Allah states that the idolators swore their strongest oaths by Allah,
(that if there came to them a sign...) a miracle or phenomenon,
(they would surely believe therein.) affirming its truth,
(Say: "Signs are but with Allah.'') (6:109) meaning: Say, O Muhammad - to those who ask you for signs out of defiance, disbelief and rebellion, not out of the desire for guidance and knowledge - "The matter of sending signs is for Allah. If He wills, He sends them to you, and if He wills, He ignores your request.'' Allah said next,
(And what will make you perceive that (even) if it came, they will not believe) It was said that `you' in `make you perceive' refers to the idolators, according to Mujahid. In this case, the Ayah would mean, what makes you -- you idolators -- perceive that you are truthful in the vows that you swore Therefore, in this recitation, the Ayah means, the idolators will still not believe if the sign that they asked for came. It was also said that `you' in, `what will make you perceive', refers to the believers, meaning, what will make you perceive, O believers, that the idolators will still not believe if the signs come. Allah also said,
("What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you'') (7:12) and,
(And a ban is laid on every town (population) which We have destroyed that they shall not return (to this world again).) (21:95) These Ayat mean: `What made you, O Iblis, refrain from prostrating, although I commanded you to do so, and, in the second Ayah, that village shall not return to this world again. In the Ayah above (6:109), the meaning thus becomes: What makes you perceive, O believers, who wish eagerly for the disbelievers to believe, that if the Ayat came to them they would believe Allah said next,
(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time,) Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah, "When the idolators rejected what Allah sent down, their hearts did not settle on any one thing and they turned away from every matter (of benefit).'' Mujahid said that Allah's statement,
(and We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away,) means, We prevent them from the faith, and even if every sign came to them, they will not believe, just as We prevented them from faith the first time. Similar was said by `Ikrimah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah mentions what the servants will say before they say it and what they will do before they do it. Allah said;
(And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.) (35:14) and,
(Lest a person should say, "Alas, my grief that I was undutiful to Allah.'') (39:56) until,
("If only I had another chance, then I should indeed be among the doers of good.'') (39:58). So Allah, glory be to Him, states that if they were sent back to life, they would not accept the guidance,
(But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (6:28) Allah said,
(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time,) meaning: `If they were sent back to this life, they would be prevented from embracing the guidance, just as We prevented them from it the first time, when they were in the life of this world.'' Allah said,
(and We shall leave them...) and abandon them,
(in their trespass...) meaning, disbelief, according to Ibn `Abbas and As-Suddi. Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Qatadah said that `their trespass' means, `their misguidance'.
(to wander blindly) or playfully, according to Al-A`mash. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ar-Rabi`, Abu Malik and others commented, "to wander in their disbelief.''
(111. And even if We had sent down unto them angels, and the dead had spoken unto them, and We had gathered together all things before them, they would not have believed, unless Allah willed, but most of them behave ignorantly.) Allah says: `Had We accepted what the disbelievers asked for,' that is -- those who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that if a miracle came to them they would believe in it -- `had We sent down angels, ' to convey to them Allah's Message, in order to support the truth of the Messengers, as they asked, when they said,
(or you bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face.) (17:92)
(They said: "We shall not believe until we receive the like of that which the Messengers of Allah had received.'') (6:124) and,
(And those who expect not a meeting with Us said: "Why are not the angels sent down to us, or why do we not see our Lord" Indeed they think too highly of themselves, and are scornful with great pride.) (25:21) Allah said,
(and the dead had spoken unto them,) This is, to inform them of the truth of what the Messengers brought them;
(and We had gathered together all things before them,) before their eyes, as `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas. This is the view of Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. This Ayah means, if all nations were gathered before them, one after the other, and each one testifies to the truth of what the Messengers came with,
(they would not have believed, unless Allah willed,) for guidance is with Allah not with them. Certainly, Allah guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and He does what He wills,
(He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.) (21:23), This is due to His knowledge, wisdom, power, supreme authority and irresistibility. Similarly, Allah said,
(Truly, those, against whom the Word (wrath) of your Lord has been justified, will not believe. Even if every sign should come to them, until they see the painful torment.) (10:96-97)
(112. And so We have appointed for every Prophet enemies -- Shayatin among mankind and Jinn, inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion. If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it; so leave them alone with their fabrications.) (113. And Tasgha to it that the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter may incline to such (deceit), and that they may remain pleased with it, and that they may commit what they are committing.)
Allah says, just as We made enemies for you, O Muhammad, who will oppose and rebel against you and become your adversaries, We also made enemies for every Prophet who came before you. Therefore, do not be saddened by this fact. Allah said in other Ayat:
(Verily, Messengers were denied before you, but with patience they bore the denial, and they were hurt...) (6:34), and,
(Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you. Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness, and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.) (41:43) and,
(Thus have We made for every Prophet an enemy among the criminals.) (25:31). Waraqah bin Nawfal said to Allah's Messenger , "None came with what you came with but he was the subject of enmity.'' Allah's statement,
(Shayatin among mankind...) refers to,
(enemies. ..) meaning, the Prophets have enemies among the devils of mankind and the devils of the Jinns. The word, Shaytan, describes one who is dissimilar to his kind due to his or her wickedness. Indeed, only the Shayatin, may Allah humiliate and curse them, from among mankind and the Jinns oppose the Messengers. `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar narrated that Qatadah commented on Allah's statement,
(Shayatin (devils) among mankind and Jinn...) "There are devils among the Jinns and devils among mankind who inspire each other.'' Allah's statement,
(inspiring one another with adorned speech as a delusion.) means, they inspire each other with beautified, adorned speech that deceives the ignorant who hear it,
(If your Lord had so willed, they would not have done it;) for all this occurs by Allah's decree, will and decision, that every Prophet had enemies from these devils,
(so leave them alone with their fabrications.) and lies. This Ayah orders patience in the face of the harm of the wicked and to trust in Allah against their enmity, for, "Allah shall suffice for you (O Muhammad) and aid you against them.'' Allah's statement,
(And Tasgha to it.) means, according to Ibn `Abbas, "incline to it.''
(the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter...) their hearts, mind and hearing. As-Suddi said that this Ayah refers to the hearts of the disbelievers.
(And that they may remain pleased with it.) they like and adore it. Only those who disbelieve in the Hereafter accept this evil speech, being enemies of the Prophets, etc., just as Allah said in other Ayat,
(So, verily, you (pagans) and those whom you worship (idols). Cannot lead astray. Except those who are predestined to burn in Hell!) (37:161-163) and,
(Certainly, you have different ideas. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) (51:8-9) Allah said;
(And that they may commit what they are committing.) meaning, "let them earn whatever they will earn'', according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported this from Ibn `Abbas. As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd also commented, "Let them do whatever they will do.''
(114. ﴿Say:﴾ "Shall I seek a judge other than Allah while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained in detail." Those unto whom We gave the Scripture know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth. So be not you of those who doubt.) (115. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice. None can change His Words. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) Allah tells His Prophet to say to these polytheists who worship others besides Allah,
(Shall I seek a judge other than Allah...) between you and I,
(while it is He Who has sent down unto you the Book, explained...) in detail,
(and those unto whom We gave the Scripture) the Jews and the Christians,
(know that it is revealed from your Lord in truth.) because the previous Prophets have conveyed the good news of you coming to them. Allah's statement,
(So be not you of those who doubt.) is similar to His other statement,
(So if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed unto you, then ask those who are reading the Book before you. Verily, the truth has come to you from your Lord. So be not of those who doubt (it).) (10:94) The conditional `if' in this Ayah does not mean that `doubt' will ever occur to the Prophet. Allah said,
(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice.) Qatadah commented, "In truth concerning what He stated and in justice concerning what He decided.'' Surely, whatever Allah says is the truth and He is Most Just in what He commands. All of Allah's statements are true, there is no doubt or cause for speculation about this fact, and all His commandments are pure justice, besides which there is no justice. All that He forbade is evil, for He only forbids what brings about evil consequences. Allah said in another Ayah,
(He commands them with good; and forbids them from evil...) (7:157) until the end of the Ayah.
(None can change His Words.) meaning, none can avert Allah's judgment whether in this life or the Hereafter,
(And He is the All-Hearer,) Hearing, His servants' statements,
(The All-Knower.) of their activities and lack of activity, Who awards each according to their deeds.
(116. And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah's path. They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.) (117. Verily, your Lord! It is He Who knows best who strays from His way, and He knows best the rightly guided.)
Allah states that most of the people of the earth, are misguided. Allah said in other Ayat,
(And indeed most of the men of old went astray before them.) (37:71) and,
(And most of mankind will not believe even if you eagerly desire it.) (12:103) They are misguided, yet they have doubts about their way, and they rely on wishful thinking and delusions.
(They follow nothing but conjecture, and they do nothing but lie.) Thus, they fulfill Allah's decree and decision concerning them,
(It is He Who knows best who strays from His way.) and facilitates that for him,
(And He knows best the rightly guided.) He facilitates that for them, all of them are facilitated for what He created them.
(118. So eat of that on which Allah's Name has been mentioned, if you are believers in His Ayat.) (119. And why should you not eat of that on which Allah's Name has been mentioned, while He has explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you, except under compulsion of necessity And surely, many do lead astray by their own desires through lack of knowledge. Certainly your Lord knows best the transgressors.)