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The Meaning of being brought into Being in the Beginning and brought back again

Allah's saying

﴿ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ

(As He brought you in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being again) (7:29).

﴿ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۗ

There is some difference over the meaning of:

﴿ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ

(As He brought you in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being again.) Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that it means, "He will bring you back to life after you die.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented, "As He made you begin in this life, He will bring you back to life on the Day of Resurrection.'' Qatadah commented on:

﴿ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ

(As He brought you in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being again.) "He started their creation after they were nothing, and they perished later on, and He shall bring them back again.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "As He created you in the beginning, He will bring you back in the end.'' This last explanation was preferred by Abu Ja`far Ibn Jarir and he supported it with what he reported from Ibn `Abbas, "The Messenger of Allah stood up and gave us a speech, saying,

« يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّكُمْ تُحْشَرُونَ إِلَى اللهِ حُفَاةً عُرَاةً غُرْلًا
﴿ كَمَا بَدَأۡنَآ أَوَّلَ خَلۡقٍ۬ نُّعِيدُهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَعۡدًا عَلَيۡنَآ‌ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا فَـٰعِلِينَ

(O people! You will be gathered to Allah while barefooted, naked and uncircumcised, (As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise binding upon Us. Truly, We shall do it)). (21:104) This Hadith was collected in the Two Sahihs. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

﴿ كَمَا بَدَأَكُمۡ تَعُودُونَ فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۗ

(As He brought you in the beginning, so shall you be brought into being again. A group He has guided, and a group deserved to be in error;) "Allah, the Exalted, began the creation of the Sons of Adam, some believers and some disbelievers, just as He said,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُمۡ فَمِنكُمۡ ڪَافِرٌ۬ وَمِنكُم مُّؤۡمِنٌ۬‌ۚ

(He it is Who created you, then some of you are disbelievers and some of you are believers) (64:2). He will then return them on the Day of Resurrection as He started them, some believers and some disbelievers. I say, what supports this meaning, is the Hadith from Ibn Mas`ud that Al-Bukhari recorded, (that the Prophet said:)

« فَوَالَّذِي لَا إِلَهَ غَيرُهُ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلَّا بَاعٌ أَوْ ذِرَاعٌ، فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا، وَإِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلَّا بَاعٌ أَوْ ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ، فَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّة »

(By He, other than Whom there is no god, one of you might perform the deeds of the people of Paradise until only the length of an arm or a forearm would separate him from it. However, that which was written in the Book takes precedence, and he commits the work of the people of the Fire and thus enters it. And one of you might perform the deeds of the people of the Fire until only the length of an arm or a forearm separates between him and the Fire. However, that which was written in the Book takes precedence, and he performs the work of the people of Paradise and thus enters Paradise.) We should combine this meaning -- if it is held to be the correct meaning for the Ayah -- with Allah's statement:

﴿ فَأَقِمۡ وَجۡهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفً۬ا‌ۚ فِطۡرَتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى فَطَرَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ

(So set you your face towards the religion, Hanifan. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind) (30:30), and what is recorded in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah who said that the Messenger of Allah said:

« كُلُّ مَوْلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ، فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ وَيُنَصِّرَانِهِ وَيُمَجِّسَانِه »

(Every child is born upon the Fitrah, it is only his parents who turn him into a Jew, a Christian or a Zoroastrian.) Muslim recorded that `Iyad bin Himar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالـى: إِنِّي خَلَقْتُ عِبَادِي حُنَفَاءَ، فَجَاءَتْهُمُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فَاجْتَالَتْهُمْ عَنْ دِينِهِم »

(Allah said, `I created My servants Hunafa' (monotheists), but the devils came to them and deviated them from their religion.) The collective meaning here is, Allah created His creatures so that some of them later turn believers and some turn disbelievers. Allah has originally created all of His servants able to recognize Him, to single Him out in worship, and know that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. He also took their covenant to fulfill the implications of this knowledge, which He placed in their consciousness and souls. He has decided that some of them will be miserable and some will be happy,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُمۡ فَمِنكُمۡ ڪَافِرٌ۬ وَمِنكُم مُّؤۡمِنٌ۬‌ۚ

(He it is Who created you, then some of you are disbelievers and some of you are believers) (64:2). Also, a Hadith states,

« كُلُّ النَّاسِ يَغْدُو فَبَائِعٌ نَفْسَهُ فَمُعْتِقُهَا أَوْ مُوبِقُهَا »

(All people go out in the morning and sell themselves, and some of them free themselves while some others destroy themselves.) Allah's decree will certainly come to pass in His creation. Verily, He it is

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى قَدَّرَ فَهَدَىٰ

(Who has measured (everything); and then guided) (87: 3), and,

﴿ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَعۡطَىٰ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلۡقَهُ ۥ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ

(He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright) (20:5). And in the Two Sahihs:

« فَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ فَسَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ، وَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاوَةِ فَسَيُيَسَّرُ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاوَة »

(As for those among you who are among the people of happiness, they will be facilitated to perform the deeds of the people of happiness. As for those who are among the miserable, they will be facilitated to commit the deeds of the miserable). This is why Allah said here,

﴿ فَرِيقًا هَدَىٰ وَفَرِيقًا حَقَّ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۗ

(A group He has guided, and a group deserved to be in error;) Allah then explained why,

﴿ إِنَّهُمُ ٱتَّخَذُواْ ٱلشَّيَـٰطِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ

(because) surely, they took the Shayatin as supporters instead of Allah). Ibn Jarir said, "This is one of the clearest arguments proving the mistake of those who claim that Allah does not punish anyone for disobedient acts he commits of deviations he believes in until after knowledge of what is correct reaches him, then he were to obstinately avoid it anyway. If this were true, then there would be no difference between the deviations of the misguided group - their belief that they are guided - and the group that is in fact guided. Yet Allah has differentiated between the two in this noble Ayah, doing so in both name and judgement.''

﴿ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ۬ وَڪُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ

(31. O Children of Adam! Take your adornment to every Masjid, and eat and drink, but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not the wasteful.)

Allah commands taking Adornment when going to the Masjid

This honorable Ayah refutes the idolators' practice of performing Tawaf around the Sacred House while naked. Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir, (the following wording is that of Ibn Jarir) recorded that Shu`bah said that Salamah bin Kuhayl said that Muslim Al-Batin said that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas said, "The idolators used to go around the House while naked, both men and women, men in the day and women by night. The woman would say, "Today, a part or all of it will be unveiled, but whatever is exposed of it, I do not allow.'' Allah said in reply,

﴿ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ۬

(Take your adornment to every Masjid,) Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented on:

﴿ خُذُواْ زِينَتَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ۬

(Take your adornment to every Masjid) "There were people who used to perform Tawaf around the House while naked, and Allah ordered them to take adornment, meaning, wear clean, proper clothes that cover the private parts. people were commanded to wear their best clothes when performing every prayer.'' Mujahid, `Ata', Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak and Malik narrated a similar saying from Az-Zuhri, and from several of the Salaf. They said that this Ayah was revealed about the idolators who used to perform Tawaf around the House while naked. This Ayah (7:31), as well as the Sunnah, encourage wearing the best clothes when praying, especially for Friday and `Id prayers. It is also recommended ﴿for men to wear perfume for prayer, because it is adornment, and to use Siwak for it is part of what completes adornment. The best color for clothes is white, for Imam Ahmad narrated that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« الْبَسُوا مِنْ ثِيَابِكُمُ الْبَيَاضَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنْ خَيْرِ ثِيَابِكُمْ، وَكَفِّنُوا فِيهَا مَوْتَاكُمْ وَإِنَّ خَيْرَ أَكْحَالِكُمُ الْإثْمَدُ فَإِنَّهُ يَجْلُو الْبَصَرَ وَيُنْبِتُ الشَّعَر »

(Wear white clothes, for it is among your best clothes, and also wrap your dead with it. And Ithmid (antimony) is among the best of your Kuhl, for it clears the sight and helps the hair grow.) This Hadith has a sound chain of narration, consisting of narrators who conform to the conditions and guidelines of Imam Muslim. Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded it, and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

Prohibiting Extravagance

Allah said,

﴿ وَكُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ

(And eat and drink..). Al-Bukhari said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Eat what you wish and wear what you wish, as long as you avoid two things: extravagance and arrogance.'' Ibn Jarir said that Muhammad bin `Abdul-A`la narrated to us that Muhammad bin Thawr narrated to us from Ma`mar from Ibn Tawus from his father who said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Allah has allowed eating and drinking, as long as it does not contain extravagance or arrogance.'' This chain is Sahih. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dikarib Al-Kindi said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« مَا مَلَأَ ابْنُ آدَمَ وِعَاءً شَرًّا مِنْ بَطْنِهِ بِحَسْبِ ابْنِ آدَمَ أَكَلَاتٍ يُقِمْنَ صُلْبَهُ فَإِنْ كَانَ فَاعِلًا لَا مَحَالَةَ فَثُلُثٌ طَعَامٌ وَثُلُثٌ شَرَابٌ وَثُلُثٌ لِنَفَسِه »

(The Son of Adam will not fill a pot worse for himself than his stomach. It is enough for the Son of Adam to eat a few bites that strengthens his spine. If he likes to have more, then let him fill a third with food, a third with drink and leave a third for his breathing.) An-Nasa'i and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan'' or "Hasan Sahih'' according to another manuscript. `Ata' Al-Khurasani said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

﴿ وَڪُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ

(And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not the wasteful.) "With food and drink.'' Ibn Jarir commented on Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلۡمُسۡرِفِينَ

(Certainly He (Allah) likes not the wasteful.) "Allah the Exalted says that He does not like those who trespass the limits on an allowed matter or a prohibited matter, those who go to the extreme over what He has allowed, allow what He has prohibited, or prohibit what He has allowed. But, He likes that what He has allowed be considered as such (without extravagance) and what He has prohibited be considered as such. This is the justice that He has commanded.''

﴿ قُلۡ مَنۡ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَخۡرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِۦ وَٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ مِنَ ٱلرِّزۡقِ‌ۚ قُلۡ هِىَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا خَالِصَةً۬ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ كَذَٲلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡلَمُونَ

(32. Say: "Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His servants, and At-Tayyibat (good things) of sustenance'' Say: "They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) exclusively for them (believers) on the Day of Resurrection.'' Thus We explain the Ayat in detail for people who have knowledge. )

Allah refutes those who prohibit any type of food, drink or clothes according to their own understanding, without relying on what Allah has legislated,
﴿ قُلۡ

(Say) O Muhammad, to the idolators who prohibit some things out of false opinion and fabrication,

﴿ مَنۡ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَخۡرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِۦ

(Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His servants) meaning, these things were created for those who believe in Allah and worship Him in this life, even though the disbelievers share in these bounties in this life. In the Hereafter, the believers will have all this to themselves and none of the disbelievers will have a share in it, for Paradise is prohibited for the disbelievers.

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّىَ ٱلۡفَوَٲحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡہَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَٱلۡبَغۡىَ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَأَن تُشۡرِكُواْ بِٱللَّهِ مَا لَمۡ يُنَزِّلۡ بِهِۦ سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

(33. Say: "(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are the Fawahish (immoral deeds) whether committed openly or secretly, and Ithm, and transgression without right, and joining partners with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.'')

Fahishah, Sin, Transgression, Shirk and Lying about Allah are prohibited

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَا أَحَدَ أَغْيَرُ مِنَ اللهِ فَلِذَلِكَ حَرَّمَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ، وَلَا أَحَدَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيْهِ الْمَدْحُ مِنَ الله »

(None is more jealous than Allah, and this is why He prohibited Fawahish, committed openly or in secret. And none likes praise more than Allah). This was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. In the explanation of Surat Al-An`am, we explained the Fahishah that is committed openly and in secret. Allah said next,

﴿ وَٱلۡإِثۡمَ وَٱلۡبَغۡىَ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ

(and Ithm, and transgression without right,) (7:33). As-Suddi commented, "Al-Ithm means, `disobedience'. As for unrighteous oppression, it occurs when you transgress against people without justification.'' Mujahid said, "Ithm includes all types of disobedience. Allah said that the oppressor commits oppression against himself.'' Therefore, the meaning of, Ithm is the sin that one commits against himself, while `oppression' pertains to transgression against other people, and Allah prohibited both. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَأَن تُشۡرِكُواْ بِٱللَّهِ مَا لَمۡ يُنَزِّلۡ بِهِۦ سُلۡطَـٰنً۬ا

(and joining partners with Allah for which He has given no authority,) prohibits calling partners with Allah in worship.

﴿ وَأَن تَقُولُواْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ

(and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.) such as lies and inventions, like claiming that Allah has a son, and other evil creeds that you -- O idolators -- have no knowledge of. This is similar to His saying:

﴿ فَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلرِّجۡسَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَوۡثَـٰنِ

(So shun the abomination (worshipping) of the idols) (22:30).

﴿ وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ أَجَلٌ۬‌ۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَجَلُهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَأۡخِرُونَ سَاعَةً۬‌ۖ وَلَا يَسۡتَقۡدِمُونَ يَـٰبَنِىٓ ءَادَمَ إِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّكُمۡ رُسُلٌ۬ مِّنكُمۡ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَـٰتِى‌ۙ فَمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ وَأَصۡلَحَ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ عَنۡہَآ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ هُمۡ فِيہَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

(34. And every Ummah has its appointed term; when their term comes, neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment).) (35. O Children of Adam! If there come to you Messengers from among you, reciting to you My Ayat, then whosoever has Taqwa and becomes righteous, on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.) (36. But those who reject Our Ayat and treat them with arrogance, they are the dwellers of the Fire, they will abide therein forever.) Allah said,

﴿ وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ

(And every Ummah has), meaning, each generation and nation,

﴿ أَجَلٌ۬‌ۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَجَلُهُمۡ

(its appointed term; when their term comes) which they were destined for,

﴿ لَا يَسۡتَأۡخِرُونَ سَاعَةً۬‌ۖ وَلَا يَسۡتَقۡدِمُونَ

(neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment)). Allah then warned the Children of Adam that He sent to them Messengers who conveyed to them His Ayat. Allah also conveyed good news, as well as warning,

﴿ فَمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ وَأَصۡلَحَ

(then whosoever has Taqwa and becomes righteous) by abandoning the prohibitions and performing acts of obedience,

﴿ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرُواْ عَنۡہَآ

(on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve. But those who reject Our Ayat and treat them with arrogance,) meaning, their hearts denied the Ayat and they were too arrogant to abide by them,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ هُمۡ فِيہَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

(they are the dwellers of the Fire, they will abide therein forever.) without end to their dwelling in it.

﴿ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ ٱفۡتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ كَذَّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِهِۦۤ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ يَنَالُهُمۡ نَصِيبُہُم مِّنَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ‌ۖ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَتۡہُمۡ رُسُلُنَا يَتَوَفَّوۡنَہُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ قَالُواْ ضَلُّواْ عَنَّا وَشَہِدُواْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ أَنَّہُمۡ كَانُواْ كَـٰفِرِينَ

(37. Who is more unjust than one who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat For such their appointed portion will reach them from the Book (of Decrees) until Our messengers (the angel of death and his assistants) come to them to take their souls, they (the angels) will say: "Where are those whom you used to invoke and worship besides Allah,'' they will reply, "They have vanished and deserted us.'' And they will bear witness against themselves, that they were disbelievers.)