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Shaytan's Deceit with Adam and Hawwa' and Their eating from the Forbidden Tree

Allah states that He allowed Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise and to eat from all of its fruits, except one tree. We have already discussed this in Surat Al-Baqarah. Thus, Shaytan envied them and plotted deceitfully, whispering and suggesting treachery. He wished to rid them of the various favors and nice clothes that they were enjoying.

﴿ وَقَالَ

(He (Shaytan) said) uttering lies and falsehood,

﴿ مَا نَہَٮٰكُمَا رَبُّكُمَا عَنۡ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلشَّجَرَةِ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَا مَلَكَيۡنِ

("Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels...'') meaning, so that you do not become angels or dwell here for eternity. Surely, if you eat from this tree, you will attain both, he said. In another Ayah,

﴿ قَالَ يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ هَلۡ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ ٱلۡخُلۡدِ وَمُلۡكٍ۬ لَّا يَبۡلَىٰ

(Shaytan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away'') (20:120). Here, the wording is similar, so it means, `so that you do not become angels' as in;

﴿ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَڪُمۡ أَن تَضِلُّواْ‌ۗ

((Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. ) (4:176) meaning, so that you do not go astray, and,

﴿ وَأَلۡقَىٰ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ رَوَٲسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمۡ

(And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you;) (16:15) that is, so that the earth does not shake with you.

﴿ وَقَاسَمَهُمَآ

(And he Qasamahuma), swore to them both by Allah, saying,

﴿ إِنِّى لَكُمَا لَمِنَ ٱلنَّـٰصِحِينَ

("Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.'') for I was here before you and thus have better knowledge of this place. It is a fact that the believer in Allah might sometimes become the victim of deceit. Qatadah commented on this Ayah, "Shaytan swore by Allah, saying, `I was created before you, and I have better knowledge than you. Therefore, follow me and I will direct you.'''

﴿ فَدَلَّٮٰهُمَا بِغُرُورٍ۬‌ۚ فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا ٱلشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتۡ لَهُمَا سَوۡءَٲتُہُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡہِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ وَنَادَٮٰهُمَا رَبُّہُمَآ أَلَمۡ أَنۡہَكُمَا عَن تِلۡكُمَا ٱلشَّجَرَةِ وَأَقُل لَّكُمَآ إِنَّ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنَ لَكُمَا عَدُوٌّ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬ قَالَا رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَتَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ

(22. So he misled them with deception. Then when they tasted of the tree, that which was hidden from them of their shame (private parts) became manifest to them and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise. And their Lord called out to them (saying): "Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily, Shaytan is an open enemy unto you'') (23. They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.'') Ubayy bin Ka`b said, "Adam was a tall man, about the height of a palm tree, and he had thick hair on his head. When he committed the error that he committed, his private part appeared to him while before, he did not see it. So he started running in fright through Paradise, but a tree in Paradise took him by the head. He said to it, `Release me,' but it said, `No, I will not release you.' So his Lord called him, `O Adam! Do you run away from Me' He said, `O Lord! I felt ashamed before You.''' Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah collected this statement using several chains of narration from Al-Hasan from Ubayy bin Ka`b who narrated it from the Prophet . However, relating the Hadith to Ubayy is more correct. Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

﴿ وَطَفِقَا يَخۡصِفَانِ عَلَيۡہِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ

(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise.) "Using fig leaves.'' This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid said that they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise, "Making them as a dress (or garment).'' Commenting on Allah's statement,

﴿ يَنزِعُ عَنۡہُمَا لِبَاسَہُمَا

(Stripping them of their raiment) (7:27) Wahb bin Munabbih said, "The private parts of Adam and Hawwa' had a light covering them which prevented them from seeing the private parts of each other. When they ate from the tree, their private parts appeared to them.'' Ibn Jarir reported this statement with an authentic chain of narration. Abdur-Razzaq reported from Qatadah, "Adam said, `O Lord! What if I repented and sought forgiveness' Allah said, `Then, I will admit you into Paradise.' As for Shaytan, he did not ask for forgiveness, but for respite. Each one of them was given what he asked for.'' Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim commented,

﴿ رَبَّنَا ظَلَمۡنَآ أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمۡ تَغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَتَرۡحَمۡنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ

("Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.'') "These are the words that Adam received from his Lord.''

﴿ قَالَ ٱهۡبِطُواْ بَعۡضُكُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ عَدُوٌّ۬‌ۖ وَلَكُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ۬ وَمَتَـٰعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ۬ قَالَ فِيہَا تَحۡيَوۡنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنۡہَا تُخۡرَجُونَ

(24. (Allah) said: "Get down, one of you an enemy to the other. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.'') (25. He said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).'')

Sending Them All Down to Earth

It was said that,

﴿ ٱهۡبِطُواْ

(Get down), was addressed to Adam, Hawwa', Iblis and the snake. Some scholars did not mention the snake, and Allah knows best. The enmity is primarily between Adam and Iblis, and Hawwa' follows Adam in this regard. Allah said in Surah Ta Ha,

﴿ ٱهۡبِطَا مِنۡهَا جَمِيعَۢا‌ۖ

("Get you down (from the Paradise to the earth), both of you, together...'') (20:123). If the story about the snake is true, then it is a follower of Iblis. Some scholars mentioned the location on earth they were sent down, but these accounts are taken from the Israelite tales, and only Allah knows if they are true. If having known these areas was useful for the people in matters of religion or life, Allah would have mentioned them in His Book, and His Messenger would have mentioned them too. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَكُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مُسۡتَقَرٌّ۬ وَمَتَـٰعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ۬

(On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time.) means, on earth you will have dwellings and known, designated, appointed terms that have been recorded by the Pen, counted by Predestination and written in the First Record.

﴿ قَالَ فِيہَا تَحۡيَوۡنَ وَفِيهَا تَمُوتُونَ وَمِنۡہَا تُخۡرَجُونَ

(He (Allah) said: "Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).'') This Ayah is similar to Allah's other statement,

﴿ مِنۡہَا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ وَفِيہَا نُعِيدُكُمۡ وَمِنۡہَا نُخۡرِجُكُمۡ تَارَةً أُخۡرَىٰ

(Thereof (the earth) We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) (20:55). Allah states that He has made the earth a dwelling place for the Children of Adam, for the remainder of this earthly life. On it, they will live, die and be buried in their graves; and from it, they will be resurrected for the Day of Resurrection. On that Day, Allah will gather the first and last of creatures and reward or punish each according to his or her deeds.

﴿ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ قَدۡ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمۡ لِبَاسً۬ا يُوَٲرِى سَوۡءَٲتِكُمۡ وَرِيشً۬ا‌ۖ وَلِبَاسُ ٱلتَّقۡوَىٰ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ مِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَذَّكَّرُونَ

(26. O Children of Adam! We have bestowed Libas (raiment) upon you to cover yourselves with, and as Rish (adornment); and the Libas (raiment) of Taqwa, that is better. Such are among the Ayat of Allah, that they may remember.)

Bestowing Raiment and Adornment on Mankind

Allah reminds His servants that He has given them Libas and Rish. Libas refers to the clothes that are used to cover the private parts, while Rish refers to the outer adornments used for purposes of beautification. Therefore, the first type is essential while the second type is complimentary. Ibn Jarir said that Rish includes furniture and outer clothes. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam commented on the Ayah,

﴿ وَلِبَاسُ ٱلتَّقۡوَىٰ

(and the Libas (raiment) of Taqwa...) "When one fears Allah, Allah covers his errors. Hence the `Libas of Taqwa' (that the Ayah mentions).''

﴿ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ لَا يَفۡتِنَنَّڪُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ كَمَآ أَخۡرَجَ أَبَوَيۡكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ يَنزِعُ عَنۡہُمَا لِبَاسَہُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوۡءَٲتِہِمَآ‌ۗ إِنَّهُ ۥ يَرَٮٰكُمۡ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ ۥ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا تَرَوۡنَہُمۡ‌ۗ إِنَّا جَعَلۡنَا ٱلشَّيَـٰطِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(27. O Children of Adam! Let not Shaytan deceive you, as he got your parents out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment, to show them their private parts. Verily, he and his tribe see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the Shayatin friends of those who believe not.)

Warning against the Lures of Shaytan

Allah warns the Children of Adam against Iblis and his followers, by explaining about his ancient enmity for the father of mankind, Adam peace be upon him. Iblis plotted to have Adam expelled from Paradise, which is the dwelling of comfort, to the dwelling of hardship and fatigue (this life) and caused him to have his private part uncovered, after it had been hidden from him. This, indeed, is indicative of deep hatred (from Shaytan towards Adam and mankind). Allah said in a similar Ayah,

﴿ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ ۥ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِى وَهُمۡ لَكُمۡ عَدُوُّۢ‌ۚ بِئۡسَ لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَدَلاً۬

(Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me, while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.) (18:50).

﴿ وَإِذَا فَعَلُواْ فَـٰحِشَةً۬ قَالُواْ وَجَدۡنَا عَلَيۡہَآ ءَابَآءَنَا وَٱللَّهُ أَمَرَنَا بِہَا‌ۗ قُلۡ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَأۡمُرُ بِٱلۡفَحۡشَآءِ‌ۖ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ قُلۡ أَمَرَ رَبِّى بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ‌ۖ وَأَقِيمُواْ وُجُوهَكُمۡ عِندَ ڪُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ۬ وَٱدۡعُوهُ مُخۡلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَ‌ۚ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۗ إِنَّهُمُ ٱتَّخَذُواْ ٱلشَّيَـٰطِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّہُم مُّهۡتَدُونَ

(28. And when they commit a Fahishah, they say: "We found our fathers doing it, and Allah has commanded it for us.'' Say: "Nay, Allah never commands Fahishah. Do you say about Allah what you know not'') (29. Say: "My Lord has commanded justice and that you should face Him only, in every Masjid and invoke Him only, making your religion sincere to Him. As He brought you (into being) in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being again.'') (30. A group He has guided, and a group deserved to be in error; (because) surely, they took the Shayatin as supporters instead of Allah, and think that they are guided.)