;
Allah is the Creator and the Sustainer

Allah states that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and all of what is in them, and that He has written mercy on His Most Honorable Self. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ اللهَ لَمَّا خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ، كَتَبَ كِتَابًا عِنْدَهُ فَوْقَ الْعَرْشِ، إِنَّ رَحْمَتِي تَغْلِبُ غَضَبِي »

(When Allah created the creation, He wrote in a Book that He has with Him above the Throne; `My mercy overcomes My anger.') Allah said;

﴿ لَيَجۡمَعَنَّكُمۡ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ‌ۚ

(Indeed He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt.) swearing by His Most Honored Self that He will gather His servants,

﴿ إِلَىٰ مِيقَـٰتِ يَوۡمٍ۬ مَّعۡلُومٍ۬

(For appointed meeting of a known Day.) (56:50), the Day of Resurrection that will certainly occur, and there is no doubt for His believing servants in this fact. As for those who deny and refuse, they are in confusion and disarray. Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ

(Those who destroy themselves) on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(will not believe.) in the Return and thus do not fear the repercussions of that Day. Allah said next,

﴿ وَلَهُ ۥ مَا سَكَنَ فِى ٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ‌ۚ

(And to Him belongs whatsoever exists in the night and the day.) meaning, all creatures in the heavens and earth are Allah's servants and creatures, and they are all under His authority, power and will; there is no deity worthy of worship except Him,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ

(and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.) He hears the statements of His servants and knows their actions, secrets and what they conceal. Allah then said to His servant and Messenger Muhammad, whom He sent with the pure Tawhid and the straight religion, commanding him to call the people to Allah's straight path;

﴿ قُلۡ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّ۬ا فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(Say: "Shall I take as a guardian any other than Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth'') Similarly, Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ أَفَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ تَأۡمُرُوٓنِّىٓ أَعۡبُدُ أَيُّہَا ٱلۡجَـٰهِلُونَ

(Say: "Do you order me to worship other than Allah, O you fools'') (39:64). The meaning here is, I will not take a guardian except Allah, without partners, for He is the Creator of the heavens and earth Who originated them without precedent,

﴿ وَهُوَ يُطۡعِمُ وَلَا يُطۡعَمُ‌ۗ

(And it is He Who feeds but is not fed.) For He sustains His creatures without needing them. Allah also said;

﴿ وَمَا خَلَقۡتُ ٱلۡجِنَّ وَٱلۡإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعۡبُدُونِ

(And I created not the Jinn and humans except that they should worship Me (Alone).) (51:56) Some scholars read it, وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يَطْعَمُ "And it is He Who feeds but He does not eat.'' meaning, Allah does not eat. Abu Hurayrah narrated, "A man from Al-Ansar from the area of Quba' invited the Prophet to eat some food, and we went along with the Prophet. When the Prophet ate and washed his hands, he said,

« الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي يُطْعِمُ وَلَا يُطْعَمُ، وَمَنَّ عَلَيْنَا فَهَدَانَا وَأَطْعَمَنَا، وَسَقَانَا مِنَ الشَّرَابِ، وَكَسَانَا مِنَ العُرْيِ، وَكُلَّ بَلَاءٍ حَسَنٍ أَبْلَانَا، الْحَمْدُ للهِ غَيْرَ مُوَدَّعٍ رَبِّي وَلَا مُكَافأً وَلَا مَكْفُورٍ، وَلَا مُسْتَغْنًى عَنْهُ، الْحَمْدُ للهِ الَّذِي أَطْعَمَنَا مِنَ الطَّعَامِ، وَسَقَانَا مِنَ الشَّرَابِ، وَكَسَانَا مِنَ الْعُرْيِ، وَهَدَانَا مِنَ الضَّلَالِ، وَبَصَّرَنَا مِنَ العَمَى، وَفَضَّلَنَا عَلَى كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنَ خَلَقَ تَفْضِيلًا، الْحَمْدُ للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين »

(All praise is due to Allah, Who feeds but is never fed, He bestowed bounty unto us, Who gave us guidance and fed us, gave us something to drink, covered our nakedness; and for every favor He has given us. All praise is due to Allah, praise that should not be neglected, my Lord, all the while affirming that we will never be able to duly thank Him; nor be appreciative enough of Him, nor be free of needing Him. All thanks and praises are due to Allah Who fed us the food, gave us the drink, covered our nudity, guided us from misguidance, gave us sight from blindness, and honored us above many of His creatures. All praise is due to Allah, Lord of all that exists.'')

﴿ قُلۡ إِنِّىٓ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَڪُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنۡ أَسۡلَمَ‌ۖ

(Say: "Verily, I am commanded to be the first of those who submit themselves to Allah as (Muslims).'') from this Ummah,

﴿ قُلۡ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَتَّخِذُ وَلِيًّ۬ا فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَهُوَ يُطۡعِمُ وَلَا يُطۡعَمُ‌ۗ قُلۡ إِنِّىٓ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَڪُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنۡ أَسۡلَمَ‌ۖ وَلَا تَڪُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ قُلۡ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ إِنۡ عَصَيۡتُ رَبِّى عَذَابَ يَوۡمٍ عَظِيمٍ۬

(And be not you of the idolaters. Say: "I fear, if I disobey my Lord, the torment of a Mighty Day.'') (6:14-15), the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ مَّن يُصۡرَفۡ عَنۡهُ

(Who is averted from) such a torment,

﴿ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ فَقَدۡ رَحِمَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(on that Day, He has surely been Merciful to him) meaning, Allah will have been merciful to him,

﴿ وَذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ

(And that would be the obvious success.) Allah also said,

﴿ فَمَن زُحۡزِحَ عَنِ ٱلنَّارِ وَأُدۡخِلَ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ فَقَدۡ فَازَ‌ۗ

(And whoever is moved away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful.) (3:185), success here indicates acquiring profit and negates loss.

﴿ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ ٱللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ۬ فَلَا ڪَاشِفَ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ بِخَيۡرٍ۬ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬ وَهُوَ ٱلۡقَاهِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِهِۦ‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ قُلۡ أَىُّ شَىۡءٍ أَكۡبَرُ شَہَـٰدَةً۬‌ۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ شَہِيدُۢ بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ‌ۚ وَأُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِۦ وَمَنۢ بَلَغَ‌ۚ أَٮِٕنَّكُمۡ لَتَشۡہَدُونَ أَنَّ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً أُخۡرَىٰ‌ۚ قُل لَّآ أَشۡہَدُ‌ۚ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ وَإِنَّنِى بَرِىٓءٌ۬ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ يَعۡرِفُونَهُ ۥ كَمَا يَعۡرِفُونَ أَبۡنَآءَهُمُ‌ۘ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَہُمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ كَذَّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِهِۦۤ‌ۗ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ

(17. And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is able to do all things.) (18. And He is the Irresistible, above His servants, and He is the All-Wise, Well-Acquainted with all things.) (19. Say: "What thing is the most great in witness'' Say: "Allah is Witness between you and I; this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach. Can you verily bear witness that besides Allah there are other gods'' Say "I bear no (such) witness!'' Say: "Only He is God, alone, and truly I am innocent of what you join in worship with Him.'') (20. Those to whom We have given the Scripture recognize him, as they recognize their own children. Those who have lost (destroyed) themselves will not believe.) (21. And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat Verily, the wrongdoers shall never be successful.)

Allah is the Irresistible, Able to Bring Benefit and Protect from Harm

Allah states that He Alone brings benefit or harm, and that He does what He wills with His creatures, none can resist His judgment or prevent what He decrees,

﴿ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ ٱللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ۬ فَلَا ڪَاشِفَ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ بِخَيۡرٍ۬ فَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬

(And if Allah touches you with harm, none can remove it but He, and if He touches you with good, then He is able to do all things.) Similarly, Allah said,

﴿ مَّا يَفۡتَحِ ٱللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحۡمَةٍ۬ فَلَا مُمۡسِكَ لَهَاۖ وَمَا يُمۡسِكۡ فَلَا مُرۡسِلَ لَهُ ۥ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۚۦ

(Whatever mercy, Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter) (35:2). It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah used to supplicate,

« اللَّهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ، وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَد »

(O Allah, there is none Who can avert what You grant or give what You deprive, and no fortune ever helps the fortunate against You.) This is why Allah said,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡقَاهِرُ فَوۡقَ عِبَادِهِۦ‌ۚ

(And He is the Irresistible, above His servants,) meaning, to Him the necks are subservient, the tyrants humble before Him and He has complete control over all things. The creatures have all bowed to Allah and are humbled before His grace, honor, pride, greatness, highness and ability over all things. The creatures are insignificant before Him, for they are all under His irresistible decision and power,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(and He is the All-Wise,) in all His actions,

﴿ ٱلۡخَبِيرُ

(Well-Acquainted with all things.) Who places everything in its rightful place, grants and favors whomever deserves His favor. Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ أَىُّ شَىۡءٍ أَكۡبَرُ شَہَـٰدَةً۬‌ۖ

(Say: "What thing is the most great in witness'') or what is the greatest witness,

﴿ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ شَہِيدُۢ بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ‌ۚ

(Say: "Allah (the Most Great!) is Witness between you and I'') for He knows what I brought you and what you will answer me with,

﴿ وَأُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ لِأُنذِرَكُم بِهِۦ وَمَنۢ بَلَغَ‌ۚ

(this Qur'an has been revealed to me that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.) Therefore, this Qur'an is a warner for all those who hear of it. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ وَمَن يَكۡفُرۡ بِهِۦ مِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ فَٱلنَّارُ مَوۡعِدُهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(But those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place.) (11:17) Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, "Those who follow the Messenger of Allah ought to call to what the Messenger of Allah called to and warn against what he warned against.'' Allah said next,

﴿ أَٮِٕنَّكُمۡ لَتَشۡہَدُونَ

("Can you verily bear witness...'') O idolators,

﴿ أَنَّ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً أُخۡرَىٰ‌ۚ قُل لَّآ أَشۡہَدُ‌ۚ

("that besides Allah there are other gods'' Say, "I bear no (such) witness!'') Similarly, in another Ayah, Allah said;

﴿ فَإِن شَہِدُواْ فَلَا تَشۡهَدۡ مَعَهُمۡ‌ۚ

(Then if they testify, testify not you with them.) (6:150) Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬ وَإِنَّنِى بَرِىٓءٌ۬ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ

(Say: "Only He is God, alone, and truly I am innocent of what you join in worship with Him.'')

People of the Book Recognize the Prophet Just as They Recognize Their Own Children

Allah says, the People of the Book know what you brought them, O Muhammad , as they know their own children. This is because they received good news from the previous Messengers and Prophets about the coming of Muhammad , his attributes, homeland, his migration, and the description of his Ummah. Allah said next,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ

(Those who have lost (destroyed) themselves) and thus incurred the ultimate loss,

﴿ فَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(will not believe.) in this clear matter. A matter about which the previous Prophets gave good news, and a matter extolled about in ancient and modern times. Allah said next,

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ كَذَّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِهِۦۤ‌ۗ

(And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat) meaning, there is no person more unjust than he who lies about Allah and claims that Allah has sent him, while Allah did not send him. There is no person more unjust than he who denies Allah's proofs, signs and evidences,

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ

(Verily, the wrongdoers shall never be successful.) Surely, both of these people will never acquire success, whoever falsely (claims that Allah sent him) and whoever refuses (Allah's Ayat).

﴿ وَيَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُهُمۡ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُوٓاْ أَيۡنَ شُرَكَآؤُكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ ثُمَّ لَمۡ تَكُن فِتۡنَتُہُمۡ إِلَّآ أَن قَالُواْ وَٱللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشۡرِكِينَ ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ‌ۚ وَضَلَّ عَنۡہُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ وَمِنۡہُم مَّن يَسۡتَمِعُ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ وَجَعَلۡنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِہِمۡ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفۡقَهُوهُ وَفِىٓ ءَاذَانِہِمۡ وَقۡرً۬ا‌ۚ وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ ڪُلَّ ءَايَةٍ۬ لَّا يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِہَا‌ۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءُوكَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَكَ يَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ وَهُمۡ يَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنۡهُ وَيَنۡـَٔوۡنَ عَنۡهُ‌ۖ وَإِن يُهۡلِكُونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَہُمۡ وَمَا يَشۡعُرُونَ

(22. And on the Day when We shall gather them all together, We shall say to those who joined partners in worship (with Us): "Where are your partners (false deities) whom you used to assert (as partners in worship with Allah)'') (23. There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them but to say: "By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others (in worship with Allah).'') (24. Look! How they lie against themselves! But the (lie) which they invented will disappear from them.) (25. And of them there are some who listen to you; but We have set veils on their hearts, so they understand it not, and deafness in their ears; if they see every one of the Ayat they will not believe therein; to the point that when they come to you to argue with you, those who disbelieve say: "These are nothing but tales of the men of old.'') (26. And they prevent others from him and they themselves keep away from him, and (by doing so) they destroy none but themselves, yet they perceive (it) not.)

The Polythiests Shall be Questioned About the Shirk They Committed

About the polytheists, Allah said:

﴿ وَيَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُهُمۡ جَمِيعً۬ا

(And on the Day when We shall gather them all together,) This is on the Day of Resurrection, when He will ask them about the idols and rivals that they worshipped instead of Him. Allah will say to them,

﴿ أَيۡنَ شُرَكَآؤُكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ

(Where are your partners (false deities) whom you used to assert (as partners in worship with Allah)) Allah said in Surat Al-Qasas,

﴿ وَيَوۡمَ يُنَادِيهِمۡ فَيَقُولُ أَيۡنَ شُرَكَآءِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ

(And (remember) the Day when He will call to them, and say, "Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert'') (28:62). Allah's statement,

﴿ ثُمَّ لَمۡ تَكُن فِتۡنَتُہُمۡ

(There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them) means, argument. `Ata' Al-Khurasani said that,

﴿ ثُمَّ لَمۡ تَكُن فِتۡنَتُہُمۡ

(There will then be (left) no Fitnah for them) in the face of the affliction that will be placed on them,

﴿ إِلَّآ أَن قَالُواْ وَٱللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشۡرِكِينَ

(but to say: "By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others (in worship with Allah).'') Allah said next,

﴿ ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ‌ۚ وَضَلَّ عَنۡہُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ

(Look! How they lie against themselves! But the (lie) which they invented will disappear from them.) which is similar to His other statement,

﴿ ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تُشۡرِكُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِۖ قَالُواْ ضَلُّواْ عَنَّا بَل لَّمۡ نَكُن نَّدۡعُواْ مِن قَبۡلُ شَيۡـًٔ۬اۚ كَذَٲلِكَ يُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(Then it will be said to them: "Where are (all) those whom you used to join in worship as partners. Besides Allah'' They will say, "They have vanished from us: Nay, we did not invoke (worship) anything before.'' Thus Allah leads astray the disbelievers.) (40:73-74)

The Miserable Do Not Benefit from the Qur'an

Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمِنۡہُم مَّن يَسۡتَمِعُ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ وَجَعَلۡنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِہِمۡ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفۡقَهُوهُ وَفِىٓ ءَاذَانِہِمۡ وَقۡرً۬ا‌ۚ وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ ڪُلَّ ءَايَةٍ۬ لَّا يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِہَا‌ۚ

(And of them there are some who listen to you; but We have set veils on their hearts, so they understand it not, and deafness in their ears; if they see every one of the Ayat they will not believe therein;) means, they come to you, (O Muhammad ), so that they hear you recite the Qur'an, but its recitation does not benefit them, because Allah has set veils on their hearts, and so they do not understand the Qur'an,

﴿ وَفِىٓ ءَاذَانِہِمۡ وَقۡرً۬ا‌ۚ

(and (set) deafness in their ears;) that prevents them from hearing what benefits them. In another Ayah, Allah said;

﴿ وَمَثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ كَمَثَلِ ٱلَّذِى يَنۡعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسۡمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَآءً۬ وَنِدَآءً۬‌ۚ

(And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts at one who hears nothing but calls and cries.) (2:171) Allah said next,

﴿ وَإِن يَرَوۡاْ ڪُلَّ ءَايَةٍ۬ لَّا يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِہَا‌ۚ

(if they see every one of the Ayat they will not believe therein;) meaning, they will not believe in any of the Ayat, proofs, clear evidences and signs they witness because they do not have sound comprehension or fair judgment. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ فِيہِمۡ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّأَسۡمَعَهُمۡ‌ۖ

(Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen.) (8:23) Allah said,

﴿ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءُوكَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَكَ

(to the point that when they come to you to argue with you...) using falsehood against truth,

﴿ يَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِنۡ هَـٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ

(those who disbelieve say: "These are nothing but tales of the men of old.'') The disbelievers say, what you (O Muhammad ) brought us was taken from the books of those who were before us, meaning plagiarized,

﴿ وَهُمۡ يَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنۡهُ وَيَنۡـَٔوۡنَ عَنۡهُ‌ۖ

(And they prevent others from him and they themselves keep away from him,) They discourage people from following the truth, believing in Muhammad and obeying the Qur'an,

﴿ وَيَنۡـَٔوۡنَ عَنۡهُ‌ۖ

(and they themselves keep away from him,) They thus combine both evil acts, for they neither benefit themselves, nor let others benefit from the Prophet . `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

﴿ وَهُمۡ يَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنۡهُ

(And they prevent others from him.) means, they hinder people from believing in Muhammad . Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said, "The disbelievers of Quraysh used to refrain from meeting Muhammad and they discouraged people from coming to him.'' Similar was reported from Qatadah, Mujahid and Ad-Dahhak and several others.

﴿ وَإِن يُهۡلِكُونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَہُمۡ وَمَا يَشۡعُرُونَ

(and (by doing so) they destroy not but themselves, yet they perceive (it) not.) They destroy themselves by committing this evil action, and its harm will only touch them. Yet, they do not perceive this fact!

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذۡ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ فَقَالُواْ يَـٰلَيۡتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ بَلۡ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخۡفُونَ مِن قَبۡلُ‌ۖ وَلَوۡ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُہُواْ عَنۡهُ وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ وَقَالُوٓاْ إِنۡ هِىَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَمَا نَحۡنُ بِمَبۡعُوثِينَ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذۡ وُقِفُواْ عَلَىٰ رَبِّہِمۡ‌ۚ قَالَ أَلَيۡسَ هَـٰذَا بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۚ قَالُواْ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّنَا‌ۚ قَالَ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ

(27. If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!'') (28. Nay, what they had been concealing before has become manifest to them. But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (29. And they said: "There is no (other life) but our (present) life of this world, and never shall we be resurrected.'') (30. If you could but see when they will stand before their Lord! He will say: "Is not this the truth'' They will say: "Yes, by our Lord!'' He will then say: "So taste you the torment because you used not to believe.'')