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The Condition of These Unjust People Upon Death and on the Day of Resurrection

Allah, the Most Honored, said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ فِى غَمَرَٲتِ ٱلۡمَوۡتِ

(And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death...) suffering from the hardships, agonies and afflictions of death,

﴿ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ بَاسِطُوٓاْ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ

(while the angels are stretching forth their hands...) beating them. Allah said in other Ayat:

﴿ لَٮِٕنۢ بَسَطتَ إِلَىَّ يَدَكَ لِتَقۡتُلَنِى

(If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me..) (5:28) and,

﴿ وَيَبۡسُطُوٓاْ إِلَيۡكُمۡ أَيۡدِيَہُمۡ وَأَلۡسِنَتَہُم بِٱلسُّوٓءِ

(And stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil.) (60:2) Ad-Dahhak and Abu Salih said that, `stretch forth their hands,' means, `with torment'. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذۡ يَتَوَفَّى ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ‌ۙ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ يَضۡرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمۡ وَأَدۡبَـٰرَهُمۡ

(And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve they smite their faces and their backs. ) (8:50) Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ بَاسِطُوٓاْ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ

(while the angels are stretching forth their hands) beating them, until their souls leave their bodies, saying,

﴿ أَخۡرِجُوٓاْ أَنفُسَڪُمُ‌ۖ

("Deliver your souls!'') When the disbeliever is near death, the angels will convey the `good news' to him of torment, vengeance, chains, restraints, Hell, boiling water and the anger of the Most Beneficent, Most Merciful. The soul will then scatter in the body of the disbeliever and refuse to get out of it. The angels will keep beating the disbeliever until his soul exits from his body,

﴿ أَخۡرِجُوٓاْ أَنفُسَڪُمُ‌ۖ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ تُجۡزَوۡنَ عَذَابَ ٱلۡهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ غَيۡرَ ٱلۡحَقِّ

((Saying): "Deliver your souls! This day you shall be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to say about Allah other than the truth.'') This Ayah means, today, you will be utterly humiliated because you used to invent lies against Allah and arrogantly refused to follow His Ayat and obey His Messengers. There are many Hadiths, of Mutawatir grade, that explain what occurs when the believers and disbelievers die, and we will mention these Hadiths when explaining Allah's statement,

﴿ يُثَبِّتُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ ٱلثَّابِتِ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَفِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ

(Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world, and in the Hereafter.) (14:27) Allah said next,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ جِئۡتُمُونَا فُرَٲدَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬

(And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time.) (6:94), and this statement will be said on the Day of Return. In another Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ وَعُرِضُواْ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ صَفًّ۬ا لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتُمُونَا كَمَا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةِۭ‌ۚ

(And they will be set before your Lord in rows, (and Allah will say): "Now indeed, you have come to Us as We created you the first time.') (18:48), meaning, just as We started your creation, We brought you back, although you used to deny Resurrection and reject its possibility. Therefore, this is the Day of Resurrection! Allah said,

﴿ وَتَرَكۡتُم مَّا خَوَّلۡنَـٰكُمۡ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِڪُمۡ‌ۖ

(You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.) (6:94), The wealth and the money that you collected in the life of the world, you left all this behind you. It is recorded in the Sahih that Allah's Messenger said,

« يَقُولُ ابْنُ آدَمَ مَالِي مَالِي وَهَلْ لَكَ مِنْ مَالِكَ إِلَّا مَا أَكَلْتَ فَأَفْنَيْتَ، أَوْ لَبِسْتَ فَأَبْلَيْتَ، أَوْ تَصَدَّقْتَ فَأَمْضَيْتَ، وَمَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ فَذَاهِبٌ وَتَارِكُهُ لِلنَّاس »

(The Son of Adam says, `My money, my money!' But, what part of your money do you have, other than what you eat of it and is thus spent, what you wear and tear and what you gave in charity and thus remains (in the record of good deeds) Other than that, you will depart and leave it to the people.) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "On the Day of Resurrection, the Son of Adam will be brought, as if he were a golden chariot and Allah, the Most Honored, will ask, `Where is what you collected' He will reply, `O Lord! I collected it and left it as intact as ever.' Allah will say to him, `O Son of Adam! Where is what you sent forth for yourself (of righteous, good deeds),' and he will realize that he did not send forth anything for himself.'' Al-Hasan then recited the Ayah,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ جِئۡتُمُونَا فُرَٲدَىٰ كَمَا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬ وَتَرَكۡتُم مَّا خَوَّلۡنَـٰكُمۡ وَرَآءَ ظُهُورِڪُمۡ‌ۖ

(And truly you have come unto Us alone as We created you the first time. You have left behind you all that which We had bestowed on you.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement. Allah said;

﴿ وَمَا نَرَىٰ مَعَكُمۡ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ زَعَمۡتُمۡ أَنَّہُمۡ فِيكُمۡ شُرَكَـٰٓؤُاْ‌ۚ

(We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed to be your partners.) This chastises and criticizes the disbelievers for the rivals, idols and images that they worshipped in this life, thinking they will avail them in this life and upon Resurrection, if there is Resurrection, as they thought. On the Day of Resurrection, all relationships will be cut off, misguidance will be exposed, and those whom they used to call upon as gods will disappear from them. Allah will then call them, while the rest of creation is listening,

﴿ أَيۡنَ شُرَكَآءِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ

(Where are My (so-called) partners whom you used to assert) (28:62) And,

﴿ وَقِيلَ لَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ هَلۡ يَنصُرُونَكُمۡ أَوۡ يَنتَصِرُونَ

(And it will be said to them: "Where are those that you used to worship. Instead of Allah Can they help you or help themselves'') (26:92-93) Allah said here,

﴿ وَمَا نَرَىٰ مَعَكُمۡ شُفَعَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ زَعَمۡتُمۡ أَنَّہُمۡ فِيكُمۡ شُرَكَـٰٓؤُاْ‌ۚ

(We see not with you your intercessors whom you claimed were partners.) meaning partners in worship. That is, partners in a share of your worship.

﴿ لَقَد تَّقَطَّعَ بَيۡنَكُمۡ

(Now you and they have been cut off) or, the Ayah is recited with the meaning: all connections, means, and ties between you and them have been severed.

﴿ وَضَلَّ عَنڪُم

(and vanished from you) you have lost,

﴿ مَّا كُنتُمۡ تَزۡعُمُونَ

(all that you used to claim) of hope in the benefit of the idols and rivals (you worshipped with Allah). Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ إِذۡ تَبَرَّأَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتُّبِعُواْ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُواْ وَرَأَوُاْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتۡ بِهِمُ ٱلۡأَسۡبَابُ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُواْ لَوۡ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً۬ فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنۡہُمۡ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُواْ مِنَّا‌ۗ كَذَٲلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ ٱللَّهُ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ حَسَرَٲتٍ عَلَيۡہِمۡ‌ۖ وَمَا هُم بِخَـٰرِجِينَ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ

(When those who were followed, declare themselves innocent of those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. And those who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance to return, we would disown them as they have disowned us.'' Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regret for them. And they will never get out of the Fire.) (2:166-167), and

﴿ فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِى ٱلصُّورِ فَلَآ أَنسَابَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ وَلَا يَتَسَآءَلُونَ

(Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.) (23:101), and

﴿ إِنَّمَا ٱتَّخَذۡتُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡثَـٰنً۬ا مَّوَدَّةَ بَيۡنِكُمۡ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ ثُمَّ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ يَكۡفُرُ بَعۡضُڪُم بِبَعۡضٍ۬ وَيَلۡعَنُ بَعۡضُڪُم بَعۡضً۬ا وَمَأۡوَٮٰكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah, and the love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.) (29:25), and

﴿ وَقِيلَ ٱدۡعُواْ شُرَكَآءَكُمۡ فَدَعَوۡهُمۡ فَلَمۡ يَسۡتَجِيبُواْ لَهُمۡ

(And it will be said (to them): "Call upon your partners'', and they will call upon them, but they will give no answer to them.) (28:64), and

﴿ وَيَوۡمَ نَحۡشُرُهُمۡ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُوٓاْ

(And the Day whereon We shall gather them all together, then We shall say to those who committed Shirk...) (10:28) until,

﴿ وَضَلَّ عَنۡهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَفۡتَرُونَ

(And their invented false deities will vanish from them.) (10:30)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ فَالِقُ ٱلۡحَبِّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ‌ۖ يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَمُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلنُّجُومَ لِتَہۡتَدُواْ بِہَا فِى ظُلُمَـٰتِ ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ‌ۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡلَمُونَ

(95. Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout. He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living. Such is Allah, then how are you deluded away from the truth) (96. (He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (97. It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea. We have (indeed) explained in detail Our Ayat for people who know.)

Recognizing Allah Through Some of His Ayat

Allah states that He causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout in the ground, producing various types, colors, shapes, and tastes of grains and produce. The Ayah,

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡحَبِّ وَٱلنَّوَىٰ‌ۖ

(Who causes the seed grain and the fruit stone to split and sprout.) is explained by the next statement,

﴿ يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَمُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ‌ۚ

(He brings forth the living from the dead, and it is He Who brings forth the deed from the living.) meaning, He brings the living plant from the seed grain and the fruit stone, which is a lifeless and inanimate object. Allah said,

﴿ وَءَايَةٌ۬ لَّهُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ ٱلۡمَيۡتَةُ أَحۡيَيۡنَـٰهَا وَأَخۡرَجۡنَا مِنۡہَا حَبًّ۬ا فَمِنۡهُ يَأۡڪُلُونَ

(And a sign for them is the dead land. We gave it life, and We brought forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.) (36:33) until,

﴿ وَمِنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ وَمِمَّا لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ

(as well as of their own (human) kind (male and female), and of that which they know not.) (36:36) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَيُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ

(and it is He Who brings forth the dead from the living. ) There are similar expressions in meaning such as, He brings the egg from the chicken, and the opposite. Others said that it means, He brings the wicked offspring from the righteous parent and the opposite, and there are other possible meanings for the Ayah. Allah said,

﴿ ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ

(Such is Allah,) meaning, He Who does all this, is Allah, the One and Only without partners,

﴿ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ

(then how are you deluded away from the truth) meaning, look how you are deluded from Truth to the falsehood of worshipping others besides Allah. Allah's statement,

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا

((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting,) means, He is the Creator of light and darkness. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah,

﴿ وَجَعَلَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ وَٱلنُّورَ‌ۖ

(And originated the darkness and the light.) Indeed, Allah causes the darkness of the night to disappear and brings forth the day, thus bringing brightness to the world and light to the horizon, while dissipating darkness and ending the night with its depth of darkness and starting the day with its brightness and light. Allah said,

﴿ يُغۡشِى ٱلَّيۡلَ ٱلنَّہَارَ يَطۡلُبُهُ ۥ حَثِيثً۬ا

(He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly.) (7:54) In this Ayah, Allah reminds of His ability to create diversified things in opposites, testifying to His perfect greatness and supreme power. Allah states that He is the Cleaver of the daybreak and mentioned its opposite, when He said,

﴿ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا

(He has appointed the night for resting,) meaning, created darkness, in order for the creation to become halt and rest during it. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

(By the forenoon. And by the night when it is still.) (93:1-2),

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

(By the night as it envelops. And by the day as it appears in brightness.) (92:1,2) and,

﴿ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا جَلَّٮٰهَا وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَٮٰهَا

(And by the day as it shows up (the sun's) brightness. And by the night as it conceals it.) (91:3-4) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانً۬ا‌ۚ

(...And the sun and the moon for reckoning.) means, the sun and the moon have specific orbits, according to a term appointed with magnificent precision that never changes or alters. Both the sun and the moon have distinct positions that they assume in summer and winter, effecting changes in the length of night and day. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ ٱلشَّمۡسَ ضِيَآءً۬ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ نُورً۬ا وَقَدَّرَهُ ۥ مَنَازِلَ

(It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the Moon as a light and measured out stages for it.) (10:5),

﴿ لَا ٱلشَّمۡسُ يَنۢبَغِى لَهَآ أَن تُدۡرِكَ ٱلۡقَمَرَ وَلَا ٱلَّيۡلُ سَابِقُ ٱلنَّہَارِ‌ۚ وَكُلٌّ۬ فِى فَلَكٍ۬ يَسۡبَحُونَ

(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.) (36:40), And,

﴿ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ وَٱلنُّجُومَ مُسَخَّرَٲتِۭ بِأَمۡرِهِۦۤ‌ۗ

(The sun and the moon; and the stars are subjected by His command.) (16:12) Allah's statement,

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ

(Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) means, all of this occurs according to the decree and due measurement of the Almighty Who is never resisted or contradicted. He is the Knower of all things and nothing ever escapes His knowledge, not even the weight of an atom on earth or in heavens. Allah often mentions the creation of the night, the day, the sun and the moon and then ends His Speech by mentioning His attributes of power and knowledge, as in this Ayah above (6:96), and in His statement,

﴿ وَءَايَةٌ۬ لَّهُمُ ٱلَّيۡلُ نَسۡلَخُ مِنۡهُ ٱلنَّہَارَ فَإِذَا هُم مُّظۡلِمُونَ وَٱلشَّمۡسُ تَجۡرِى لِمُسۡتَقَرٍّ۬ لَّهَا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ

(And a sign for them is the night, We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness. And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (36:37-38) In the beginning of Surat Ha-Mim As-Sajdah, after mentioning the creation of the heavens and earth and all that is in them, Allah said:

﴿ وَزَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَحِفۡظً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ

(And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard. Such is the decree of Him, the Almighty, the All-Knower.) (41:12) Allah said next,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلنُّجُومَ لِتَہۡتَدُواْ بِہَا فِى ظُلُمَـٰتِ ٱلۡبَرِّ وَٱلۡبَحۡرِ‌ۗ

(It is He Who has set the stars for you, so that you may guide your course with their help through the darkness of the land and the sea.) Some of the Salaf said; Whoever believes in other than three things about these stars, then he has made a mistake, and lied against Allah. Indeed Allah made them as decorations for the heavens, and to shoot at the Shayatin, and for directions in the dark recesses of the land and sea. Then, Allah said,

﴿ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ

(We have explained in detail Our Ayat.) meaning, We made them clear and plain,

﴿ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡلَمُونَ

(for people who know. ) who have sound minds and are able to recognize the truth and avoid falsehood.

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ فَمُسۡتَقَرٌّ۬ وَمُسۡتَوۡدَعٌ۬‌ۗ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَفۡقَهُونَ
﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا بِهِۦ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا مِنۡهُ خَضِرً۬ا نُّخۡرِجُ مِنۡهُ حَبًّ۬ا مُّتَرَاڪِبً۬ا وَمِنَ ٱلنَّخۡلِ مِن طَلۡعِهَا قِنۡوَانٌ۬ دَانِيَةٌ۬ وَجَنَّـٰتٍ۬ مِّنۡ أَعۡنَابٍ۬ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونَ وَٱلرُّمَّانَ مُشۡتَبِهً۬ا وَغَيۡرَ مُتَشَـٰبِهٍ‌ۗ ٱنظُرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِۦۤ إِذَآ أَثۡمَرَ وَيَنۡعِهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكُمۡ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(98. It is He Who has created you from a single person, and has given you a place of residing and a place of storage. Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.) (99. It is He Who sends down water from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain. And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters of dates hanging low and near, and gardens of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each similar, yet different. Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yan`ih. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.) Allah said,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬

(It is He Who has created you from a single person,) (6:98) in reference to Adam, peace be upon him. In another Ayah, Allah said;

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَخَلَقَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنۡہُمَا رِجَالاً۬ كَثِيرً۬ا وَنِسَآءً۬‌ۚ

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his mate, and from them both He created many men and women.) (4:1) Allah said,

﴿ فَمُسۡتَقَرٌّ۬ وَمُسۡتَوۡدَعٌ۬‌ۗ

(Mustaqar and Mustawda`) Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Qays bin Abu Hazim, Mujahid, `Ata', Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and `Ata' Al-Khurasani and others said that,

﴿ فَمُسۡتَقَرٌّ۬

(Mustaqar), `in the wombs'. They, or most of them, also said that,

﴿ وَمُسۡتَوۡدَعٌ۬‌ۗ

(And Mustawda`,) means, `in your father's loins'. Ibn Mas`ud and several others said that, Mustaqar, means residence in this life, while, Mustawda`, means the place of storage after death (the grave). Allah's statement,

﴿ قَدۡ فَصَّلۡنَا ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَفۡقَهُونَ

(Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations for people who understand.) refers to those who comprehend and understand Allah's Words and its meanings. Allah said next,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬

(It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky) in due measure, as a blessing and provision for the servants, relief and means of survival for the creatures and mercy from Allah for His creation. Allah's statement,

﴿ فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا بِهِۦ نَبَاتَ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬

(And with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds,) is similar to,

﴿ وَجَعَلۡنَا مِنَ ٱلۡمَآءِ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ حَىٍّ‌ۖ

(And We have made from water every living thing.) (21:30)

﴿ فَأَخۡرَجۡنَا مِنۡهُ خَضِرً۬ا

(and out of it We bring forth green stalks,) green produce and trees, on which We grow seeds and fruits.

﴿ نُّخۡرِجُ مِنۡهُ حَبًّ۬ا مُّتَرَاڪِبً۬ا

(from which We bring forth thick clustered grain.) lined on top of each other in clusters, like an ear or spike of grain.

﴿ وَمِنَ ٱلنَّخۡلِ مِن طَلۡعِهَا قِنۡوَانٌ۬

(And out of the date-palm and its sprouts come forth clusters) of dates

﴿ دَانِيَةٌ۬

(hanging low) Within reach and easy to pick. `Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

﴿ قِنۡوَانٌ۬ دَانِيَةٌ۬

(clusters hanging low) refers to short date trees whose branches hang low, close to the ground. This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. Allah's statement

﴿ وَجَنَّـٰتٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَعۡنَـٰبٍ۬

(and gardens of grapes,) means, We bring forth gardens of grapes. Grapes and dates are the most precious fruits to the people of Al-Hijaz (Western Arabia), and perhaps both are the best fruits in this world. Allah has reminded His servants of His favor in making these two fruits for them, when He said,

﴿ وَمِن ثَمَرَٲتِ ٱلنَّخِيلِ وَٱلۡأَعۡنَـٰبِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنۡهُ سَڪَرً۬ا وَرِزۡقًا حَسَنًا‌ۗ

(And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision.) (16:67) before intoxicating drinks were prohibited, and;

﴿ وَجَعَلۡنَا فِيهَا جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ۬ وَأَعۡنَـٰبٍ۬

(And We have made therein gardens of date-palms and grapes.) (36:34). Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونَ وَٱلرُّمَّانَ مُشۡتَبِهً۬ا وَغَيۡرَ مُتَشَـٰبِهٍ‌ۗ

(olives and pomegranates, each similar yet different.) The leaves are similar in shape and appearance, yet different in the shape, and taste. And the kind of fruit each plant produces is different, according to the explanation of Qatadah and several others. Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱنظُرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ ثَمَرِهِۦۤ إِذَآ أَثۡمَرَ وَيَنۡعِهِۦۤ‌ۚ

(Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and Yan`ih.) means, when the fruits become ripe, according to Al-Bara' bin `Azib, Ibn `Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others. This Ayah means, contemplate the ability of the Creator of these fruits, Who brought them into existence after they were dry wood, and they later became grapes and dates; and similar is the case with the various colors, shapes, tastes and fragrance of whatever Allah created. Allah said,

﴿ وَفِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ قِطَعٌ۬ مُّتَجَـٰوِرَٲتٌ۬ وَجَنَّـٰتٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَعۡنَـٰبٍ۬ وَزَرۡعٌ۬ وَنَخِيلٌ۬ صِنۡوَانٌ۬ وَغَيۡرُ صِنۡوَانٍ۬ يُسۡقَىٰ بِمَآءٍ۬ وَٲحِدٍ۬ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعۡضَہَا عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأُڪُلِ‌ۚ

(And in the earth are neighbouring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date-palms, growing out, two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water, yet some of them We make better than others to eat.) (13:4) This is why Allah said here,

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكُمۡ

(In these things there are...) O people,

﴿ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬

(signs...) and proofs that testify to the perfect ability, wisdom and mercy of He Who created these things,

﴿ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(for people who believe.) in Allah and obey His Messengers.

﴿ وَجَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ ٱلۡجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ ۥ بَنِينَ وَبَنَـٰتِۭ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ۬‌ۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

(100. Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them, and they attribute, falsely without knowledge - sons and daughters to Him. Be He Glorified and Exalted above what that they attribute to Him.)

Rebuking the Idolators

This Ayah refutes the idolators who worshipped others besides Allah and associated the Jinns with Him in worship. Glory be to Allah above this Shirk and Kufr. If someone asks, how did the idolators worship the Jinns, although they only were idol worshippers The answer is that in fact, they worshipped the idols by obeying the Jinns who commanded them to do so. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ إِن يَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ إِلَّآ إِنَـٰثً۬ا وَإِن يَدۡعُونَ إِلَّا شَيۡطَـٰنً۬ا مَّرِيدً۬ا لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنۡ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبً۬ا مَّفۡرُوضً۬ا وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمۡ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمۡ وَلَأَمُرَنَّهُمۡ فَلَيُبَتِّڪُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ وَلَأَمُرَنَّہُمۡ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلۡقَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ وَلِيًّ۬ا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدۡ خَسِرَ خُسۡرَانً۬ا مُّبِينً۬ا يَعِدُهُمۡ وَيُمَنِّيہِمۡ‌ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

(They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him, and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel! Allah cursed him. And he ﴿Shaytan said: "I will take an appointed portion of your servants. Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.'' And whoever takes Shaytan as a protector instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss. He ﴿Shaytan makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan's promises are nothing but deceptions. ) (4:117-120) and,

﴿ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ ۥ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِى

(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me) (18:50) Ibrahim said to his father,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَبَتِ لَا تَعۡبُدِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ كَانَ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ عَصِيًّ۬ا

("O my father! Worship not Shaytan. Verily! Shaytan has been a rebel against the Most Beneficent (Allah).'') (19:44) Allah said,

﴿ أَلَمۡ أَعۡهَدۡ إِلَيۡكُمۡ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ أَن لَّا تَعۡبُدُواْ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ‌ۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَكُمۡ عَدُوٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ وَأَنِ ٱعۡبُدُونِى‌ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطٌ۬ مُّسۡتَقِيمٌ۬

(Did I not ordain for you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me. That is a straight path.) (36:60-61) On the Day of Resurrection, the angels will proclaim,

﴿ سُبۡحَـٰنَكَ أَنتَ وَلِيُّنَا مِن دُونِهِمۖ بَلۡ كَانُواْ يَعۡبُدُونَ ٱلۡجِنَّۖ أَڪۡثَرُهُم بِہِم مُّؤۡمِنُونَ

(Glorified be You! You are our Protector instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them.) (34:41) This is why Allah said here,

﴿ وَجَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ ٱلۡجِنَّ وَخَلَقَهُمۡ‌ۖ

(Yet, they join the Jinns as partners in worship with Allah, though He has created them.) (6:100), Alone without partners. Consequently, how is it that another deity is being worshipped along with Him As Ibrahim said,

﴿ قَالَ أَتَعۡبُدُونَ مَا تَنۡحِتُونَ وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمۡ وَمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ

("Worship you that which you (yourselves) carve While Allah has created you and what you make!'') (37:95-96) Allah alone is the Creator without partners. Therefore, He Alone deserves to be worshipped without partners. Allah said next,

﴿ وَخَرَقُواْ لَهُ ۥ بَنِينَ وَبَنَـٰتِۭ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ۬‌ۚ

(And they Kharaqu (attribute falsely) without knowledge, sons and daughters to Him.) Allah mentions the misguidance of those who were led astray and claimed a son or offspring for Him, as the Jews did with `Uzayr, the Christians with `Isa and the Arab pagans with the angels whom they claimed were Allah's daughters. Allah is far holier than what the unjust, polytheist people associate with Him. The word, Kharaqu, means `falsely attributed, invented, claimed and lied', according to the scholars of the Salaf. Allah's statement next,

﴿ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

(Be He Glorified and Exalted above (all) that they attribute to Him.) means, He is holier than, hallowed, and Exalted above the sons, rivals, equals and partners that these ignorant, misled people attribute to Him.

﴿ بَدِيعُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ ۥ وَلَدٌ۬ وَلَمۡ تَكُن لَّهُ ۥ صَـٰحِبَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬

(101. He is the Badi` (Originator) of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things and He is the All-Knower of everything.)