Allah informs the Children of Adam about the honor of their father and the enmity of Shaytan, who still has envy for them and for their father Adam. So they should beware of him and not follow in his footsteps. Allah said,
(And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, "Prostrate yourselves to Adam,'' and they prostrated,) This is like His saying,
(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "I am going to create a man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him the soul (which I created for him), then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.'') (15:28-29). After Allah created Adam with His Hands from dried clay of altered mud and made him in the shape of a human being, He blew life into him and ordered the angels to prostrate before him, honoring Allah's glory and magnificence. The angels all heard, obeyed and prostrated, but Iblis did not prostrate. We explained this subject in the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah. Therefore, the Ayah (7:11) refers to Adam, although Allah used the plural in this case, because Adam is the father of all mankind. Similarly, Allah said to the Children of Israel who lived during the time of the Prophet ,
(And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you manna and the quail,) (2:57) This refers to their forefathers who lived during the time of Moses. But, since that was a favor given to the forefathers, and they are their very source, then the offspring have also been favored by it. This is not the case in:
(And indeed We created man out of an extract of clay (water and earth.)) (23:12) For this merely means that Adam was created from clay. His children were created from Nutfah (mixed male and female sexual discharge). This last Ayah is thus talking about the origin of mankind, not that they were all created from clay, and Allah knows best.
(12. (Allah) said: "What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you'' Iblis said: "I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.'') Allah said,
(What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate) (7: 12) meaning, what stopped and hindered you from prostrating after I ordered you to do so, according to Ibn Jarir. This meaning is sound, and Allah knows best. Iblis, may Allah curse him, said,
(I am better than him (Adam)), and this excuse is worse than the crime itself! Shaytan said that he did not obey Allah because he who is better cannot prostrate to he who is less. Shaytan, may Allah curse him, meant that he is better than Adam, "So how can You order me to prostrate before him'' Shaytan said that he is better than Adam because he was created from fire while, "You created him from clay, and fire is better.'' The cursed one looked at the origin of creation not at the honor bestowed, that is, Allah creating Adam with His Hand and blowing life into him. Shaytan made a false comparison when confronted by Allah's command,
("Then you fall down prostrate to him'') (38:72). Therefore, Shaytan alone contradicted the angels, because he refused to prostrate. He, thus, became `Ablasa' from the mercy, meaning, lost hope in acquiring Allah's mercy. He committed this error, may Allah curse him, due to his false comparison. His claim that the fire is more honored than mud was also false, because mud has the qualities of wisdom, for - bearance, patience and assurance, mud is where plants grow, flourish, increase, and provide good. To the contrary, fire has the qualities of burning, recklessness and hastiness. Therefore, the origin of creation directed Shaytan to failure, while the origin of Adam led him to return to Allah with repentance, humbleness, obedience and submission to His command, admitting his error and seeking Allah's forgiveness and pardon for it. Muslim recorded that `Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The angels were created from light, Shaytan from a smokeless flame of fire, while Adam was created from what was described to you).
Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on Shaytan's statement,
("You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.'') "Iblis used Qiyas (analogy), and he was the first one to do so.'' This statement has an authentic chain of narration. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Sirin said, "The first to use Qiyas was Iblis, and would the sun and moon be worshipped if it was not for Qiyas'' This statement also has an authentic chain of narration.
(13. (Allah) said: "(O Iblis) get down from this (Paradise), it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.'') (14. (Iblis) said: "Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (the Day of Resurrection).'') (15. (Allah) said: "You are of those respited.'') Allah ordered Iblis;
(Get down from this) "because you defied My command and disobeyed Me. Get out, it is not for you to be arrogant here,'' in Paradise, according to the scholars of Tafsir. It could also refer to particular status which he held in the utmost highs. Allah said to Iblis,
(Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.) as just recompense for his ill intentions, by giving him the opposite of what he intended (arrogance). This is when the cursed one remembered and asked for respite until the Day of Judgment,
(Then allow me respite till the Day they are raised up. (Allah) said: "Then you are of those respited.'') (15: 36-37) Allah gave Shaytan what he asked for out of His wisdom, being His decision and decree, that is never prevented or resisted. Surely, none can avert His decision, and He is swift in reckoning.
(16. (Iblis) said: "Because You have `Aghwaytani', surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path. (17. "Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them to be thankful.'') Allah said that after He gave respite to Shaytan,
(till the Day they are raised up (resurrected)) and Iblis was sure that he got what he wanted, he went on in defiance and rebellion. He said,
("Because You have `Aghwaytani', surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path.'') meaning, as You have sent me astray. Ibn `Abbas said that `Aghwaytani' means, "Misguided me.'' Others said, "As You caused my ruin, I will sit in wait for Your servants whom You will create from the offspring of the one you expelled me for.'' He went on,
(Your straight path), the path of truth and the way of safety. I (Iblis) will misguide them from this path so that they do not worship You Alone, because You sent me astray. Mujahid said that the `straight path', refers to the truth. Imam Ahmad recorded that Saburah bin Abi Al-Fakih said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Shaytan sat in wait for the Son of Adam in all his paths. He sat in the path of Islam, saying, `Would you embrace Islam and abandon your religion and the religion of your forefathers' However, the Son of Adam disobeyed Shaytan and embraced Islam. So Shaytan sat in the path of Hijrah (migration in the cause of Allah), saying, `Would you migrate and leave your land and sky' But the parable of the Muhajir is that of a horse in his stamina So, he disobeyed Shaytan and migrated. So Shaytan sat in the path of Jihad, against one's self and with his wealth, saying, `If you fight, you will be killed, your wife will be married and your wealth divided.' So he disobeyed him and performed Jihad. Therefore, whoever among them (Children of Adam) does this and dies, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If he is killed, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If he drowns, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise. If the animal breaks his neck, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on:
(Then I will come to them from before them) Raising doubts in them concerning their Hereafter,
(and (from) behind them), making them more eager for this life,
(from their right), causing them confusion in the religion,
(and from their left) luring them to commit sins.'' This is meant to cover all paths of good and evil. Shaytan discourages the people from the path of good and lures them to the path of evil. Al-Hakam bin Abban said that `Ikrimah narrated from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah,
(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left,) "He did not say that he will come from above them, because the mercy descends from above.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(and You will not find most of them to be thankful.) "means, those who single Him out (in worship).'' When Shaytan said this, it was a guess and an assumption on his part. Yet, the truth turned out to be the same, for Allah said,
(And indeed Iblis (Shaytan) did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers. And he had no authority over them, except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything.) (34:20-21). This is why there is a Hadith that encourages seeking refuge with Allah from the lures of Shaytan from all directions. Imam Ahmad narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah used to often recite this supplication in the morning and when the night falls,
(O Allah! I ask You for well-being in this life and the Hereafter. O Allah! I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religion, life, family and wealth. O Allah! Cover my errors and reassure me in times of difficulty. O Allah! Protect me from before me, from behind me, from my right, from my left and from above me. I seek refuge with Your greatness from being killed from below me.)'' Waki` commented (about being killed from below), "This refers to earthquakes.'' Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim collected this Hadith, and Al-Hakim said, "Its chain is Sahih. ''
(18. (Allah) said (to Iblis): "Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.'') Allah emphasized His cursing, expelling, banishing and turning Shaytan away from the uppermost heights, saying; Ibn Jarir said, "As for Madh'um, it is disgraced.'' And he said, "Madhur is the distanced, that is, he is banished and expelled.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "We do not know of any who is Madh'uh and Madhmum except for one.'' Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Ishaq from At-Tamimi from Ibn `Abbas,
(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura) "despised.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on,
(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura) (7:18) "Belittled and despised'', while As-Suddi commented, "Hateful and expelled.'' Qatadah commented, "Cursed and despised'', while Mujahid said, "Expelled and banished.'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that `Madh'um' means banished, while, `Madhura' means belittled. Allah said,
(Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.) This is similar to
((Allah) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense. And gradually delude those whom you can among them with your voice, make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry, share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.'' But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit. "Verily, My servants -- you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.'') (17:63-65)
(19. "And O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in Paradise, and eat thereof as you both wish, but approach not this tree otherwise you both will be of the wrongdoers.) (20. Then Shaytan whispered suggestions to them both in order to uncover that which was hidden from them of their private parts (before); he said: "Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.'') (21. And he Qasamahuma: "Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.'')
Allah states that He allowed Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise and to eat from all of its fruits, except one tree. We have already discussed this in Surat Al-Baqarah. Thus, Shaytan envied them and plotted deceitfully, whispering and suggesting treachery. He wished to rid them of the various favors and nice clothes that they were enjoying.
(He (Shaytan) said) uttering lies and falsehood,
("Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels...'') meaning, so that you do not become angels or dwell here for eternity. Surely, if you eat from this tree, you will attain both, he said. In another Ayah,
(Shaytan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away'') (20:120). Here, the wording is similar, so it means, `so that you do not become angels' as in;
((Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. ) (4:176) meaning, so that you do not go astray, and,
(And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you;) (16:15) that is, so that the earth does not shake with you.
(And he Qasamahuma), swore to them both by Allah, saying,
("Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.'') for I was here before you and thus have better knowledge of this place. It is a fact that the believer in Allah might sometimes become the victim of deceit. Qatadah commented on this Ayah, "Shaytan swore by Allah, saying, `I was created before you, and I have better knowledge than you. Therefore, follow me and I will direct you.'''
(22. So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytan is an open enemy unto you'') (23. They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.'') Ubayy bin Ka`b said, "Adam was a tall man, about the height of a palm tree, and he had thick hair on his head. When he committed the error that he committed, his private part appeared to him while before, he did not see it. So he started running in fright through Paradise, but a tree in Paradise took him by the head. He said to it, `Release me,' but it said, `No, I will not release you.' So his Lord called him, `O Adam! Do you run away from Me' He said, `O Lord! I felt ashamed before You.''' Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah collected this statement using several chains of narration from Al-Hasan from Ubayy bin Ka`b who narrated it from the Prophet . However, relating the Hadith to Ubayy is more correct. Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,
(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise.) "Using fig leaves.'' This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid said that they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise, "Making them as a dress (or garment).'' Commenting on Allah's statement,
(Stripping them of their raiment) (7:27) Wahb bin Munabbih said, "The private parts of Adam and Hawwa' had a light covering them which prevented them from seeing the private parts of each other. When they ate from the tree, their private parts appeared to them.'' Ibn Jarir reported this statement with an authentic chain of narration. Abdur-Razzaq reported from Qatadah, "Adam said, `O Lord! What if I repented and sought forgiveness' Allah said, `Then, I will admit you into Paradise.' As for Shaytan, he did not ask for forgiveness, but for respite. Each one of them was given what he asked for.'' Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim commented,
("Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.'') "These are the words that Adam received from his Lord.''
(24. (Allah) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.'') (25. He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).'')