The disbelievers did all of this although they admitted to the Prophet's virtue, honorable lineage, respectable ancestry and purity of household and upbringing, may Allah, His angels, and the believers send blessings upon him. The disbelievers used to call the Prophet , before he received revelation, `Al-Amin' -- the Truthful. The leader of the Quraysh disbelievers, Abu Sufyan, had to admit to this fact when Heraclius, emperor of Rome, asked him, "How honorable is his (the Prophet's) ancestral lineage among you'' Abu Sufyan answered, "His ancestry is highly regarded among us.'' Heraclius asked, "Do you find that he lied, before he started his mission'' Abu Sufyan replied, "No.'' The emperor of Rome relied on the honor and purity of the Prophet to recognize the truth of his prophethood and what he came with. Imam Ahmad recorded that Wathilah bin Al-Asqa` said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, Allah has chosen Isma`il from the offspring of Ibrahim, Bani Kinanah from the offspring of Isma`il, Quraysh from Bani Kinanah, Bani Hashim from Quraysh and, He has chosen me from Bani Hashim.) Muslim recorded this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I was chosen from a succession of the best generations of the Children of Adam, until the generation I was sent in.) Allah's said,
(Humiliation and disgrace from Allah and a severe torment will overtake the criminals...) This is a stern threat and sure promise from Allah for those who arrogantly refrain from obeying His Messengers and adhering to what they came with. On the Day of Resurrection, they will suffer humiliation and eternal disgrace before Allah, because they were arrogant in the worldly life. This is why it is befitting that they earn disgrace on the Day of Resurrection. Allah said in another Ayah,
(Verily, those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) (40:60) disgrace and dishonor. Allah said next,
(and a severe torment for that which they used to plot.) Since plotting usually takes place in secret and involves treachery and deceit, the disbelievers were recompensed with severe torment from Allah on the Day of Resurrection, as a just reckoning,
(And your Lord treats no one with injustice) (18:49) Allah said in another Ayah,
(The Day when all the secrets will be examined. ) (86:9) Meaning, the secrets, hidden thoughts and intentions will be exposed. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(A banner will be raised for every deceitful person from his anus on the Day of Resurrection, and it will say; `This is the treacherous plot of so-and-so, son of so-and-so, son of so-and-so.,) The wisdom in this is that since a plot occurs in secret, and people are usually unaware of it, then on the Day of Resurrection the plot itself will become public news testifying to the actions of those who committed it.
(125. And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam; and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted, as if he is climbing up to the sky. Thus Allah puts the wrath on those who believe not.) Allah said,
(And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam;) He makes Islam easy for him and strengthens his resolve to embrace it, and these are good signs. Allah said in other Ayat,
(Is he whose breast Allah has opened to Islam, so that he is in light from His Lord (as he who is a non-Muslim)) (39:22) and,
(But Allah has endeared the faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts, and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience hated by you. Such are they who are the rightly guided.) (49:7) Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
(And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam;), "Allah says that He will open his heart to Tawhid and faith in Him.'' This is the same as was reported from Abu Malik and several others, and it is sound. Allah's statement,
(and whomsoever He wills to send astray, He makes his breast closed and constricted,) refers to inability to accept guidance, thus being deprived of beneficial faith.
(. ..as if he is climbing up to the sky.) because of the heaviness of faith on him. Sa`id bin Jubayr commented that in this case, "(Islam) finds every path in his heart impassable.'' Al-Hakam bin Aban said that `Ikrimah narrated from Ibn `Abbas that he commented on:
(...as if he is climbing up to the sky), "Just as the Son of Adam cannot climb up to the sky, Tawhid and faith will not be able to enter his heart, until Allah decides to allow it into his heart.'' Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir commented: "This is a parable that Allah has given for the heart of the disbeliever, which is completely impassable and closed to faith. Allah says, the example of the disbeliever's inability to accept faith in his heart and that it is too small to accommodate it, is the example of his inability to climb up to the sky, which is beyond his capability and power.'' He also commented on Allah's statement,
(Thus Allah puts the Rijs (wrath) on those who believe not.) "Allah says that just as He makes the heart of whomever He decides to misguide, closed and constricted, He also appoints Shaytan for him and for his likes, those who refused to believe in Allah and His Messenger. Consequently, Shaytan lures and hinders them from the path of Allah.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that, Rijs, refers to Shaytan, while Mujahid said that it refers to all that does not contain goodness. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that, Rijs, means, `torment'.
(126. And this is the path of your Lord leading straight. We have detailed Our Ayat for a people who take heed.) (127. For them will be the abode of peace with their Lord. And He will be their Wali because of what they used to do.) After Allah mentioned the way of those who were themselves led to stray from His path and who hindered others from it, He emphasized the honor of the guidance and religion of truth that He sent His Messenger with. Allah said next,
(And this is the path of your Lord leading straight.) that is, Islam, that We have legislated for you, O Muhammad, by revealing this Qur'an to you, is Allah's straight path.
(We have detailed Our Ayat...) We have explained the Ayat and made them clear and plain,
(for a people who take heed) those who have sound comprehension and understand what Allah and His Messenger convey to them,
(For them will be the abode of peace) Paradise,
(with their Lord.) on the Day of Resurrection. Allah described Paradise as `the abode of peace', because its residents are safe due to their access to the straight path, which conforms to the way of the Prophets. And just as their way was not wicked, they earned the abode of peace (which is free from all wickedness).
(And He will be their Wali) Protector, Supporter and Helper,
(because of what they used to do,) As reward for their good deeds, Allah has favored them and been generous with them, and awarded them Paradise.
(128. And on the Day when He will gather them together (and say): "O you assembly of Jinn! Many did you mislead of men," and their friends among the people will say: "Our Lord! We benefited one from the other, but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us. " He will say: "The Fire be your dwelling place, you will dwell therein forever, except as Allah may will. Certainly your Lord is All-Wise, All-Knowing.") Allah says, `Mention, O Muhammad, in what you convey and warn,' that,
(on the Day when He will gather them (all) together.) gather the Jinns and their loyal supporters from mankind who used to worship them in this life, seek refuge with them, obey them and inspire each other with adorned, deceitful speech. Allah will proclaim then,
(O you assembly of Jinn! Many did you mislead of men,) So the Ayah;
(Many did you mislead of men) refers to their misguiding and leading them astray. Allah also said;
(Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan. Verily, he is a plain enemy to you. And that you should worship Me. That is the straight path. And indeed he (Shaytan) did lead astray a great multitude of you. Did you not, then, understand) (36:60-62), and
(and their friends among the people will say: "Our Lord! We benefited one from the other...'') The friends of the Jinns among humanity will give this answer to Allah, after Allah chastises them for being misguided by the Jinns. Al-Hasan commented, "They benefited from each other when the Jinns merely commanded and mankind obeyed.'' Ibn Jurayj said, "During the time of Jahiliyyah, a man would reach a land and proclaim, `I seek refuge with the master (Jinn) of this valley,' and this is how they benefited from each other. They used this as an excuse for them on the Day of Resurrection.'' Therefore, the Jinns benefit from humans since humans revere the Jinns by invoking them for help. The Jinns would then proclaim, "We became the masters of both mankind and the Jinns.''
(but now we have reached our appointed term which You did appoint for us.) meaning, death, according to As-Suddi.
(He (Allah) will say: "The Fire be your dwelling place...'') where you will reside and live, you and your friends,
(you will dwell therein forever.) and will never depart except what Allah may will.
(129. And thus We do make the wrongdoers supporters of one another, because of that which they used to earn.)
Ma`mar said that Qatadah commented on this Ayah, "Allah makes the wrongdoers supporters for each other in the Fire by following one another into it.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on Allah's statement,
(And thus We do make the wrongdoers supporters of one another.) "It refers to the wrongdoers of the Jinns and mankind.'' He then recited,
(And whosoever turns away blindly from the remembrance of the Most Gracious (Allah), We appoint for him Shaytan to be a companion to him.) (43:36)He said next -- concerning the meaning of the Ayah; "We appoint the wrongdoer of the Jinns over the wrongdoer of mankind.'' A poet once said, "There is no hand, but Allah's Hand is above it, and no wrongdoer but will be tested by another wrongdoer.'' The meaning of this honorable Ayah thus becomes: `Just as We made this losing group of mankind supporters of the Jinns that misguided them, We also appoint the wrongdoers over one another, destroy them by the hands of one another, and take revenge from them with one another. This is the just recompense for their injustice and transgression.'
(130. O you assembly of Jinn and humans! "Did not there come to you Messengers from amongst you, reciting unto you My verses and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours'' They will say: "We bear witness against ourselves.'' It was the life of this world that deceived them. And they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers.)