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Eat the Meat of These Cattle, But Do Not Follow Shaytan's Law Concerning Them

Allah said,

﴿ ڪُلُواْ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ

(Eat of what Allah has provided for you,) of fruits, produce and cattle. Allah created all these and provided you with them as provision.

﴿ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَٲتِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ‌ۚ

(and follow not the footsteps of Shaytan.) meaning, his way and orders, just as the idolators followed him and prohibited fruits and produce that Allah provided for them, claiming that this falsehood came from Allah.

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَكُمۡ

(Surely, he is to you) meaning; Shaytan, O people, is to you,

﴿ عَدُوٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(an open enemy) and his enmity to you is clear and apparent. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ لَكُمۡ عَدُوٌّ۬ فَٱتَّخِذُوهُ عَدُوًّاۚ إِنَّمَا يَدۡعُواْ حِزۡبَهُ ۥ لِيَكُونُواْ مِنۡ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ

(Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his Hizb (followers) that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire. ) (35:6) and,

﴿ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ لَا يَفۡتِنَنَّڪُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ كَمَآ أَخۡرَجَ أَبَوَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنۡہُمَا لِبَاسَہُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوۡءَٲتِہِمَآ‌ۗ

(O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts.) (7:27) and,

﴿ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ ۥ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِى وَهُمۡ لَكُمۡ عَدُوُّۢ‌ۚ بِئۡسَ لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَدَلاً۬

(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.) (18:50) There are many other Ayat on this subject.

﴿ ثَمَـٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٲجٍ۬‌ۖ مِّنَ ٱلضَّأۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡمَعۡزِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ‌ۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّڪَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ نَبِّـُٔونِى بِعِلۡمٍ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ وَمِنَ ٱلۡإِبِلِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ‌ۗ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّڪَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ أَمۡ ڪُنتُمۡ شُہَدَآءَ إِذۡ وَصَّٮٰڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهَـٰذَا‌ۚ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ڪَذِبً۬ا لِّيُضِلَّ ٱلنَّاسَ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(143. Eight pairs: of the sheep two (male and female), and of the goats two (male and female). Say: "Has He forbidden the two males or the two females, or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose Inform me with knowledge if you are truthful. ") (144. And of the camels two, and of oxen two. Say: "Has He forbidden the two males or the two females or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose Or were you present when Allah ordered you such a thing Then who does more wrong than one who invents a lie against Allah, to lead mankind astray without knowledge. Certainly Allah guides not the people who are wrongdoers.")

These Ayat demonstrate the ignorance of the Arabs before Islam.

They used to prohibit the usage of some of their cattle and designate them as Bahirah, Sa'ibah, Wasilah and Ham etc. These were some of the innovations they invented for cattle, fruits and produce. Allah stated that He has created gardens, trellised and untrellised, and cattle, as animals of burden and as Farsh. Allah next mentioned various kinds of cattle, male and female, such as sheep and goats. He also created male and female camels and the same with cows. Allah did not prohibit any of these cattle or their offspring. Rather, they all were created for the sons of Adam as a source for food, transportation, work, milk, and other benefits, which are many. Allah said,

﴿ وَأَنزَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ ثَمَـٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٲجٍ۬‌ۚ

(And He has sent down for you of cattle eight pairs...) (39:6) Allah said;

﴿ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ

(...or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose...) This refutes the idolators' statement,

﴿ مَا فِى بُطُونِ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ خَالِصَةٌ۬ لِّذُڪُورِنَا وَمُحَرَّمٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٲجِنَا‌ۖ

(What is in the bellies of such and such cattle is for our males alone, and forbidden to our females.) (6:139) Allah said,

﴿ نَبِّـُٔونِى بِعِلۡمٍ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(Inform me with knowledge if you are truthful.) meaning, tell me with sure knowledge, how and when did Allah prohibit what you claimed is prohibited, such as the Bahirah, Sa'ibah, Wasilah and Ham etc. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah's statement,

﴿ ثَمَـٰنِيَةَ أَزۡوَٲجٍ۬‌ۖ مِّنَ ٱلضَّأۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ وَمِنَ ٱلۡمَعۡزِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ‌ۗ

(Eight pairs: of the sheep two, and of the goats two...) these are four pairs,

﴿ قُلۡ ءَآلذَّڪَرَيۡنِ حَرَّمَ أَمِ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ

(Say: "Has He forbidden the two males or the two females...'') I (Allah) did not prohibit any of these.

﴿ أَمَّا ٱشۡتَمَلَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ أَرۡحَامُ ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ

(or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose) and does the womb produce but males and females So why do you prohibit some and allow some others

﴿ نَبِّـُٔونِى بِعِلۡمٍ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(Inform me with knowledge if you are truthful.) Allah is saying that all of this is allowed.'' Allah said,

﴿ أَمۡ ڪُنتُمۡ شُہَدَآءَ إِذۡ وَصَّٮٰڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهَـٰذَا‌ۚ

(Or, were you present when Allah ordered you such a thing) mocking the idolators' innovations, and their lies that Allah made sacred what they have prohibited.

﴿ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ڪَذِبً۬ا لِّيُضِلَّ ٱلنَّاسَ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ‌ۗ

(Then who does more wrong than one who invents a lie against Allah, to lead mankind astray without knowledge.) Therefore, no one is more unjust than the people described here and

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(Certainly, Allah guides not the people who are wrongdoers.) The person most worthy of this condemnation is `Amr bin Luhay bin Qum`ah. He was the first person to change the religion of the Prophets and designate the Sa'ibah, Wasilah and Ham, as mentioned in the Sahih.

﴿ قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ۬ يَطۡعَمُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيۡتَةً أَوۡ دَمً۬ا مَّسۡفُوحًا أَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنزِيرٍ۬ فَإِنَّهُ ۥ رِجۡسٌ أَوۡ فِسۡقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيۡرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦ‌ۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ غَيۡرَ بَاغٍ۬ وَلَا عَادٍ۬ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(145. Say: "I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine; for that surely, is unclean (Rijs), or immorally slaughtered in the name of other than Allah. But whosoever is forced by necessity without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits; (for him) certainly, your Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.")

Forbidden Things

Allah commands His servant and Messenger, Muhammad ,

﴿ قُل

(Say) O Muhammad to those who prohibited what Allah has provided them, claiming this falsehood to be from Allah,

﴿ لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ۬ يَطۡعَمُهُ ۥۤ

(I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it,) This Ayah means, I do not find any animals that are prohibited, except these mentioned here. We should mention here that the prohibited things mentioned in Surat Al-Ma'idah and the Hadiths on this subject amend the meaning of this Ayah.

﴿ أَوۡ دَمً۬ا مَّسۡفُوحًا

(or blood poured.) Qatadah commented, "Poured blood was prohibited, but the meat that still has some blood in it is allowed.'' Al-Humaydi said that Sufyan narrated to us that `Amr bin Dinar narrated to us, "I said to Jabir bin `Abdullah, `They claim that the Messenger of Allah prohibited the meat of donkeys during (the day of) Khaybar.' He said, `Al-Hakam bin `Amr narrated that from the Messenger of Allah . That scholar - referring to Ibn `Abbas - denied it, reciting the Ayah;

﴿ قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ۬ يَطۡعَمُهُ ۥۤ

(Say: "I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it...")''' Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud collected it. Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah and Al-Hakim, in his Mustadrak, recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to eat some things and avoid some other things, because they disliked them. Later on, Allah sent His Prophet , revealed His Book, allowed what He allowed, and prohibited what He prohibited. Therefore, whatever Allah allowed is lawful and whatever He prohibited is unlawful. Whatever He did not mention, there is no sin in it.'' He then recited the Ayah,

﴿ قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ۬ يَطۡعَمُهُ ۥۤ

(Say: "I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it...") This is the wording with Ibn Marduwyah. Abu Dawud also recorded this statement, and Al-Hakim said, "Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "A sheep belonging to Sawdah bint Zam`ah died and she said, `O Allah's Messenger! So-and-so (sheep) has died.' He said,

« فَلِمَ لَا أَخَذْتُمْ مَسْكَهَا؟ »

(Why did you not use its skin) She said, `Should we use the skin of a sheep that has died' Allah's Messenger said,

« إِنَّمَا قَالَ اللهُ:
﴿ قُل لَّآ أَجِدُ فِى مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَىَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَىٰ طَاعِمٍ۬ يَطۡعَمُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّآ أَن يَكُونَ مَيۡتَةً أَوۡ دَمً۬ا مَّسۡفُوحًا أَوۡ لَحۡمَ خِنزِيرٍ۬
وَإِنَّكُمْ لَا تَطْعَمُونَهُ أَنْ تَدْبَغُوهُ فَتَنْتَفِعُوا بِه »

(Allah only said, (Say: "I find not in that which has been revealed to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, except Maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine....) You will not be eating it if you tan its skin and benefit from it.) So she had the sheep skinned, the skin was tanned and made into a water skin that she kept until it wore out.'' Al-Bukhari and an-Nasa'i collected a similar Hadith. Allah said,

﴿ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ غَيۡرَ بَاغٍ۬ وَلَا عَادٍ۬

(But whosoever is forced by necessity without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits;) Therefore, whoever is forced by necessity to eat anything that Allah has forbidden in this honorable Ayah, without transgressing his limits, then for him,

﴿ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(certainly, your Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) We mentioned the explanation of this Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah. This honorable Ayah contradicts the idolators' innovated prohibitions for certain kinds of wealth, relying merely on their misguided ideas, such as the Bahirah, Sa'ibah, Wasilah and Ham. Allah commanded His Messenger to inform them that he does not find that such types of animals are prohibited in what Allah revealed to him. In this Ayah, Allah only prohibited dead animals, poured blood, the flesh of swine and what has been slaughtered for something other than Allah. Other things were not prohibited here, but rather treated as that which does not have a ruling, i.e., permissible. Therefore, how do you -- idolators -- claim that such items are prohibited, and why did you prohibit them when Allah did not prohibit them

﴿ وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ حَرَّمۡنَا ڪُلَّ ذِى ظُفُرٍ۬‌ۖ وَمِنَ ٱلۡبَقَرِ وَٱلۡغَنَمِ حَرَّمۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ شُحُومَهُمَآ إِلَّا مَا حَمَلَتۡ ظُهُورُهُمَآ أَوِ ٱلۡحَوَايَآ أَوۡ مَا ٱخۡتَلَطَ بِعَظۡمٍ۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ جَزَيۡنَـٰهُم بِبَغۡيِہِمۡ‌ۖ وَإِنَّا لَصَـٰدِقُونَ

(146. And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their Hawaya, or is mixed up with a bone. Thus We recompensed them for their rebellion. And verily, We are Truthful.)