Allah said, We sent,
(Lut, when he said to his people..) Lut (Lot) is the son of Haran the son of Azar (Terah), and he was the nephew of Ibrahim, peace be upon them both. Lut had believed in Ibrahim and migrated with him to the Sham area. Allah then sent Lut to the people of Sadum (Sodom) and the surrounding villages, to call them to Allah, enjoin righteousness and forbid them from their evil practices, their sin, and wickedness. It this area, they did things that none of the children of Adam or any other creatures ever did before them. They used to have sexual intercourse with males instead of females. This evil practice was not known among the Children of Adam before, nor did it even cross their minds, so they were unfamiliar with it before the people of Sodom invented it, may Allah's curse be on them. `Amr bin Dinar commented on;
("...as none preceding you has committed in all of the nations.'') "Never before the people of Lut did a male have sex with another male.'' This is why Lut said to them,
("Do you commit lewdness such as none preceding you has committed in all of the nations Verily, you practice your lusts on men instead of women.'') meaning, you left women whom Allah created for you and instead had sex with men Indeed, this behavior is evil and ignorant because you have placed things in their improper places. Lut, peace be upon him, said to them:
("these (the girls of the nation) are my daughters (to marry lawfully), if you must act (so).'') (15:71) So he reminded them of their women, and they replied that they do not desire women!,
(They said: "Surely, you know that we have neither any desire nor need of your daughters, and indeed you know well what we want!'' ) (11:79) meaning, you know that we have no desire for women and you know what we desire with your guests.
(82. And the answer of his people was only that they said: "Drive them out of your town, these are indeed men who want to be pure (from sins)!'') So they answered Prophet Lut by trying to expel and banish him from their village, along with those who believed with him. Allah indeed removed Prophet Lut safely from among them, and He destroyed them in their land in disgrace and humiliation. They said (about Lut and the believers):
("These are indeed men who want to be pure (from sins)!'') Qatadah commented, "They shamed them (Lut and the believers) with what is not a shame at all.'' Mujahid commented, "(Lut's people said about Lut and the believers,) They are a people who want to be pure from men's anuses and women's anuses!'' Similar was narrated from Ibn `Abbas.
(83. Then We saved him and his family, except his wife; she was of the Ghabirin (those who lagged behind).) (84. And We rained down on them a rain (of stones). Then see what was the end of the criminals.)
Allah said in another Ayah,
(So We brought out from therein the believers. But We found not there any household of the Muslims except one (of Lut and his daughters)) (51: 35-36). Only his wife (from his family) did not believe, remaining on the religion of her people. She used to conspire with them against Lut and inform them of who came to visit him, using certain signals that they agreed on. This is why when Lut was commanded to leave by night with his family, he was ordered not to inform his wife or take her with him. Some said that she followed them, and when the torment struck her people, she looked back and suffered the same punishment as them. However, it appears that she did not leave the town and that Lut did not tell her that they would depart. So she remained with her people, as apparent from Allah's statement,
(except his wife; she was of the Ghabirin) meaning, of those who remained, or they say: of those who were destroyed, and this is the more obvious explanation. Allah's statement,
(And We rained down on them a rain) is explained by His other statement,
(And rained on them stones of baked clay, in a well-arranged manner one after another. Marked from your Lord; and they are not ever far from the wrongdoers.) (11:82-83). Allah said here,
(Then see what was the end of the criminals.) This Ayah means: `See, O Muhammad, the end of those who dared to disobey Allah and reject His Messengers.' Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, all recorded a Hadith (from) Ibn `Abbas who said that Allah's Messenger said;
(Whoever is found doing the act of the people of Lut, then kill them; the doer and the one it is done to.)
(85. And to (the people of) Madyan, (We sent) their brother Shu`ayb. He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him. Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you; so give full measure and full weight and wrong not men in their things, and do not do mischief on the earth after it has been set in order, that will be better for you, if you are believers.)
Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "They (the people of Madyan) are the descendents of Madyan, son of Midyan, son of Ibrahim. Shu`ayb was the son of Mikil bin Yashjur. And in the Syrian language, his name was Yathrun (Jethro)''. I (Ibn Kathir) say, Madyan was the name of the tribe and also a city that is close to Ma`an on route to the Hijaz (from Ash-Sham). Allah said in another Ayah,
(And when he arrived at the water (a well) of Madyan he found there a group of men watering (their flocks).) (28:23) They are also the people of Al-Aykah (the Woods), as we will mention later on, Allah willing, and our trust is in Him.
(He said: "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him'') and this is the call of all Messengers,
("Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you;'') meaning, `Allah has presented the proof and evidences of the truth of what I brought you.' He then advised them and commanded them to give full measure and full weight and not to wrong men in their dealings, meaning, to refrain from cheating people in buying and selling. They used to treacherously avoid giving full weight and measure. Allah said in other Ayat,
(Woe to Al-Mutaffifin (those who give less in measure and weight)...) (83:1) until He said,
(before the Lord of all that exists) (83:6). These Ayat contain a stern warning and sure promise that we ask Allah to save us from. Shu`ayb was called `Speaker of the Prophets', because of his eloquent words and eloquent advice, and Allah stated that Shu`ayb said:
(86. "And sit not on every road, threatening, and hindering from the path of Allah those who believe in Him, and seeking to make it crooked. And remember when you were but few, and He multiplied you. And see what was the end of the mischief-makers.) (87. "And if there is a party of you who believes in that with which I have been sent and a party who does not believe, so be patient until Allah judges between us, and He is the best of judges.'')