

(O you who believe! Remember the favor of Allah unto you when some people desired (made a plan) to stretch out their hands against you, but (Allah) withheld their hands from you.) `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Jabir said, "The Prophet once stayed at an area and the people spread out seeking shade under various trees. The Prophet hung his weapon on a tree, and a bedouin man came and took possession of the Prophet's weapon and held it aloft. He came towards the Prophet and said, `Who can protect you from me' He replied, `Allah, the Exalted, Most Honored.' The bedouin man repeated his question twice or thrice, each time the Prophet answering him by saying, `Allah.' The bedouin man then lowered the sword, and the Prophet called his Companions and told them what had happened while the bedouin was sitting next to him, for the Prophet did not punish him.' Ma`mar said that Qatadah used to mention that some Arabs wanted to have the Prophet killed, so they sent that bedouin. Qatadah would then mention this Ayah,

﴿ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡڪُمۡ إِذۡ هَمَّ قَوۡمٌ أَن يَبۡسُطُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمۡ أَيۡدِيَهُمۡ

(Remember the favor of Allah unto you when some people desired (made a plan) to stretch out their hands against you...) The story of this bedouin man, whose name is Ghawrath bin Al-Harith, is mentioned in the Sahih. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar, Mujahid and `Ikrimah said that this Ayah was revealed about Bani An-Nadir, who plotted to drop a stone on the head of the Messenger when he came to them for help to pay the blood money of two persons whom Muslims killed. The Jews left the execution of this plot to `Amr bin Jihash bin Ka`b and ordered him to throw a stone on the Prophet from above, when he came to them and sat under the wall. Allah told His Prophet about their plot, and he went back to Al-Madinah and his Companions followed him later on. Allah sent down this Ayah concerning this matter. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَكَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ

(And in Allah let the believers put their trust.) and those who do so, then Allah shall suffice for them and shall protect them from the evil plots of the people. Thereafter, Allah commanded His Messenger to expel Bani An-Nadir, and he laid siege to their area and forced them to evacuate Al-Madinah.

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَخَذَ ٱللَّهُ مِيثَـٰقَ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ وَبَعَثۡنَا مِنۡهُمُ ٱثۡنَىۡ عَشَرَ نَقِيبً۬ا‌ۖ وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ إِنِّى مَعَڪُمۡ‌ۖ لَٮِٕنۡ أَقَمۡتُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَيۡتُمُ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَءَامَنتُم بِرُسُلِى وَعَزَّرۡتُمُوهُمۡ وَأَقۡرَضۡتُمُ ٱللَّهَ قَرۡضًا حَسَنً۬ا لَّأُڪَفِّرَنَّ عَنكُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمۡ وَلَأُدۡخِلَنَّڪُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ‌ۚ فَمَن ڪَفَرَ بَعۡدَ ذَٲلِكَ مِنڪُمۡ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ سَوَآءَ ٱلسَّبِيلِ فَبِمَا نَقۡضِہِم مِّيثَـٰقَهُمۡ لَعَنَّـٰهُمۡ وَجَعَلۡنَا قُلُوبَهُمۡ قَـٰسِيَةً۬‌ۖ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلۡڪَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِۦ‌ۙ وَنَسُواْ حَظًّ۬ا مِّمَّا ذُكِّرُواْ بِهِۦ‌ۚ وَلَا تَزَالُ تَطَّلِعُ عَلَىٰ خَآٮِٕنَةٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ‌ۖ فَٱعۡفُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَٱصۡفَحۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ وَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا نَصَـٰرَىٰٓ أَخَذۡنَا مِيثَـٰقَهُمۡ فَنَسُواْ حَظًّ۬ا مِّمَّا ذُڪِّرُواْ بِهِۦ فَأَغۡرَيۡنَا بَيۡنَهُمُ ٱلۡعَدَاوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۚ وَسَوۡفَ يُنَبِّئُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا ڪَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ

(12. Indeed, Allah took the covenant from the Children of Israel (Jews), and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: "I am with you if you perform the Salah and give the Zakah and believe in My Messengers; honor and assist them, and lend to Allah a good loan, verily, I will remit your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise). But if any of you after this, disbelieved, he has indeed gone astray from the straight way.'') (13. So, because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard. They changed the words from their (right) places and have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them. And you will not cease to discover deceit in them, except a few of them. But forgive them and overlook (their misdeeds). Verily, Allah loves the doers of good.) (14. And from those who call themselves Christians, We took their covenant, but they have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them. So We planted amongst them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection; and Allah will inform them of what they used to do.)