Allah said next,
(This is the guidance of Allah with which He guides whomsoever He wills of His servants.) meaning, this occurred to them by Allah's leave and because He directed them to guidance. Allah said;
(But if they had joined in worship others with Allah, all that they used to do would have been of no benefit to them.) This magnifies the serious danger of Shirk and the gravity of committing it. In another Ayah, Allah said;
(And indeed it has been revealed to you, as it was to those (Allah's Messengers) before you: "If you join others in worship with Allah, surely your deeds will be in vain.'') (39:65) `If' here does not mean that this would ever occur, as is similar in Allah's statement;
(Say: "If the Most Beneficent had a son, then I am the first of Allah's worshippers.'') (43:81), and
(If We intended to take a pastime (a wife or a son, etc.) We could surely have taken it from Us, if We were going to do (that)) (21:17), and,
(If Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He pleased out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Compelling.) (39:4) Allah said,
(They are those whom We gave the Book, Al-Hukm, and prophethood.) We bestowed these bounties on them, as a mercy for the servants, and out of our kindness for creation.
(But if they disbelieve therein...) in the prophethood, or the three things; the Book, the Hukm and the prophethood,
(They...) refers to the people of Makkah, according to Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi, and others.
(then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.) This Ayah means, if the Quraysh and the rest of the people of the earth - Arabs and non-Arabs, illiterate and the People of the Scripture - disbelieve in these bounties, then We have entrusted them to another people, the Muhajirun and Ansar, and those who follow their lead until the Day of Resurrection,
(who are not disbelievers therein.) They will not deny any of these favors, not even one letter. Rather, they will believe in them totally, even the parts that are not so clear to some of them. We ask Allah to make us among them by His favor, generosity and kindness. Addressing His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , Allah said;
(They are...) the Prophets mentioned here, along with their righteous fathers, offspring and brethren,
(those whom Allah had guided.) meaning, they alone are the people of guidance,
(So follow their guidance.) Imitate them. This command to the Messenger certainly applies to his Ummah, according to what he legislates and commands them. While mentioning this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Mujahid asked Ibn `Abbas, "Is there an instance where prostration is warranted in (Surah) Sad'' Ibn `Abbas said, "Yes.'' He then recited,
(...And We bestowed upon him Ishaq and Ya`qub...) until,
(...So follow their guidance.) He commented, "He (our Prophet, Muhammad ) was among them.'' In another narration, Mujahid added that Ibn `Abbas said, "Your Prophet was among those whose guidance we were commanded to follow.'' Allah's statement,
(Say: "No reward I ask of you for this.'') means, I do not ask you for any reward for delivering the Qur'an to you, nor anything else,
("It is only a reminder for the `Alamin (mankind and Jinns).'') so they are reminded by it and guided from blindness to clarity, from misguidance to guidance, and from disbelief to faith.
(91. They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).'' Say : "Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind which you (the Jews) have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing much. And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.'' Say: "Allah (sent it down).'' Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.) (92. And this is a blessed Book which We have sent down, confirming what came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns and all those around it. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it, and they are constant in guarding their Salah.)
Allah says that those who rejected His Messengers did not give Allah due consideration. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and `Abdullah bin Kathir said that this Ayah was revealed about the Quraysh. It was also said that it was revealed about some Jews.
(They said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).'') Allah also, said,
(Is it a wonder for mankind that We have inspired to a man from among themselves (saying): "Warn mankind.'') (10:2), and,
(And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: "Has Allah sent a man as Messenger'' Say: "If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and security, We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger.'') (17:94-95). Allah said here,
(They did not estimate Allah with an estimation due to Him when they said: "Nothing did Allah send down to any human being (by inspiration).'') Allah answered them,
(Say : "Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought, a light and a guidance to mankind'') meaning, say, O Muhammad , to those who deny the concept that Allah sent down Books by revelation, answering them specifically,
(Who then sent down the Book which Musa brought) in reference to the Tawrah that you and all others know that Allah sent down to Musa, son of `Imran. Allah sent the Tawrah as a light and a guidance for people, so that it could shed light on the answers to various disputes, and to guide away from the darkness of doubts. Allah's statement, .
(which you have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).) means, you made the Tawrah into separate sheets which you copied from the original and altered, changed and distorted as you wished. You then said, "this is from Allah,'' meaning it is in the revealed Book of Allah, when in fact, it is not from Allah. This is why Allah said here,
(which you have made into (separate) papersheets, disclosing (some of it) and concealing (much).) Allah said;
(And you were taught that which neither you nor your fathers knew.) meaning, Who sent down the Qur'an in which Allah taught you the news of those who were before you and the news of what will come after, that neither you nor your fathers had knowledge of. Allah's statement,
(Say: "Allah.'') `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Meaning, `Say, Allah sent it down.''' Allah said,
(Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.) leave them to play in ignorance and misguidance until the true news comes to them from Allah. Then, they will know whether the good end is theirs or for the fearful servants of Allah. Allah said,
(And this is a Book,) the Qur'an,
(Blessed, which We have sent down, confirming which came before it, so that you may warn the Mother of Towns) that is, Makkah,
(and all those around it...) referring to the Arabs and the rest of the children of Adam, Arabs and non-Arabs alike. Allah said in other Ayat,
(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.'') (7:158), and
("that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.'') (6:19), and
(but those of the sects who reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17) and,
(Blessed be He Who sent down the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to the `Alamin (mankind and Jinn).) (25:1), and,
(And say to those who were given the Scripture and to those who are illiterates: "Do you submit yourselves'' If they do, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away, your duty is only to convey the Message; and Allah is All-Seer of (His) servants.) (3:20). It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I have been given five things which were not given to any one else before me.) The Prophet mentioned among these five things,
(Every Prophet was sent only to his nation, but I have been sent to all people.) This is why Allah said,
(Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in it,) meaning, those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, believe in this blessed Book, the Qur'an, which We revealed to you, O Muhammad ,
(and they are constant in guarding their Salah.) for they perform what Allah ordered them, offering the prayers perfectly and on time.
(93. And who can be more unjust than he who invents a lie against Allah, or says: "I have received inspiration,'' whereas he is not inspired in anything; and who says, "I will reveal the like of what Allah has revealed.'' And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): "Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth. And you used to reject His Ayat with disrespect!'') (94. And truly you have come unto Us alone, as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you. We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners. Now you and they have been cut off, and all that you used to claim has vanished from you.)