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Threatening to Replace the Believers With Another People if They Revert from Islam

Allah emphasizes His mighty ability and states that whoever reverts from supporting His religion and establishing His Law, then Allah will replace them with whomever is better, mightier and more righteous in Allah's religion and Law. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ ٱلۡفُقَرَآءُ‌ۚ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوۡاْ يَسۡتَبۡدِلۡ قَوۡمًا غَيۡرَكُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُوٓاْ

(And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes.) and,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۚ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ وَيَأۡتِ بِخَلۡقٍ۬ جَدِيدٍ۬ وَمَا ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ بِعَزِيزٍ۬

(Do you not see that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth If He will, He can remove you and bring (in your place) a new creation! And for Allah that is not hard or difficult.) (14:19-20). Verily this is not difficult or hard on Allah. Allah said here,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَن يَرۡتَدَّ مِنكُمۡ عَن دِينِهِۦ

(O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion...) and turns back from the truth to falsehood, from now until the commencement of the Last Hour. Allah said next,

﴿ أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers.) These are the qualities of perfect believers, as they are humble with their believing brothers and allies, stern with their enemies and adversaries. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ مُّحَمَّدٌ۬ رَّسُولُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُ ۥۤ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى ٱلۡكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيۡنَہُمۡ‌ۖ

(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves.) The Prophet is described as the smiling fighter, smiling to his allies and fighting his enemies. Allah's statement,

﴿ يُجَـٰهِدُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوۡمَةَ لَآٮِٕمٍ۬‌ۚ

(Fighting in the way of Allah, and never fearing the blame of the blamers.) Nothing prevents them from obeying Allah, establishing His Law, fighting His enemies, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Certainly, nothing prevents them from taking this path, neither someone who seeks to hinder them, nor one who blames or chastises them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said, "My Khalil (intimate friend, the Messenger) has commanded me to do seven deeds. He commanded me to love the poor and to be close to them. He commanded me to look at those who are less than me and not those who are above me. He commanded me to keep the relations of the womb, even if they cut it. He commanded me not to ask anyone for anything, to say the truth even if it was bitter, and to not fear the blame of anyone for the sake of Allah. He commanded me to often repeat, `La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (There is no strength or power except from Allah)', for these words are from a treasure under the Throne (of Allah).'' It is confirmed in the Sahih;

« مَا يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُؤْمِنِ أَنْ يُذِلَّ نَفْسَه »

(The believer is not required to humiliate himself.) He was asked; "How does one humiliate himself, O Messenger of Allah'' So he replied;

« يَتَحَمَّلُ مِنَ الْبَلَاءِ مَا لَا يُطِيق »

(He takes on tests that he cannot bear.)

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ فَضۡلُ ٱللَّهِ يُؤۡتِيهِ مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ

(That is the grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills.) meaning, those who have these qualities, acquired it by Allah's bounty and favor and because He granted them these qualities.

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ وَٲسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

(And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower,) His favor is ever extending, and He has perfect knowledge of those who deserve or do not deserve His favor and bounty. Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ

(Verily, your Protector is Allah, His Messenger, and the believers...) means, the Jews are not your friends. Rather, your allegiance is to Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers.

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ

(those who perform the Salah, and give the Zakah...) referring to the believers who have these qualities and establish the prayer, which is one of the most important pillars of Islam, for it includes worshipping Allah alone without partners. They pay Zakah, which is the right of the creation and a type of help extended to the needy and the poor. As for Allah's statement,

﴿ وَهُمۡ رَٲكِعُونَ

(and they bow down,) some people thought that they give the Zakah while bowing down. If this were the case, then paying the Zakah while bowing would be the best form of giving Zakah. No scholar from whom religious rulings are taken says this, as much as we know. Therefore,

﴿ وَهُمۡ رَٲكِعُونَ

(and they bow down,) means, they attend the prayer in congregation in Allah's Masjids and spend by way of charity on the various needs of Muslims. Allah said;

﴿ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡغَـٰلِبُونَ

(And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as protectors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious.) similarly Allah said;

﴿ ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَا۟ وَرُسُلِىٓ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ۬ لَّا تَجِدُ قَوۡمً۬ا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ يُوَآدُّونَ مَنۡ حَآدَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٲنَهُمۡ أَوۡ عَشِيرَتَہُمۡ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ڪَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمُ ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ۬ مِّنۡهُ‌ۖ وَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا‌ۚ رَضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حِزۡبُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(Allah has decreed: "Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty. You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Ruh (proof) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow to dwell therein (forever). Allah is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allah. Verily, it is the party of Allah that will be the successful.) Therefore, those who accept the allegiance of Allah - His Messenger and the faithful believers - will gain success in this life and the Hereafter. Hence Allah's statement here,

﴿ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فَإِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡغَـٰلِبُونَ

(And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as protectors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious.)

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ

(57. O you who believe! Do not take as friends those who take your religion for a mockery and fun from those who received the Scriptures before you, and (nor) the disbelievers; and have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers. ) (58. And when you proclaim the call for the Salah, they take it (but) as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.)

The Prohibition of Being Loyal Friends with Disbelievers

This Ayah discourages and forbids taking the enemies of Islam and its people, such as the People of the Book and the polytheists, as friends. These disbelievers mock the most important acts that any person could ever perform, the honorable, pure acts of Islam which include all types of good for this life and the Hereafter. They mock such acts and make them the subject of jest and play, because this is what these acts represent in their misguided minds and cold hearts. Allah said;

﴿ مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ

(from those who received the Scriptures before you and (nor) the disbelievers...) This is to clarify the particular category (of disbelievers). As Allah said,

﴿ فَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلرِّجۡسَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَوۡثَـٰنِ

(So shun the evil of the idols...) (22:30) So some recited it "Kuffari'', making it an object of the preposition, and others recited it "Kuffara'', making it a predicate noun;

﴿ لَا تَتَّخِذُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ

(Take not as friends those who take your religion for a mockery and fun from those who received the Scriptures before you...) with the meaning of "nor'',

﴿ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۚ

(nor the disbelievers as friends) That is, do not take these people nor those people as friends. The meaning here of "Kuffar'' (disbelievers) is idolators. Similarly, Ibn Jarir recorded that in the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud ﴿in place of "Kuffar'' he recited it: "and those who commit Shirk. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ

(And have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers.) means, fear Allah and do not take the enemies of you and your religion as friends, if you believe in Allah's Law and religion that these people mocked and jested about. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ لَّا يَتَّخِذِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ‌ۖ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٲلِكَ فَلَيۡسَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ فِى شَىۡءٍ إِلَّآ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ تُقَٮٰةً۬‌ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسَهُ ۥ‌ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ

(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself, and to Allah is the final return.)

The Disbelievers Mock the Prayer and the Adhan

Allah said,

﴿ وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا‌ۚ

(And when you proclaim the call for the Salah, they take it (but) as a mockery and fun;) When you proclaim the Adhan for the prayer, which is the best action there is, for those who have sound minds and good comprehension,

﴿ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا

(they take it...) also,

﴿ هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ

(as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.) the acts of worship and Allah's Law. These are the characteristics of the followers of Shaytan who,

« إِذَا سَمِعَ الْأَذَانَ أَدْبَرَ وَلَهُ حُصَاصٌ، أَيْ ضُرَاطٌ، حَتَّى لَا يَسْمَعَ التَّأْذِينَ فَإِذَا قُضِيَ التَّأْذِينُ، أَقْبَلَ فَإِذَا ثُوِّبَ لِلصَّلَاةِ أَدْبَرَ، فَإِذَا قُضِيَ التَّثْوِيبُ أَقْبَلَ حَتَّى يَخْطُرَ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِ، فَيَقُولُ: اذْكُرْ كَذَا اذْكُرْ كَذَا، لِمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ يَذْكُرُ حَتَّى يَظَلَّ الرَّجُلُ لَا يَدْرِي كَمْ صَلَّى، فَإِذَا وَجَدَ أَحَدُكُمْ ذلِكَ، فَلْيَسْجُدْ سَجْدَتَيْنِ قَبْلَ السَّلَام »

(When the call for prayer is made, Shaytan takes to his heels passing wind so that he may not hear the Adhan. When the call is finished he comes back, and when the Iqamah is pronounced, Shaytan again takes to his heels. When the Iqamah is finished he comes back again and tries to interfere with the person and his thoughts and to say, `Remember this and that,' which he has not thought of before the prayer, until the praying person forgets how much he has prayed. If anyone of you does not remember, then he should perform two prostrations before pronouncing the Salam.) This Hadith is agreed upon. Az-Zuhri said, "Allah mentioned the Adhan in His Book,

﴿ وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ ٱتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوً۬ا وَلَعِبً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ

(And when you proclaim the call for the Salah, they take it (but) as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.)'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement.

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ هَلۡ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّآ إِلَّآ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَأَنَّ أَكۡثَرَكُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ قُلۡ هَلۡ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ۬ مِّن ذَٲلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيۡهِ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہُمُ ٱلۡقِرَدَةَ وَٱلۡخَنَازِيرَ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ شَرٌّ۬ مَّكَانً۬ا وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَإِذَا جَآءُوكُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ وَهُمۡ قَدۡ خَرَجُواْ بِهِۦ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡتُمُونَ وَتَرَىٰ كَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡہُمۡ يُسَـٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٲنِ وَأَڪۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ لَوۡلَا يَنۡہَٮٰهُمُ ٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ عَن قَوۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَأَكۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ

(59. Say: "O People of the Scripture! Do you criticize us for no other reason than that we believe in Allah, and in what has been sent down to us and in that which has been sent down before (us), and that most of you are rebellious'') (60. Say: "Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from Allah: those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, and those of whom He transformed into monkeys and swine, and those who worshipped Taghut; such are worse in rank, and far more astray from the straight path.'') (61. When they come to you, they say: "We believe.'' But in fact they enter with disbelief and they go out with the same. And Allah knows all that they were hiding.) (62. And you see many of them hurrying for sin and transgression, and eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been doing.) (63. Why do not the Rabbaniyyun and the Ahbar forbid them from uttering sinful words and from eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.)

The People of the Book are Enraged at the Believers Because of their Faith in Allah

Allah commands: Say, O Muhammad, to those who mock and jest about your religion from among the People of the Scriptures,

﴿ هَلۡ تَنقِمُونَ مِنَّآ إِلَّآ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلُ

(Do you criticize us for no other reason than that we believe in Allah, and in what has been sent down to us and in that which has been sent down before (us)) Do you have any criticism or cause of blame for us, other than this This, by no means, is cause of blame or criticism. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَمَا نَقَمُواْ مِنۡہُمۡ إِلَّآ أَن يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ

(And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the Almighty, Worthy of all praise!) and,

﴿ وَمَا نَقَمُوٓاْ إِلَّآ أَنۡ أَغۡنَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ‌ۚ

(and they could not find any cause to do so except that Allah and His Messenger had enriched them of His bounty.) (9:74) In an agreed upon Hadith, the Prophet said,

« مَا يَنْقِمُ ابْنُ جَمِيلٍ إِلَّا أَنْ كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَأَغْنَاهُ الله »

(What caused Ibn Jamil to Yanqim (refuse to give Zakah), although he was poor and Allah made him rich) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَأَنَّ أَكۡثَرَكُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ

(and that most of you are rebellious. ..) is connected to

﴿ أَنۡ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡنَا وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبۡلُ

(that we believe in Allah, and in that which has been sent down to us and in that which has been sent down before (us).) Therefore, the meaning of this part of the Ayah is: we also believe that most of you are rebellious and deviated from the straight path.

The People of the Scriptures Deserve the Worst Torment on the Day of Resurrection

Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ هَلۡ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ۬ مِّن ذَٲلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(Say: "Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from Allah") The Ayah commands the Prophet to say: Shall I inform you about a worse people with Allah on the Day of Resurrection than what you think of us They are you, with these characteristics,

﴿ مَن لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ

(those who incurred the curse of Allah) were expelled from His mercy,

﴿ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيۡهِ

(and who incurred His wrath) and anger, after which He will never be pleased with them,

﴿ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہُمُ ٱلۡقِرَدَةَ وَٱلۡخَنَازِيرَ

(those of whom He transformed into monkeys and swine,) as we mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah (2) and as we will mention in Surat Al-A`raf (7). Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated that Ibn Mas`ud said, "Allah's Messenger was asked if the current monkeys and swine were those whom Allah transformed. He said,

« إنَّ اللهَ لَمْ يُهْلِكْ قَوْمًا، أَوْ لَمْ يَمْسَخْ قَوْمًا فَيَجْعَلَ لَهُمْ نَسْلًا وَلَا عَقِبًا، وَإِنَّ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ كَانَتْ قَبْلَ ذلِك »

(Allah never destroyed a people by transforming them and making offspring or descendants for them. The monkeys and swine existed before that.)'' This was also recorded by Muslim. Allah said,

﴿ وَعَبَدَ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۚ

(Those who worshipped Taghut...) and served them, becoming their servants. The meaning of this Ayah is: you, O People of the Scriptures, who mock our religion, which consists of Allah's Tawhid, and singling Him out in worship without others, how can you mock us while these are your characteristics This is why Allah said,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ شَرٌّ۬ مَّكَانً۬ا

(such are worse in rank...) than what you -- People of the Scriptures -- think of us Muslims,

﴿ وَأَضَلُّ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

(and far more astray from the straight path.) `More' in the Ayah does not mean that the other party is `less' astray, but it means that the People of the Scriptures are far astray. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ خَيۡرٌ۬ مُّسۡتَقَرًّ۬ا وَأَحۡسَنُ مَقِيلاً۬

(The dwellers of Paradise will, on that Day, have the best abode, and have the fairest of places for repose.)

The Hypocrites Pretend to be Believers but Hide their Kufr

Allah said,

﴿ وَإِذَا جَآءُوكُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ وَهُمۡ قَدۡ خَرَجُواْ بِهِۦ‌ۚ

(When they come to you, they say, "We believe.'' But in fact they enter with (an intention of) disbelief and they go out with the same.) This is the description of the hypocrites, for they pretend to be believers while their hearts hide Kufr. So Allah said;

﴿ وَقَد دَّخَلُواْ

(But in fact they enter) on you, O Muhammad,

﴿ بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ

(with disbelief) in their hearts and they depart with Kufr, and this is why they do not benefit from the knowledge they hear from you, nor does the advice and reminder move them. So,

﴿ وَهُمۡ قَدۡ خَرَجُواْ بِهِۦ‌ۚ

(and they go out with the same) meaning, they alone,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡتُمُونَ

(and Allah knows all that they were hiding.) Allah knows their secrets and what their hearts conceal, even if they pretend otherwise with His creatures, thus pretending to be what they are not. Allah, Who has perfect knowledge of the seen and unseen, has more knowledge about the hypocrites than any of His creatures do and He will recompense them accordingly. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَتَرَىٰ كَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡہُمۡ يُسَـٰرِعُونَ فِى ٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَٱلۡعُدۡوَٲنِ وَأَڪۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَ‌ۚ

(And you see many of them (Jews) hurrying for sin and transgression, and eating illegal things.) They hurry to devour prohibited and illegal things, all the while transgressing against people, unjustly consuming their property through bribes and Riba,

﴿ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(Evil indeed is that which they have been doing.) Indeed, horrible is that which they used to do and the transgression that they committed.

Criticizing Rabbis and Learned Religious Men for Giving up on Forbidding Evil

Allah said,

﴿ لَوۡلَا يَنۡہَٮٰهُمُ ٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ عَن قَوۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَأَكۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ

(Why do not the Rabbaniyyun and the Ahbar forbid them from uttering sinful words and from eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.) meaning why don't the Rabbaniyyun and the Ahbar forbid them from this evil The Rabbaniyyun are the scholars who are in positions of authority, while the Ahbar are the regular scholars.

﴿ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ

(Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.) referring to the Rabbaniyyun, as `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, because they abandoned forbidding evil. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "There is no Ayah in the Qur'an that has more severe admonition than this Ayah,

﴿ لَوۡلَا يَنۡہَٮٰهُمُ ٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ عَن قَوۡلِهِمُ ٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَأَكۡلِهِمُ ٱلسُّحۡتَ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا كَانُواْ يَصۡنَعُونَ

(Why do not the Rabbaniyyun and the Ahbar forbid them from uttering sinful words and from eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.)'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Yahya bin Ya`mar said, " `Ali bin Abi Talib once gave a speech, which he started by praising Allah and thanking Him. He then said, `O people! Those who were before you were destroyed because they committed sins and the Rabbaniyyun and Ahbar did not forbid them from evil. When they persisted in sin, they were overcome by punishment. Therefore, enjoin righteousness and forbid evil before what they suffered also strikes you. Know that enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil does not reduce the provision or shorten the term of life.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَا مِنْ قَوْمٍ يَكُونُ بَيْنَ أَظْهُرِهِمْ مَنْ يَعْمَلُ بِالْمَعَاصِي هُمْ أَعَزُّ مِنْهُ وَأَمْنَعُ، وَلَمْ يُغَيِّرُوا إِلَّا أَصَابَهُمُ اللهُ مِنْهُ بِعَذَاب »

(There is no people among whom there are those who commit sins, while the rest are more powerful and mightier than the sinners, yet they do not stop them, but Allah will send a punishment upon them.) Ahmad was alone with this wording. Abu Dawud recorded it, but in his narration Jarir said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ يَكُونُ فِي قَوْمٍ يُعْمَلُ فِيهِمْ بِالْمَعَاصِي، يَقْدِرُونَ أَنْ يُغَيِّرُوا عَلَيْهِ، فَلَا يُغَيِّرُوا إِلَّا أَصَابَهُمُ اللهُ بِعِقَابٍ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمُوتُوا »

(There is no one who resides among people committing evil among them, and they do not stop him though they are able to do so, but Allah will punish them ﴿all before they die.)'' Ibn Majah also recorded this Hadith.

﴿ وَقَالَتِ ٱلۡيَہُودُ يَدُ ٱللَّهِ مَغۡلُولَةٌ‌ۚ غُلَّتۡ أَيۡدِيہِمۡ وَلُعِنُواْ بِمَا قَالُواْ‌ۘ بَلۡ يَدَاهُ مَبۡسُوطَتَانِ يُنفِقُ كَيۡفَ يَشَآءُ‌ۚ وَلَيَزِيدَنَّ كَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡہُم مَّآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ طُغۡيَـٰنً۬ا وَكُفۡرً۬ا‌ۚ وَأَلۡقَيۡنَا بَيۡنَہُمُ ٱلۡعَدَٲوَةَ وَٱلۡبَغۡضَآءَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۚ كُلَّمَآ أَوۡقَدُواْ نَارً۬ا لِّلۡحَرۡبِ أَطۡفَأَهَا ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ وَيَسۡعَوۡنَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَسَادً۬ا‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ وَلَوۡ أَنَّ أَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ ءَامَنُواْ وَٱتَّقَوۡاْ لَڪَفَّرۡنَا عَنۡہُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِہِمۡ وَلَأَدۡخَلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتِ ٱلنَّعِيمِ وَلَوۡ أَنَّہُمۡ أَقَامُواْ ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةَ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡہِم مِّن رَّبِّہِمۡ لَأَڪَلُواْ مِن فَوۡقِهِمۡ وَمِن تَحۡتِ أَرۡجُلِهِم‌ۚ مِّنۡہُمۡ أُمَّةٌ۬ مُّقۡتَصِدَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَكَثِيرٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ سَآءَ مَا يَعۡمَلُونَ

(64. The Jews say: "Allah's Hand is tied up.'' Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends as He wills. Verily, the revelation that has come to you from your Lord makes many of them increase in rebellion and disbelief. We have put enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindled the fire of war, Allah extinguished it; and they (ever) strive to make mischief on the earth. And Allah does not like the mischief-makers.) (65. And if only the People of the Scripture had believed and had Taqwa, We would indeed have expiated for them their sins and admitted them to Gardens of pleasure (in Paradise).) (66. And if only they had acted according to the Tawrah, the Injil, and what has (now) been sent down to them from their Lord (the Qur'an), they would surely have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet. And among them is a Muqtasid Ummah, but for most of them; evil is their work.)