Allah says, just as the Shayatin lured the idolators to assign a share for Allah from what He created of agriculture and cattle - and a share for the idols, they also made it seem fair for them to kill their children, for fear of poverty, and burying their daughters alive, for fear of dishonor. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he commented;
(And so to many of the idolators, their "partners" have made fair seeming the killing of their children...) "They make killing their children attractive to them.'' Mujahid said, "Idolators' partners among the devils ordered them to bury their children for fear of poverty.'' As-Suddi said, "The devils commanded them to kill their daughters so that they,
(lead them to their own destruction), and to,
(cause confusion in their religion.)'' Allah said,
(And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so.) meaning, all this occurred by Allah's leave, will and decree, but He dislikes these practices, and He has the perfect wisdom in every decree. He is never questioned about what He does, but they all will be questioned.
(So leave them alone with their fabrications.) meaning, avoid and abandon them and what they do, for Allah will judge between you and them.
(138. And according to their claim, they say that such and such cattle and crops are Hijr (forbidden), and none should eat of them except those whom we allow. And (they say) there are cattle forbidden to be used for burden, and cattle on which (at slaughtering) the Name of Allah is not pronounced; lying against Him (Allah). He will recompense them for what they used to fabricate.)
`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Hijr refers to what they forbade, such as the Wasilah, and the like.'' Similar was said by Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others. Qatadah commented on,
(They say that such and such cattle and crops are Hijr,) "It is a prohibition that the Shayatin appointed for their wealth, and a type of exaggeration and extremism that did not come from Allah.''(`Abdur-Rahman) Ibn Zayd bin Aslam said that,
(Hijr,) refers to what the idolators designated for their deities. As-Suddi said that the Ayah,
(And none should eat of them except those whom we allow, they claimed...) means, "They said, only those whom we choose can eat of them., and the rest are prohibited from eating them.'' Similar to this honorable Ayah, Allah said,
(Say: "Tell me, what provision Allah has sent down to you! And you have made of it lawful and unlawful." Say: "Has Allah permitted you (to do so), or do you invent a lie against Allah") (10:59), and,
(Allah has not instituted things like Bahirah or a Sa'ibah or a Wasilah or a Ham. But those who disbelieve invent lies against Allah, and most of them have no understanding.) (5:103) As-Suddi said that cattle forbidden to be used for burden were the Bahirah, Sa'ibah, Wasilah and Ham, as well as cattle for which the idolators did not mention Allah's Name when slaughtering them nor when they were born. Abu Bakr bin `Ayyash said that `Asim bin Abi An-Najud said, "Abu Wa'il said to me, `Do you know the meaning of the Ayah,
(And (they say) there are cattle forbidden to be used for burden, and cattle on which the Name of Allah is not pronounced.) I said, `No.' He said, `It is the Bahirah, which they would not use to for Hajj (either by riding it or carrying things on it).''' Mujahid also said that they were some of the camels belonging to idolators on which Allah's Name was not mentioned when riding, milking, carrying things, copulation or any other action.
(lying against Him.) against Allah. The idolators indeed lied when they attributed this evil to Allah's religion and Law; He did not allow them to do that nor did He approve of it,
(He will recompense them for what they used to fabricate.) against Him, and falsely attribute to Him.
(139. And they say: "What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females, but if it is born dead, then all have shares therein." He will punish them for their attribution (of such false orders to Allah). Verily, He is All-Wise, All-Knower.) Abu Ishaq As-Subay`i narrated that `Abdullah bin Abi Al-Hudhayl reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,
(And they say: "What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone...") refers to milk. `Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said about this Ayah,
(And they say: "What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone...") "It is about milk, which they prohibited for their females and allowed only their males to drink. When a sheep would give birth to a male sheep, they would slaughter it and feed it to their males, but not to their females. If the newly born lamb was a female, they would not slaughter it, but if it was stillborn, they would share in it (with their females)! Allah forbade this practice.'' Similar was said by As-Suddi. Ash-Sha`bi said, "The Bahirah's milk was only given to the men. But if any cattle from the Bahirah died, both men and women would share in eating it.'' Similar was said by `Ikrimah, Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Mujahid commented;
(And they say: "What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females...'') "It refers to the Sa'ibah and the Bahirah.'' Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid and Qatadah said that Allah's statement,
(He will punish them for their attribution. ) means, uttering such falsehood. This is explained by Allah's statement,
(And say not concerning that which your tongues falsely utter: "This is lawful and this is forbidden." so as to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah will never prosper.) (16:116) Allah said,
(Verily, He is All-Wise.) in His actions, statements, Law and decree,
(All-Knower), in the actions of His servants, whether good or evil, and He will recompense them for these deeds completely.
(140. Indeed lost are they who have killed their children, foolishly, without knowledge, and (they) have forbidden that which Allah has provided for them, inventing a lie against Allah. They have indeed gone astray and were not guided.)
As for this life, they lost when they killed their children and made it difficult for themselves by prohibiting some types of their wealth, as an act of innovation that they invented on their own. As for the Hereafter, they will end up in the worst dwellings, because they used to lie about Allah and invent falsehood about Him. Allah also said,
(Say: "Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful." (A brief) enjoyment in this world! And then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.) (10:69-70) Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented, "If it pleases you to know how ignorant the Arabs used to be, then recite the Ayat beyond Ayah one hundred and thirty in Surat Al-An`am,
(Indeed lost are they who have killed their children, foolishly, without knowledge, and﴿ they﴾ have forbidden that which Allah has provided for them, inventing a lie against Allah. They have indeed gone astray and were not guided.)'' Al-Bukhari also recorded this in the section of his Sahih on the virtues of the Quraysh.
(141. And it is He Who produces gardens Ma`rushat and not Ma`rushat, and date palms, and crops of different shape and taste, and olives, and pomegranates, similar, and different. Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest, and waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not the wasteful.) (142. And of the cattle (are some) for burden and (some smaller) for Farsh. Eat of what Allah has provided for you, and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan. Surely, he is to you an open enemy.)