;
The Prohibition of Shirk (Polytheism) and Exaggeration in the Religion

Allah admonishes those who take up rivals with Him and worship the idols, monuments and false deities. Allah states that such false deities do not deserve any degree of Divinity. Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say) O Muhammad, to those from among the Children of Adam, such as the Christians, who worship other than Allah,

﴿ أَتَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمۡلِكُ لَڪُمۡ ضَرًّ۬ا وَلَا نَفۡعً۬ا‌ۚ

(How do you worship besides Allah something which has no power either to harm or to benefit you) meaning, which cannot prevent harm for you nor bring about your benefit,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ

(But it is Allah Who is the All-Hearer, All-Knower.) He hears what His servants say and has knowledge of all things. Therefore, how did you worship inanimate objects that do not hear, see or know anything - having no power to bring harm or benefit to themselves let alone others - instead of worshipping Allah Allah then said,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَهۡلَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَا تَغۡلُواْ فِى دِينِڪُمۡ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡحَقِّ

(Say: "O People of the Scripture! Exceed not the limits in your religion beyond the truth,) Meaning: Do not exceed the limits concerning the truth and exaggeration in praising whom you were commanded to honor. You exaggerated in his case and elevated him from the rank of Prophet to the rank of a god. You did this with `Isa, who was a Prophet, yet you claimed that he is god besides Allah. This error occurred because you followed your teachers, the advocates of misguidance who came before your time and who,

﴿ وَأَضَلُّواْ ڪَثِيرً۬ا وَضَلُّواْ عَن سَوَآءِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

(...and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the right path,) deviated from the straight path, to the path of misguidance and deviation.

﴿ لُعِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ مِنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ لِسَانِ دَاوُ ۥدَ وَعِيسَى ٱبۡنِ مَرۡيَمَ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِمَا عَصَواْ وَّڪَانُواْ يَعۡتَدُونَ ڪَانُواْ لَا يَتَنَاهَوۡنَ عَن مُّنڪَرٍ۬ فَعَلُوهُ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا ڪَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ تَرَىٰ ڪَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡهُمۡ يَتَوَلَّوۡنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ‌ۚ لَبِئۡسَ مَا قَدَّمَتۡ لَهُمۡ أَنفُسُہُمۡ أَن سَخِطَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَفِى ٱلۡعَذَابِ هُمۡ خَـٰلِدُونَ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُواْ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلنَّبِىِّ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِ مَا ٱتَّخَذُوهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ڪَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡہُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ

(78. Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. That was because they disobeyed (Allah and the Messengers) and were ever transgressing (beyond the bounds).) (79. They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.) (80. You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends. Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves; for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them, and in torment they will abide.) (81. And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends; but many of them are rebellious.)

Allah Cursed the Disbelievers Among the Children of Israel

Allah states that He has cursed the disbelievers among the Children of Israel long ago, and revealed this fact to His Prophets Dawud and `Isa, son of Maryam. He cursed them because they disobeyed Allah and transgressed against His creatures. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "They were cursed in the Tawrah, the Injil, the Zabur (Psalms) and the Furqan (Qur'an).'' Allah then states that during their time, their habit was that,

﴿ ڪَانُواْ لَا يَتَنَاهَوۡنَ عَن مُّنڪَرٍ۬ فَعَلُوهُ‌ۚ

(They used not to forbid one another from the evil they committed.) They did not forbid each other from committing sins and the prohibitions. Allah chastised them for this behavior, so that their behavior would not be imitated. Allah said,

﴿ لَبِئۡسَ مَا ڪَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ

(Vile indeed was what they used to do.)

Hadiths that Order Enjoining Righteousness and Forbidding Evil

There are many Hadiths that order enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman said that the Prophet said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَتَأْمُرُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، وَلَتَنْهَوُنَّ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ، أَوْ لَيُوشِكَنَّ اللهُ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عِقَابًا مِنْ عِنْدِهِ، ثُمَّ لَتَدْعُنَّهُ فَلَا يَسْتَجِيبَ لَكُم »

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allah will send a punishment on you from Him. Then, you will supplicate to Him, but He will not accept your supplication.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said, "This Hadith is Hasan.'' Muslim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ رَأَى مِنْكُمْ مُنْكَرًا فَلْيُغَيِّرْهُ بِيَدِهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِلِسَانِهِ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَبِقَلْبِهِ، وَذلِكَ أَضْعَفُ الْإِيمَان »

(He among you who witnesses an evil, let him change it with his hand, if he cannot do that, then by his tongue, if he cannot do even that, then with his heart, and this is the weakest faith.) Abu Dawud said that Al-`Urs, meaning Ibn `Amirah, said that the Prophet said,

« إِذَا عُمِلَتِ الْخَطِيئَةُ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَانَ مَنْ شَهِدَهَا فَكَرِهَهَا، وَقَالَ مَرَّةً فَأَنْكَرَهَا كَانَ كَمَنْ غَابَ عَنْهَا، وَمَنْ غَابَ عَنْهَا فَرَضِيَهَا كَانَ كَمَنْ شَهِدَهَا »

(When sin is committed on the earth, then whoever witnesses it and hates - (once he said): forbids it, will be like those who did not witness it. Whoever was absent from it, but agreed with it, will be like those who witness it.) Only Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith. Abu Dawud recorded that one of the Companions said that the Prophet said,

« لَنْ يَهْلِكَ النَّاسُ حَتَّى يَعْذِرُوا أَوْ يُعْذِرُوا مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِم »

(The people will not perish until they do not leave -or- have any excuse for themselves.) Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah gave a speech once and said,

« أَلَا لَا يَمْنَعَنَّ رَجُلًا هَيْبَةُ النَّاسِ أَنْ يَقُولَ الْحَقَّ إِذَا عَلِمَه »

(Behold! Fear from people should not prevent one from saying the truth if he knows it.) Abu Sa`id then cried and said, "By Allah! We have seen some errors, but we feared (the people).'' Another Hadith that Abu Sa`id narrated states that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَفْضَلُ الْجِهَادِ كَلِمَةُ حَقَ عِنْدَ سُلْطَانٍ جَائِر »

(The best Jihad is a word of truth proclaimed before an unjust ruler.) Recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib from this route of narration.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah said that the Prophet said,

« لَا يَنْبَغِي لِمُسْلِمٍ أَنْ يُذِلَّ نَفْسَه »

(It is not required of the Muslim that he humiliate himself.) They said, `How does one humiliate himself'' he said;

« يَتَعَرَّضُ مِنَ الْبَلَاءِ لِمَا لَا يُطِيق »

(He takes on trials that he is not capable of enduring. ) This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih Gharib.''

Censuring the Hypocrites

Allah said,

﴿ تَرَىٰ ڪَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡهُمۡ يَتَوَلَّوۡنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ‌ۚ

(You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their friends.) Mujahid said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites. Allah's statement,

﴿ لَبِئۡسَ مَا قَدَّمَتۡ لَهُمۡ أَنفُسُہُمۡ

(Evil indeed is that which they have sent forward before themselves;) by giving their loyalty and support to the disbelievers, instead of the believers. This evil act caused them to have hypocrisy in their hearts and brought them the anger of Allah, that will remain with them until the Day of Return. Allah said;

﴿ أَن سَخِطَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ

(for that (reason) Allah is wrath with them) because of what they did. Allah next said that,

﴿ وَفِى ٱلۡعَذَابِ هُمۡ خَـٰلِدُونَ

(in torment they will abide) on the Day of Resurrection. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُواْ يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلنَّبِىِّ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡهِ مَا ٱتَّخَذُوهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ

(And had they believed in Allah, and in the Prophet and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them as friends.) meaning, had they sincerely believed in Allah, His Messenger and the Qur'an, they would not have committed the evil act of supporting the disbelievers in secret and being enemies with those who believe in Allah, the Prophet and what was revealed to him,

﴿ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ڪَثِيرً۬ا مِّنۡہُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ

(but many of them are rebellious). disobedient to Allah and His Messenger and defiant of the Ayat of His revelation that He sent down.

﴿ لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ ٱلنَّاسِ عَدَٲوَةً۬ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱلۡيَهُودَ وَٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ‌ۖ وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقۡرَبَهُم مَّوَدَّةً۬ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّا نَصَـٰرَىٰ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنۡهُمۡ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهۡبَانً۬ا وَأَنَّهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَڪۡبِرُونَ
﴿ وَإِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ تَرَىٰٓ أَعۡيُنَهُمۡ تَفِيضُ مِنَ ٱلدَّمۡعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۖ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱكۡتُبۡنَا مَعَ ٱلشَّـٰهِدِينَ وَمَا لَنَا لَا نُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَنَطۡمَعُ أَن يُدۡخِلَنَا رَبُّنَا مَعَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ فَأَثَـٰبَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا قَالُواْ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا‌ۚ وَذَٲلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَڪَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ

(82. Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers the Jews and those who commit Shirk, and you will find the nearest in love to the believers those who say: "We are Christians.'' That is because among them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.) (83. And when they listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognized. They say: "Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses.'') (84. "And why should we not believe in Allah and in that which has come to us of the truth And we wish that our Lord will admit us along with the righteous people.'') (85. So because of what they said, Allah awarded them with Gardens under which rivers flow, they will abide therein forever. Such is the reward of good-doers.) (86. But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ayat, they shall be the dwellers of Hell.)