;
The Qur'an is Allah's Proof Against His Creation

Ibn Jarir commented on the Ayah, "The Ayah means, this is a Book that We sent down, so that you do not say,

﴿ إِنَّمَآ أُنزِلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبُ عَلَىٰ طَآٮِٕفَتَيۡنِ مِن قَبۡلِنَا

("The Book was sent down only to two sects before us.") This way, you will have no excuse. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَلَوۡلَآ أَن تُصِيبَهُم مُّصِيبَةُۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ فَيَقُولُواْ رَبَّنَا لَوۡلَآ أَرۡسَلۡتَ إِلَيۡنَا رَسُولاً۬ فَنَتَّبِعَ ءَايَـٰتِكَ

(Otherwise, they would have suffered a calamity because of what their hands sent forth, and said: "Our Lord! Why did You not send us a Messenger We would then have followed Your Ayat.'') (28:47).'' The Ayah,

﴿ عَلَىٰ طَآٮِٕفَتَيۡنِ مِن قَبۡلِنَا

(to two sects before us) refers to the Jews and Christians, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who narrated it from Ibn `Abbas. Similar was reported from Mujahid, As-Suddi, Qatadah and several others. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِن كُنَّا عَن دِرَاسَتِہِمۡ لَغَـٰفِلِينَ

("...and for our part, we were in fact unaware of what they studied.") meaning: `we did not understand what they said because the revelation was not in our tongue. We, indeed, were busy and unaware of their message,' so they said. Allah said next,

﴿ أَوۡ تَقُولُواْ لَوۡ أَنَّآ أُنزِلَ عَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡكِتَـٰبُ لَكُنَّآ أَهۡدَىٰ مِنۡہُمۡ‌ۚ

(Or lest you should say: "If only the Book had been sent down to us, we would surely, have been better guided than they.") meaning: We also refuted this excuse, had you used it, lest you say, "If a Book was revealed to us, just as they received a Book, we would have been better guided than they are.'' Allah also said.

﴿ وَأَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَـٰنِہِمۡ لَٮِٕن جَآءَهُمۡ نَذِيرٌ۬ لَّيَكُونُنَّ أَهۡدَىٰ مِنۡ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡأُمَمِۖ

(And they swore by Allah their most binding oath that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the nations (before them).) (35:42) Allah replied here,

﴿ فَقَدۡ جَآءَڪُم بَيِّنَةٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّڪُمۡ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةٌ۬‌ۚ

(So now has come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy.) Allah says, there has come to you from Allah a Glorious Qur'an revealed to Muhammad , the Arab Prophet. In it is the explanation of the lawful and unlawful matters, guidance for the hearts and mercy from Allah to His servants who follow and implement it. Allah said;

﴿ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّن كَذَّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَصَدَفَ عَنۡہَا‌ۗ

(Who then does more wrong than one who rejects the Ayat of Allah and Sadafa away therefrom) This refers to the one who neither benefited from what the Messenger brought, nor followed what he was sent with by abandoning all other ways. Rather, he Sadafa from following the Ayat of Allah, meaning, he discouraged and hindered people from following it. This is the explanation of As-Suddi for Sadafa, while Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah said that Sadafa means, he turned away from it.

﴿ هَلۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّآ أَن تَأۡتِيَهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ أَوۡ يَأۡتِىَ رَبُّكَ أَوۡ يَأۡتِىَ بَعۡضُ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّكَ‌ۗ يَوۡمَ يَأۡتِى بَعۡضُ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّكَ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفۡسًا إِيمَـٰنُہَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ ءَامَنَتۡ مِن قَبۡلُ أَوۡ كَسَبَتۡ فِىٓ إِيمَـٰنِہَا خَيۡرً۬ا‌ۗ قُلِ ٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ

(158. Do they then wait for anything other than that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord should come, or that some of the Signs of your Lord should come! The day that some of the signs of your Lord do come, no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before, nor earned good with his faith. Say: "Wait you! We (too) are waiting.")

The Disbelievers Await the Commencement of the Hereafter, or Some of its Portents

Allah sternly threatens the disbelievers, those who defy His Messengers, deny His Ayat and hinder from His path,

﴿ هَلۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّآ أَن تَأۡتِيَهُمُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ أَوۡ يَأۡتِىَ رَبُّكَ

(Do they then wait for anything other than that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord (Allah) should come...) on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ أَوۡ يَأۡتِىَ بَعۡضُ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّكَ‌ۗ يَوۡمَ يَأۡتِى بَعۡضُ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّكَ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفۡسًا إِيمَـٰنُہَا

(or that some of the signs of your Lord should come! The day that some of the signs of your Lord do come no good will it do to a person to believe then.) Before the commencement of the Day of Resurrection, there will come signs and portents of the Last Hour that will be witnessed by the people living at that time. In a section explaining this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا فَإِذَا رَآهَا النَّاسُ آمَنَ مَنْ عَلَيْهَا فَذَلِكَ حِين »

(The Last Hour will not commence until the sun rises from the west. When the people witness that, they will all believe. This is when.

﴿ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفۡسًا إِيمَـٰنُہَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ ءَامَنَتۡ مِن قَبۡلُ

(no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before.)) Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« ثَلَاثٌ إِذَا خَرَجْنَ لَا يَنْفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِنْ قَبْل أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا، طُلُوعُ الشَّمْسِ مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا وَالدَّجَّالُ وَدَابَّةُ الْأَرْض »

(Three, if they appear, then a soul will not benefit from its faith, if it had not believed before or earned good in its faith: when the sun rises from the west, Ad-Dajjal and the Beast of the earth.) Ahmad also recorded this Hadith, and in his narration, the Prophet mentioned the Smoke. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Jarir said, "Three Muslim men sat with Marwan in Al-Madinah and they heard him talking about the signs (of the Last Hour). He said that the first sign will be the appearance of Ad-Dajjal. So these men went to `Abdullah bin `Amr and told him what they heard from Marwan about the signs. Ibn `Amr said, Marwan said nothing. I remember that I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« إِنَّ أَوَّلَ الْآياتِ خُرُوجًا طُلُوعُ الشَّمْسِ مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا وَخُرُوجُ الدَّابَّةِ ضُحًى فَأَيَّتُهُمَا كَانَتْ قَبْلَ صَاحِبَتِهَا فَالْأُخْرَى عَلَى أَثَرِهَا »

(The first of the signs to appear are the sun rising from the west and the Beast that appears in the early morning. Whichever comes before the other, then the second sign will appear soon after it.'') Then `Abdullah said - and he used to read the Scriptures - "And I think the first of them is the sun rising from the west. That is because when it sets it comes under the Throne, prostrates and seeks permission to return. So it is permitted to return until Allah wants it to rise from the west. So it does as it normally would, it comes beneath the Throne, it prostrates and seeks permission to return. But it will get no response. Then it will seek permission to return ﴿again, but it will get no response, until what Allah wills of the night to pass goes by, and it realizes that if it is permitted to return it would not ﴿be able to reach the east. It says; `My Lord! The east is so far, what good would I be to the people' Until the horizons appear as a ﴿lightless ring, it seeks permission to return and is told; `Rise from your place,' so it rises upon the people from where it set.'' Then he recited,

﴿ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفۡسًا إِيمَـٰنُہَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ ءَامَنَتۡ مِن قَبۡلُ

(no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before,) This was also recorded by Muslim in his Sahih, and Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah in their Sunans. Allah's statement,

﴿ لَا يَنفَعُ نَفۡسًا إِيمَـٰنُہَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ ءَامَنَتۡ مِن قَبۡلُ

(no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before,) means, when the disbeliever believes then, it will not be accepted from him. As for those who were believers before, if they earned righteous deeds, they will have earned a great deal of good. If they had not done good nor repented before then, it will not be accepted from them, according to the Hadiths that we mentioned. This is also the meaning of Allah's statement,

﴿ أَوۡ كَسَبَتۡ فِىٓ إِيمَـٰنِہَا خَيۡرً۬ا‌ۗ

(...nor earned good through his faith. ) meaning, one's good deeds will not be accepted from him unless he performed good deeds before. Allah said next,

﴿ قُلِ ٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ

(Say: "Wait you! We (too) are waiting.") This is a stern threat to the disbelievers and a sure promise for those who delay embracing the faith and repenting until a time when faith or repentance shall not avail. This will occur when the sun rises from the west because the Last Hour will then be imminent and its major signs will have begun to appear. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ فَهَلۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا ٱلسَّاعَةَ أَن تَأۡتِيَہُم بَغۡتَةً۬‌ۖ فَقَدۡ جَآءَ أَشۡرَاطُهَا‌ۚ فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمۡ إِذَا جَآءَتۡہُمۡ ذِكۡرَٮٰهُمۡ

(Do they then await (anything) other than the Hour, that it should come upon them suddenly But some of its portents have already come; and when it is upon them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) (47:18), and,

﴿ فَلَمَّا رَأَوۡاْ بَأۡسَنَا قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَحۡدَهُ ۥ وَڪَفَرۡنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِۦ مُشۡرِكِينَ فَلَمۡ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمۡ إِيمَـٰنُہُمۡ لَمَّا رَأَوۡاْ بَأۡسَنَاۖ

(So when they saw Our punishment, they said: "We believe in Allah alone and reject (all) that we used to associate with Him as partners." Then their faith could not avail them when they saw Our punishment.) (40:84-85)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَہُمۡ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعً۬ا لَّسۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ‌ۚ إِنَّمَآ أَمۡرُهُمۡ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُہُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ

(159. Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no concern with them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do.)

Criticizing Division in the Religion

Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that this Ayah was revealed about the Jews and Christians. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَہُمۡ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعً۬ا

(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects...) "Before Muhammad was sent, the Jews and Christians disputed and divided into sects. When Muhammad was sent, Allah revealed to him,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَہُمۡ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعً۬ا لَّسۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ‌ۚ

(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no concern with them in the least.) It is apparent that this Ayah refers to all those who defy the religion of Allah, or revert from it. Allah sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth so that He makes it victorious and dominant above all religions. His Law is one and does not contain any contradiction or incongruity. Therefore, those who dispute in the religion,

﴿ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعً۬ا

(...and break up into sects,) religious sects, just like those who follow the various sects, desires and misguidance - then Allah has purified His Messenger from their ways. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

﴿ شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِۦ نُوحً۬ا وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ

(He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you.) (42:13) A Hadith reads,

« نَحْنُ مَعَاشِرُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَوْلَادُ عَلَّاتٍ دِينُنَا وَاحِد »

(We, the Prophets, are half brothers but have one religion.) This, indeed, is the straight path which the Messengers have brought and which commands worshipping Allah alone without partners and adhering to the Law of the last Messenger whom Allah sent. All other paths are types of misguidance, ignorance, sheer opinion and desires; and as such, the Messengers are free from them. Allah said here,

﴿ لَّسۡتَ مِنۡہُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ‌ۚ

(You have no concern with them in the least...) (6:159). Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّمَآ أَمۡرُهُمۡ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُہُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ

(Their affair is only with Allah, Who then will tell them what they used to do.) is similar to His statement,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَٱلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَٱلصَّـٰبِـِٔينَ وَٱلنَّصَـٰرَىٰ وَٱلۡمَجُوسَ وَٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَڪُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَفۡصِلُ بَيۡنَهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۚ

(Verily, those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the Sabians, and the Christians, and the Majus, and those who worship others besides Allah; truly, Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection.) (22:17) Allah then mentioned His kindness in His decisions and His justice on the Day of Resurrection, when He said,

﴿ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ ۥ عَشۡرُ أَمۡثَالِهَا‌ۖ وَمَن جَآءَ بِٱلسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجۡزَىٰٓ إِلَّا مِثۡلَهَا وَهُمۡ لَا يُظۡلَمُونَ

(160. Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed shall have only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged.)

The Good Deed is Multiplied Tenfold, While the Sin is Recompensed with the Same

This Ayah explains the general Ayah;

﴿ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ ۥ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡہَا

(Whoever comes with good, then he will receive better than that.) (28:84) There are several Hadiths that are in agreement with the apparent wording of this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said about his Lord,

« إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ رَحِيمٌ مَنْ هَمَّ بِحَسَنَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ حَسَنَةً فَإِنْ عَمِلَهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ عَشْرًا إِلَى سَبْعِمِائَةٍ إِلَى أَضْعَافٍ كَثِيرَةٍ. وَمَنْ هَمَّ بِسَيِّئَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ حَسَنَةً فَإِنْ عَمِلَهَا كُتِبَتْ لَهُ وَاحِدَةً أَوْ يَمْحُوهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَا يَهْلِكُ عَلَى اللهِ إِلَّا هَالِك »

(Your Lord is Most Merciful. Whoever intends to perform a good deed and does not do it, it will be written for him as a good deed. If he performs it, it will be written for him as ten deeds, to seven hundred, to multifold. Whoever intends to commit an evil deed, but does not do it, it will be written for him as a good deed. If he commits it, it will be written for him as a sin, unless Allah erases it. Only those who deserve destruction will be destroyed by Allah.) Al-Bukhari, Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith. Ahmad also recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« يَقُولُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: مَنْ عَمِلَ حَسَنَةً فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا وَأَزِيدُ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ سَيِّئَةً فَجَزَاؤُهَا مِثْلُهَا أَوْ أَغْفِرُ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ قُرَابَ الْأَرْضِ خَطِيئَةً ثُمَّ لَقِيَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُ بِي شَيْئًا جَعَلْتُ لَهُ مِثْلَهَا مَغْفِرَةً، وَمَنِ اقْتَرَبَ إِليَّ شِبْرًا اقْتَرَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ ذِرَاعًا وَمَنِ اقْتَرَبَ إِلَيَّ ذِرَاعًا اقْتَرَبْتُ إِلَيْهِ بَاعًا وَمَنْ أَتَانِي يَمْشِي أَتَيْتُهُ هَرْوَلَة »

(Allah says, `Whoever performs a good deed, will have tenfold for it and more. Whoever commits a sin, then his recompense will be the same, unless I forgive. Whoever commits the earth's fill of sins and then meets Me while associating none with Me, I will give him its fill of forgiveness. Whoever draws closer to Me by a hand's span, I will draw closer to him by a forearm's length. Whoever draws closer to Me by a forearm's length, I will draw closer to him by an arm's length. And whoever comes to Me walking, I will come to him running.') Muslim also collected this Hadith. Know that there are three types of people who refrain from committing a sin that they intended. There are those who refrain from committing the sin because they fear Allah, and thus will have written for them a good deed as a reward. This type contains both a good intention and a good deed. In some narrations of the Sahih, Allah says about this type, "He has left the sin for My sake.'' Another type does not commit the sin because of forgetfulness or being busy attending to other affairs. This type of person will neither earn a sin, nor a reward. The reason being that, this person did not intend to do good, nor commit evil. Some people abandon the sin because they were unable to commit it or due to laziness, after trying to commit it and seeking the means that help commit it. This person is just like the person who commits the sin. There is an authentic Hadith that states,

« إِذَا الْتَقَى الْمُسْلِمَانِ بِسَيْفَيْهِمَا فَالْقَاتِلُ وَالْمَقْتُولُ فِي النَّار »

(When two Muslims meet with their swords, then the killer and the killed will be in the Fire.) They said, "O Allah's Messenger! We know about the killer, so what about the killed'' He said,

« إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَرِيصًا عَلَى قَتْلِ صَاحِبِه »

(He was eager to kill his companion.) Al-Hafiz Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani said that Abu Malik Al-Ash`ari said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« الْجُمُعَةُ كَفَّارَةٌ لِمَا بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ الْجُمُعَةِ الَّتِي تَلِيهَا وَزِيَادَةُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ، وَذَلِكَ لأَنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَالَ:
﴿ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ ۥ عَشۡرُ أَمۡثَالِهَا‌ۖ
»

(Friday (prayer) to the next Friday (prayer), plus three more days, erase whatever was committed (of sins) between them. This is because Allah says: Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit) Abu Dharr narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ صَامَ ثَلَاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ كُلِّ شَهْرٍ فَقَدْ صَامَ الدَّهْرَ كُلَّه »

(Whoever fasts three days every month, will have fasted all the time.) Ahmad, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith, and this is Ahmad's wording. At-Tirmidhi also recorded it with this addition;

« فأنزل الله تصديق ذلك في كتابه »

(So Allah sent down affirmation of this statement in His Book,)

﴿ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ ۥ عَشۡرُ أَمۡثَالِهَا‌ۖ

(Whoever brings a good deed shall have ten times the like thereof to his credit,)

« اليوم بعشرة أيام »

(Therefore, a day earns ten days.) At-Tirmidhi said; "This Hadith is Hasan''. There are many other Hadiths and statements on this subject, but what we mentioned should be sufficient, Allah willing, and our trust is in Him.

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّنِى هَدَٮٰنِى رَبِّىٓ إِلَىٰ صِرَٲطٍ۬ مُّسۡتَقِيمٍ۬ دِينً۬ا قِيَمً۬ا مِّلَّةَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ حَنِيفً۬ا‌ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ قُلۡ إِنَّ صَلَاتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحۡيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَبِذَٲلِكَ أُمِرۡتُ وَأَنَا۟ أَوَّلُ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

(161. Say: "Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan (monotheism) and he was not of the Mushrikin.") (162. Say: "Verily, my Salah, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists.'') (163. "He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.")

Islam is the Straight Path

Allah commands His Prophet , the chief of the Messengers, to convey the news of being guided to Allah's straight path. This path is neither wicked, nor deviant,

﴿ دِينً۬ا قِيَمً۬ا

(a right religion...) that is, established on firm grounds,

﴿ مِّلَّةَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ حَنِيفً۬ا‌ۚ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ

(The religion of Ibrahim, Hanifan and he was not of the Mushrikin.) Allah said in similar Ayat,

﴿ وَمَن يَرۡغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفۡسَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim except him who deludes himself) (2:130), and,

﴿ وَجَـٰهِدُواْ فِى ٱللَّهِ حَقَّ جِهَادِهِۦ‌ۚ هُوَ ٱجۡتَبَٮٰكُمۡ وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فِى ٱلدِّينِ مِنۡ حَرَجٍ۬‌ۚ مِّلَّةَ أَبِيكُمۡ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ‌ۚ

(And strive hard in Allah's cause as you ought to strive. He has chosen you, and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship: it is the religion of your father Ibrahim.) (22:78), and,

﴿ إِنَّ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً۬ قَانِتً۬ا لِّلَّهِ حَنِيفً۬ا وَلَمۡ يَكُ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ شَاڪِرً۬ا لِّأَنۡعُمِهِ‌ۚ ٱجۡتَبَٮٰهُ وَهَدَٮٰهُ إِلَىٰ صِرَٲطٍ۬ مُّسۡتَقِيمٍ۬ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةً۬‌ۖ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ لَمِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ ثُمَّ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ أَنِ ٱتَّبِعۡ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ حَنِيفً۬ا‌ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ

(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (or a nation), obedient to Allah, a Hanif, and he was not one of the Mushrikin. (He was) thankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. Then, We have sent the revelation to you (saying): "Follow the religion of Ibrahim, (he was a) Hanif, and he was not of the Mushrikin'') (16:120-123). Ordering the Prophet to follow the religion of Ibrahim, the Hanifiyyah, does not mean that Prophet Ibrahim reached more perfection in it than our Prophet . Rather, our Prophet perfectly established the religion and it was completed for him; and none before him reached this level of perfection. This is why he is the Final Prophet, the chief of all the Children of Adam who holds the station of praise and glory, the honor of intercession on the Day of Resurrection. All creation (on that Day) will seek him, even Ibrahim the friend of Allah, peace be upon him (to request the beginning of Judgement). Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah was asked, `Which religion is the best with Allah, the Exalted' He said,

« الْحَنِيفِيَّةُ السَّمْحَة »

(Al-Hanifiyyah As-Samhah (the easy monotheism))''

The Command for Sincerity in Worship

Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّ صَلَاتِى وَنُسُكِى وَمَحۡيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِى لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(Say: "Verily, my Salah, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the all that exists.") Allah commands the Prophet to inform the idolators who worship other than Allah and sacrifice to something other than Him, that he opposes them in all this, for his prayer is for Allah, and his rituals are in His Name alone, without partners. Allah said in a similar statement,

﴿ فَصَلِّ لِرَبِّكَ وَٱنۡحَرۡ

(Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice.) (108:2), meaning, make your prayer and sacrifice for Allah alone. As for the idolators, they used to worship the idols and sacrifice to them, so Allah commanded the Prophet to defy them and contradict their practices. Allah, the Exalted, commanded him to dedicate his intention and heart to being sincere for Him alone. Mujahid commented,

﴿ إِنَّ صَلَاتِى وَنُسُكِى

(Verily, my prayer and my Nusuk...) refers to sacrificing during Hajj and `Umrah.

Islam is the Religion of all Prophets

The Ayah,

﴿ وَأَنَا۟ أَوَّلُ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

(and I am the first of the Muslims.) means, from this Ummah, according to Qatadah. This is a sound meaning, because all Prophets before our Prophet were calling to Islam, which commands worshipping Allah alone without partners. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِىٓ إِلَيۡهِ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱعۡبُدُونِ

(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "None has the right to be worshipped but I, so worship Me.'') (21:25) Allah informed us that Nuh said to his people,

﴿ فَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ فَمَا سَأَلۡتُكُم مِّنۡ أَجۡرٍ‌ۖ إِنۡ أَجۡرِىَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَأُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

(But if you turn away, then no reward have I asked of you, my reward is only from Allah, and I have been commanded to be of the Muslims.) (10:72) Allah said,

﴿ وَمَن يَرۡغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفۡسَهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَلَقَدِ ٱصۡطَفَيۡنَـٰهُ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ لَمِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ إِذۡ قَالَ لَهُ ۥ رَبُّهُ ۥۤ أَسۡلِمۡ‌ۖ قَالَ أَسۡلَمۡتُ لِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ وَوَصَّىٰ بِہَآ إِبۡرَٲهِـۧمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعۡقُوبُ يَـٰبَنِىَّ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱصۡطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ ٱلدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ

(And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim except him who deludes himself Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the all that exists.'' And this was enjoined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Ya`qub (saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.") (2:130-132). Yusuf, peace be upon him, said,

﴿ رَبِّ قَدۡ ءَاتَيۡتَنِى مِنَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ وَعَلَّمۡتَنِى مِن تَأۡوِيلِ ٱلۡأَحَادِيثِ‌ۚ فَاطِرَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَنتَ وَلِىِّۦ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ تَوَفَّنِى مُسۡلِمً۬ا وَأَلۡحِقۡنِى بِٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ

(My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty, and taught me something of the interpretation of dreams -- the (Only) Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Wali (Protector) in this world and in the Hereafter. Cause me to die as a Muslim, and join me with the righteous.) (12:101) Musa said,

﴿ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَـٰقَوۡمِ إِن كُنتُمۡ ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ فَعَلَيۡهِ تَوَكَّلُوٓاْ إِن كُنتُم مُّسۡلِمِينَ فَقَالُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ تَوَكَّلۡنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجۡعَلۡنَا فِتۡنَةً۬ لِّلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ وَنَجِّنَا بِرَحۡمَتِكَ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(And Musa said: "O my people! If you have believed in Allah, then put your trust in Him if you are Muslims." They said: "In Allah we put our trust. Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the folk who are wrongdoers. And save us by your mercy from the disbelieving folk'') (10:84-86) Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَا ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةَ فِيہَا هُدً۬ى وَنُورٌ۬‌ۚ يَحۡكُمُ بِہَا ٱلنَّبِيُّونَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسۡلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَٱلرَّبَّـٰنِيُّونَ وَٱلۡأَحۡبَارُ

(Verily, We did send down the Tawrah, therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to Allah's will, judged for the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests (did also).) (5:44), and,

﴿ وَإِذۡ أَوۡحَيۡتُ إِلَى ٱلۡحَوَارِيِّـۧنَ أَنۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِى وَبِرَسُولِى قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَٱشۡہَدۡ بِأَنَّنَا مُسۡلِمُونَ

(And when I (Allah) inspired Al-Hawariyyun (the disciples) ﴿of `Isa to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: "We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims.") (5:111) Therefore, Allah states that He sent all His Messengers with the religion of Islam, although their respective laws differed from each other, and some of them abrogated others. Later on, the Law sent with Muhammad abrogated all previous laws and nothing will ever abrogate it, forever. Certainly, Muhammad's Law will always be apparent and its flags raised high, until the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet said,

« نَحْنُ مَعَاشِرُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ أَوْلَادُ عَلَّاتٍ دِينُنَا وَاحِد »

(We, the Prophets, are half brothers, but our religion is one.) Half brothers, mentioned in the Hadith, refers to the brothers to one father, but different mothers. Therefore, the religion, representing the one father, is one; worshipping Allah alone without partners, even though the laws which are like the different mothers in this parable, are different. Allah the Most High knows best. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali said that when the Messenger of Allah used to start the prayer with Takbir﴿ saying, "Allahu Akbar'' (Allah is the Great) he would then supplicate,

« وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي للهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين »

(I have directed my face towards He Who has created the heavens and earth, Hanifan and I am not among the Mushrikin. Certainly, my prayer, sacrifice, living and dying are all for Allah, Lord of the worlds.)

« اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الْمَلِكُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ، أَنْتَ رَبِّي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَاعْتَرَفْتُ بِذَنْبِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي ذُنُوبِي جَمِيعًا لَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ، وَاهْدِنِي لِأَحْسَنِ الْأَخْلَاقِ لَا يَهْدِي لِأَحْسَنِهَا إِلَّا أَنْتَ، وَاصْرِفْ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا لَا يَصْرِفُ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا إِلَّا أَنْتَ، تَبَارَكْتَ وَتَعَالَيْتَ، أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْك »

(O Allah! You are the King, there is no deity worthy of worship except You. You are my Lord and I am Your servant. I have committed wrong against myself and admitted to my error, so forgive me all my sins. Verily, You, only You forgive the sins. (O Allah!) Direct me to the best conduct, for none except You directs to the best conduct. Divert me from the worst conduct, for only You divert from the worst conduct. Glorified and Exalted You are. I seek Your forgiveness and repent to You.) This Hadith, which was also recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, continues and mentions the Prophet's supplication in his bowing, prostrating and final sitting positions.

﴿ قُلۡ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَبۡغِى رَبًّ۬ا وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ وَلَا تَكۡسِبُ ڪُلُّ نَفۡسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ۬ وِزۡرَ أُخۡرَىٰ‌ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُم مَّرۡجِعُكُمۡ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ فِيهِ تَخۡتَلِفُونَ

(164. Say: "Shall I seek a lord other than Allah, while He is the Lord of all things No person earns any (sin) except against himself (only), and no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. Then unto your Lord is your return, so He will tell you that wherein you have been differing.")

The Command to Sincerely Trust in Allah

Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say), O Muhammad , to those idolators, about worshipping Allah alone and trusting in Him,

﴿ أَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ أَبۡغِى رَبًّ۬ا

(Shall I seek a lord other than Allah...) (6:164),

﴿ وَهُوَ رَبُّ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ

(while He is the Lord of all things ) and Who protects and saves me and governs all my affairs But, I only trust in Him and go back to Him, because He is the Lord of everything, Owner of all things and His is the creation and the decision. This Ayah commands sincerely trusting Allah, while the Ayah before it commands sincerely worshipping Allah alone without partners. These two meanings are often mentioned together in the Qur'an. Allah directs His servants to proclaim,

﴿ إِيَّاكَ نَعۡبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسۡتَعِينُ

(You (alone) we worship, and You (alone) we ask for help (for each and every thing).) (1:5) Allah said,

﴿ فَٱعۡبُدۡهُ وَتَوَڪَّلۡ عَلَيۡهِ‌ۚ

(So worship Him and put your trust in Him.) (11:123), and

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ءَامَنَّا بِهِۦ وَعَلَيۡهِ تَوَكَّلۡنَا‌ۖ

(Say: "He is the Most Gracious (Allah), in Him we believe, and in Him we put our trust''.) (67:29), and,

﴿ رَّبُّ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقِ وَٱلۡمَغۡرِبِ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَٱتَّخِذۡهُ وَكِيلاً۬

(Lord of the east and the west; none has the right to be worshipped but He. So take Him a guardian.) (73:9) There are similar Ayat on this subject.

Every Person Carries His Own Burden

Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا تَكۡسِبُ ڪُلُّ نَفۡسٍ إِلَّا عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ۬ وِزۡرَ أُخۡرَىٰ‌ۚ

(No person earns any (sin) except against himself (only), and no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another.) thus emphasizing Allah's reckoning, decision and justice that will occur on the Day of Resurrection. The souls will only be recompensed for their deeds, good for good and evil for evil. No person shall carry the burden of another person, a fact that indicates Allah's perfect justice. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَإِن تَدۡعُ مُثۡقَلَةٌ إِلَىٰ حِمۡلِهَا لَا يُحۡمَلۡ مِنۡهُ شَىۡءٌ۬ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰٓۗ

(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.) (35:18), and,

﴿ فَلَا يَخَافُ ظُلۡمً۬ا وَلَا هَضۡمً۬ا

(Then he will have no fear of injustice, nor of any curtailment (of his reward).) (20:112) Scholars of Tafsir commented, "No person will be wronged by carrying the evil deeds of another person, nor will his own good deeds be curtailed or decreased.'' Allah also said;

﴿ كُلُّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتۡ رَهِينَةٌ إِلَّآ أَصۡحَـٰبَ ٱلۡيَمِينِ

(Every person is a pledge for what he has earned. Except those on the Right.) (74:38-39), meaning, every person will be tied to his evil deeds. But, for those on the right -- the believers -- the blessing of their good works will benefit their offspring and relatives, as well. Allah said in Surat At-Tur,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَٱتَّبَعَتۡہُمۡ ذُرِّيَّتُہُم بِإِيمَـٰنٍ أَلۡحَقۡنَا بِہِمۡ ذُرِّيَّتَہُمۡ وَمَآ أَلَتۡنَـٰهُم مِّنۡ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) (52:21), meaning, We shall elevate their offspring to their high grades in Paradise, even though the deeds of the offspring were less righteous, since they shared faith with them in its general form. Allah says, We did not decrease the grades of these righteous believers so that those (their offspring and relatives) who have lesser grades, can share the same grades as them. Rather Allah elevated the lesser believers to the grades of their parents by the blessing of their parents' good works, by His favor and bounty. Allah said next (in Surat At-Tur),

﴿ كُلُّ ٱمۡرِىِٕۭ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِينٌ۬

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) (52:21), meaning, of evil. Allah's statement here,

﴿ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُم مَّرۡجِعُكُمۡ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمۡ فِيهِ تَخۡتَلِفُونَ

(Then unto your Lord is your return, so He will tell you that wherein you have been differing.) means, work you (disbelievers), and we will also work. Surely, both you and us will be gathered to Allah and He will inform us of our deeds and your deeds and the decision on what we used to dispute about in the life of this world. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ قُل لَّا تُسۡـَٔلُونَ عَمَّآ أَجۡرَمۡنَا وَلَا نُسۡـَٔلُ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ قُلۡ يَجۡمَعُ بَيۡنَنَا رَبُّنَا ثُمَّ يَفۡتَحُ بَيۡنَنَا بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَهُوَ ٱلۡفَتَّاحُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ

(Say: "You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do." Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all together, then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.") (34:25-26).

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَڪُمۡ خَلَـٰٓٮِٕفَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعۡضَكُمۡ فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ۬ دَرَجَـٰتٍ۬ لِّيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ فِى مَآ ءَاتَٮٰكُمۡ‌ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَغَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمُۢ

(165. And it is He Who has made you generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth. And He has raised you in ranks, some above others that He may try you in that which He has bestowed on you. Surely, your Lord is Swift in retribution, and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Allah Made Mankind Dwellers on the earth, Generation After Generation, of Various Grades, in order to Test Them

Allah said,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَڪُمۡ خَلَـٰٓٮِٕفَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(And it is He Who has made you generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth.) meaning, He made you dwell on the earth generation after generation, century after century and offspring after forefathers, according to Ibn Zayd and others. Allah also said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ نَشَآءُ لَجَعَلۡنَا مِنكُم مَّلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةً۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ يَخۡلُفُونَ

(And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth) (43:60), and,

﴿ وَيَجۡعَلُڪُمۡ خُلَفَآءَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ

(And makes you inheritors of the Earth, generations after generations.) (27:62), and

﴿ إِنِّى جَاعِلٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ خَلِيفَةً۬‌ۖ

(Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.) (2:30), and,

﴿ عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمۡ أَن يُهۡلِكَ عَدُوَّڪُمۡ وَيَسۡتَخۡلِفَڪُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَيَنظُرَ ڪَيۡفَ تَعۡمَلُونَ

(It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth, so that He may see how you act.) (7:129) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَرَفَعَ بَعۡضَكُمۡ فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ۬ دَرَجَـٰتٍ۬

(And He has raised you in ranks, some above others,) means, He has made you different from each other with regards to provision, conduct, qualities, evilness, shapes, color of skin, and so forth, and He has the perfect wisdom in all this. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ نَحۡنُ قَسَمۡنَا بَيۡنَہُم مَّعِيشَتَہُمۡ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۚ وَرَفَعۡنَا بَعۡضَہُمۡ فَوۡقَ بَعۡضٍ۬ دَرَجَـٰتٍ۬ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعۡضُہُم بَعۡضً۬ا سُخۡرِيًّ۬ا‌ۗ

(It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world, and We raised some of them above others in ranks, so that some may employ others in their work.) (43:32), and,

﴿ ٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَہُمۡ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬‌ۚ وَلَلۡأَخِرَةُ أَكۡبَرُ دَرَجَـٰتٍ۬ وَأَكۡبَرُ تَفۡضِيلاً۬

(See how We prefer one above another (in this world), and verily, the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.) (17:21) Allah's statement,

﴿ لِّيَبۡلُوَكُمۡ فِى مَآ ءَاتَٮٰكُمۡ‌ۗ

(that He may try you in that which He has bestowed on you.) means, so that He tests you in what He has granted you, for Allah tries the rich concerning his wealth and will ask him about how he appreciated it. He also tries the poor concerning his poverty and will ask him about his patience with it. Muslim recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا حُلْوَةٌ خَضِرَةٌ وَإِنَّ اللهَ مُسْتَخْلِفُكُمْ فِيهَا فَنَاظِرٌ مَاذَا تَعْمَلُونَ، فَاتَّقُوا الدُّنْيَا وَاتَّقُوا النِّسَاءَ فَإِنَّ أَوَّلَ فِتْنَةِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَانَتْ فِي النِّسَاء »

(Verily, this life is beautiful and green, and Allah made you dwell in it generation after generation so that He sees what you will do. Therefore, beware of this life and beware of women, for the first trial that the Children of Israel suffered from was with women.) Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَغَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمُۢ

(Surely, your Lord is swift in retribution, and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) this is both discouragement and encouragement, by reminding the believers that Allah is swift in reckoning and punishment with those who disobey Him and defy His Messengers,

﴿ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَغَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(And certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for those who take Him as protector and follow His Messengers in the news and commandments they conveyed. Allah often mentions these two attributes together in the Qur'an. Allah said,

﴿ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغۡفِرَةٍ۬ لِّلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ ظُلۡمِهِمۡ‌ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَشَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ

(But verily, your Lord is full of forgiveness for mankind in spite of their wrongdoing. And verily, your Lord is (also) severe in punishment) (13:6), and,

﴿ نَبِّئۡ عِبَادِىٓ أَنِّىٓ أَنَا ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ وَأَنَّ عَذَابِى هُوَ ٱلۡعَذَابُ ٱلۡأَلِيمُ

(Declare unto My servants, that truly, I am the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. And that My torment is indeed the most painful torment.) (15:49-50) There are similar Ayat that contain encouragement and discouragement. Sometimes Allah calls His servants to Him with encouragement, describing Paradise and making them eager for what He has with Him. Sometimes, He calls His servants with discouragement, mentioning the Fire and its torment and punishment, as well as, the Day of Resurrection and its horrors. Sometimes Allah mentions both so that each person is affected by it according to his or her qualities. We ask Allah that He makes us among those who obey what He has commanded, avoid what He has prohibited, and believe in Him as He has informed. Certainly, He is Near, hears and answers the supplication, and He is the Most Kind, Generous and Bestowing. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَوْ يَعْلَمُ الْمُؤْمِنُ مَا عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنَ الْعُقُوبَةِ مَا طَمِعَ بِجَنَّتِهِ أَحَدٌ، وَلَوْ يَعْلَمُ الْكَافِرُ مَا عِنْدَ اللهِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ مَا قَنَطَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ، خَلَقَ اللهُ مِائَةَ رَحْمَةٍ فَوَضَعَ وَاحِدَةً بَيْنَ خَلْقِهِ يَتَرَاحَمُونَ بِهَا وَعِنْدَ اللهِ تِسْعَةٌ وَتِسْعُون »

(If the believer knew Allah's punishment, no one will hope in entering His Paradise. And if the disbeliever knew Allah's mercy, no one will feel hopeless of acquiring Paradise. Allah created a hundred kinds of mercy. He sent down one of them to His creation, and they are merciful to each other on that account. With Allah, there remains ninety-nine kinds of mercy.) Muslim and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said "Hasan''. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَمَّا خَلَقَ اللهُ الْخَلْقَ كَتَبَ فِي كِتَابٍ فَهُوَ عِنْدَهُ فَوْقَ الْعَرْشِ إِنَّ رَحْمَتِي تَغْلِبُ غَضَبِي »

(When Allah created the creation, He wrote in a Book, and this Book is with Him above the Throne: `My mercy overcomes My anger.') This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-An`am, all the thanks and appreciation for Allah.