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The Last Hour and its Portents

Allah said here,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ

(They ask you about the Hour), just as He said in another Ayah,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُكَ ٱلنَّاسُ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِۖ

(People ask you concerning the Hour) (33:63). It was said that this Ayah was revealed about the Quraysh or the Jews, although it appears that it was about the Quraysh, because this Ayah was revealed in Makkah. The Quraysh used to ask about the Last Hour, because they used to deny it and discount its coming. For instance, Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡوَعۡدُ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(And they say: "When will be this promise (the torment or the Day of Resurrection), if you speak the truth'') (10:48), and,

﴿ يَسۡتَعۡجِلُ بِہَا ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِہَا‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مُشۡفِقُونَ مِنۡہَا وَيَعۡلَمُونَ أَنَّهَا ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُمَارُونَ فِى ٱلسَّاعَةِ لَفِى ضَلَـٰلِۭ بَعِيدٍ

(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those who believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth. Verily, those who dispute concerning the Hour are certainly in error far away) (42:18). Allah said here (that the Quraysh asked),

﴿ أَيَّانَ مُرۡسَٮٰهَا‌ۖ

("When will be its appointed time'') in reference to its commencement, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported this from Ibn `Abbas. They asked about the Hour's appointed term and when the end of this world will begin;

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّى‌ۖ لَا يُجَلِّيہَا لِوَقۡتِہَآ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ

(Say: "The knowledge thereof is with my Lord (Alone). None can reveal its time but He.'') Allah commanded His Messenger that when asked about the appointed term of the Last Hour, he referred its knowledge to Allah, the Exalted. Only Allah knows the Last Hour's appointed term and when it will certainly occur, and none besides Him has this knowledge,

﴿ ثَقُلَتۡ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth) `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah commented on this Ayah,

﴿ ثَقُلَتۡ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth) "Its knowledge is heavy on the residents of the heavens and earth, they do not have knowledge in it.'' Also, Ma`mar said that Al-Hasan commented on this Ayah, "When the Last Hour comes, it will be heavy on the residents of the heavens and earth.'' Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas explained this Ayah,

﴿ ثَقُلَتۡ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth, ) saying, "All creatures will suffer its heaviness on the Day of Resurrection.'' Ibn Jurayj also said about this Ayah,

﴿ ثَقُلَتۡ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth.) "When it commences, the heavens will be torn, the stars will scatter all over, the sun will be wound round (thus losing its light), the mountains will be made to pass away and all of which Allah spoke of will occur. This is the meaning of its burden being heavy.'' As-Suddi said that,

﴿ ثَقُلَتۡ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth) means, its knowledge is hidden in the heavens and earth, and none, not even a close angel or a sent Messenger has knowledge of its appointed time.

﴿ لَا تَأۡتِيكُمۡ إِلَّا بَغۡتَةً۬‌ۗ

(It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden) indicating that the Hour will start all of a sudden, while they are unaware. Qatadah said, "Allah has decided that,

﴿ لَا تَأۡتِيكُمۡ إِلَّا بَغۡتَةً۬‌ۗ

(It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden.) He then said, "We were informed that Allah's Prophet said,

« إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ تَهِيجُ بِالنَّاسِ، وَالرَّجُلُ يُصْلِحُ حَوْضَهُ وَالرَّجُلُ يَسْقِي مَاشِيَتَهُ، وَالرَّجُلُ يُقِمُ سِلْعَتَهُ فِي السُّوقِ وَيَخْفِضُ مِيزَانَهُ وَيَرْفَعُه »

The Hour will start (suddenly) for the people while one is mending his watering hole, giving water to his cattle, setting his goods in the market or lowering his scale and raising it (selling and buying).''' Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى تَطْلُعَ الشَّمْسُ مِنْ مَغْرِبِهَا، فَإِذَ طَلَعَتْ فَرَآهَا النَّاسُ آمَنُوا أَجْمَعُونَ، فَذَلِكَ حِينَ لَا يَنْفَعُ نَفْسًا إِيمَانُهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ آمَنَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ أَوْ كَسَبَتْ فِي إِيمَانِهَا خَيْرًا، وَلَتَقُومَنَّ السَّاعَةُ وَقَدْ نَشَرَ الرَّجُلَانِ ثَوْبَهُمَا بَيْنَهُمَا، فَلَا يَتَبَايَعَانِهِ وَلَا يَطْوِيَانِهِ. وَلَتَقُومَنَّ السَّاعَةُ وَقَدِ انْصَرَفَ الرَّجُلُ بِلَبَنِ لِقْحَتِهِ فَلَا يَطْعَمُهُ، وَلَتَقُومَنَّ السَّاعَةُ وَهُو يَلِيطُ حَوْضَهُ فَلَا يَسْقِي فِيهِ، وَلَتَقُومَنَّ السَّاعَةُ وَالرَّجُلُ قَدْ رَفَعَ أَكْلَتَهُ إِلَى فِيهِ فَلَا يَطْعَمُهَا »

(The Hour will not commence until the sun rises from the west. When it rises (from the west) and the people see it, then, all people will believe. However, this is when faith does not benefit a soul that did not believe beforehand nor earned good in faith. The Hour will (all of a sudden) commence while two men have spread a garment between them, and they will neither have time to conclude the transaction nor to fold the garment. The Hour will commence after a man milked his animal, but he will not have time to drink it. The Hour will start when a man is making his watering hole (for his animals), but will not have time to make use of the pool. And the Hour will commence while a man has raised his hand with a bite to his mouth, but will not eat it.) Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِىٌّ عَنۡہَا‌ۖ

(They ask you as if you have good knowledge of it.) "As if you have good relations and friendship with them!'' Ibn `Abbas said, "When the people (pagans of Quraysh) asked the Prophet about the Last Hour, they did so in a way as if Muhammad was their friend! Allah revealed to him that its knowledge is with Him Alone and He did not inform a close angel or Messenger of it.'' The correct explanation for this Ayah is, as narrated from Mujahid, through Ibn Abi Najih,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ كَأَنَّكَ حَفِىٌّ عَنۡہَا‌ۖ

(They ask you as if you have Hafi of it.) means, `as if you had asked about its time and so its knowledge is with you.' Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ

(Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah (Alone), but most of mankind know not.'') When Jibril came in the shape of a bedouin man to teach the people matters of their religion, he sat next to the Messenger of Allah asking him as if to learn. Jibril asked the Messenger about Islam, then about Iman (faith) then about Ihsan (Excellence in the religion). He asked next, "When will the Hour start'' Allah's Messenger said,

« مَا الْمَسْؤُولُ عَنْهَا بِأَعْلَمَ مِنَ السَّائِل »

(He who is asked about it has no more knowledge of it than the questioner.) Therefore, the Prophet was saying, `I have no more knowledge in it than you (O Jibril), nor does anyone have more knowledge in it than anyone else.' The Prophet then recited the Ayah,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُ ۥ عِلۡمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ

(Verily, Allah, with Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour.) (31:34) In another narration, Jibril asked the Prophet about the portents of the Hour, and the Prophet mentioned them. The Prophet also said in this narration,

« فِي خَمْسٍ لَا يَعْلَمُهُنَّ إِلَّا الله »

(Five, their knowledge is only with Allah) then recited this Ayah (31:34). In response to the Prophet's answers after each question, Jibril would say, "You have said the truth.'' This made the Companions wonder about this questioner who would ask a question and attest to every answer he was given. When Jibril went away, the Messenger of Allah said to the Companions,

« هَذَا جِبْرِيلُ أَتَاكُمْ يُعَلِّمُكُمْ دِينَكُم »

(This is Jibril, he came to teach you matters of your religion.) In yet another narration, the Prophet commented,

« وَمَا أَتَانِي فِي صُورَةٍ إِلَّا عَرَفْتُهُ فِيهَا إِلَّا صُورَتُهُ هَذِه »

(I recognized him (Jibril) in every shape he came to me in, except this one.) Muslim recorded that `Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said; "When the bedouins used to come to the Prophet , they used to ask him about the Hour. The Prophet would answer them, while pointing at the youngest person among them,

« إِنْ يَعِشْ هَذَا لَمْ يُدْرِكْهُ الْهَرَمُ حَتَّى قَامَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ سَاعَتُكُم »

(If this (young man) lives, he will not become old before your Hour starts.) The Prophet meant the end of their life that introduces them to the life in Barzakh, which is between this life and the Hereafter. Muslim recorded that Anas said that a man asked Allah's Messenger about the Hour, and the Messenger answered,

« إِنْ يَعِشْ هَذَا الْغُلَامُ فَعَسَى أَنْ لَا يُدْرِكَهُ الْهَرَمُ حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَة »

(If this young boy lives, it might be that he will not become old before the Hour starts.) Only Muslim collected this Hadith. Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, one month before he died,

« تَسْأَلُونِي عَنِ السَّاعَةِ، وَإِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ اللهِ، وَأُقْسِمُ بِاللهِ مَا عَلَى ظَهْرِ الْأَرْضِ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ نَفْسٍ مَنْفُوسَةٍ تَأْتِي عَلَيْهَا مِائَةُ سَنَة »

(You keep asking me about the Hour, when its knowledge is with Allah. I swear by Allah that there is no living soul on the face of the earth now will be alive a hundred years from now.) Muslim collected this Hadith. A similar Hadith is recorded in Two Sahihs from Ibn `Umar, but he commented, "The Messenger of Allah meant that his generation will be finished by that time reach its appointed term.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Prophet said,

« لَقِيتُ لَيْلَةَ أُسْرِيَ بِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى، فَتَذَاكَرُوا أَمْرَ السَّاعَةِ قَالَ فَرَدُّوْا أَمْرَهُمْ إِلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَيهِ السَّلَامُ، فَقَالَ: لَا عِلْمَ لِي بِهَا، فَرَدُّوا أَمْرَهُمْ إِلَى مُوسَى فَقَالَ: لَا عِلْمَ لِي بِهَا، فَرَدُّوا أَمْرَهُمْ إِلَى عِيسَى فَقَالَ عِيسَى: أَمَّا وَجْبَتُهَا فَلَا يَعْلَمُ بِهَا أَحَدٌ إِلَّا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، وَفِيمَا عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنَّ الدَّجَّالَ خَارِجٌ قَالَ وَمَعِي قَضِيبَانِ، فَإِذَا رَآنِي ذَابَ كَمَا يَذُوبُ الرَّصَاصُ، قَالَ: فَيُهْلِكُهُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِذَا رَآنِي حَتَّى إِنَّ الشَّجَرَ وَالْحَجَرَ يَقُولُ: يَا مُسْلِمُ إِنَّ تَحْتِي كَافِرًا فَتَعَالَ فَاقْتُلْهُ، قَالَ: فَيُهْلِكُهُمُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ النَّاسُ إِلَى بِلَادِهِمْ وَأَوْطَانِهِمْ، قَالَ: فَعِنْدَ ذَلِكَ يَخْرُجُ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنْسِلُونَ، فَيَطَأُونَ بِلَادَهُمْ لَا يَأْتُون عَلَى شَيْءٍ إِلَّا أَهْلَكُوهُ وَلَا يَمُرُّونَ عَلَى مَاءٍ إِلَّا شَرِبُوه: قَالَ: ثُمَّ يَرْجِعُ النَّاسُ إِليَّ فَيَشْكُونَهُمْ فَأَدْعُو اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِمْ فَيُهْلِكُهُمْ وَيُمِيتُهُمْ حَتَّى تَجْوَى الْأَرْضُ مِنْ نَتْنِ رِيحِهِمْ أَيْ تُنْتِنُ، قَالَ: فَيُنْزِلُ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمَطَرَ فَيَجْتَرِفُ أَجْسَادَهُمْ حَتَّى يَقْذِفَهُمْ فِي الْبَحْرِ. قال يزيد بن هارون: ثُمَّ تُنْسَفُ الْجِبَالُ وَتُمَدُّ الْأَرْضُ مَدَّ الْأَدِيمِ، ثُمَّ رَجَعَ إِلَى حَدِيثِ هُشَيْمٍ، قَالَ: فَفِيمَا عَهِدَ إِلَيَّ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ إِذَا كَانَ كَذَلِكَ، فَإِنَّ السَّاعَةَ كَالْحَامِلِ المُتِمِّ لَا يَدْرِي أَهْلُهَا مَتَى تُفَاجِئُهُمْ بِوَلَادَتِهَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا »

(During the night of Isra', I met Ibrahim, Musa and `Isa. They mentioned the matter of the Last Hour, and they asked Ibrahim about it, who said, `I do not have knowledge of it.' They asked Musa about it and he said, `I have no knowledge of it.' They then asked `Isa about it, and he said, `As for when it will occur, only Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, knows that. My Lord has conveyed to me that the Dajjal (False Messiah) will appear, and I will have two staffs (spears) with me. When he sees me, he will dissolve just as lead is dissolved. Allah will destroy him when he sees me, and the tree and the stone will say, `O Muslim! There is a disbeliever under (behind) me, so come and kill him.' Allah will destroy them (the Dajjal and his army), and the people will safely go back to their lands and areas. Thereafter, Gog and Magog will appear, and they will be swarming from every mound, sweeping over the earth and destroying everything they pass by. They will drink every water source they pass. The people will come to me complaining about Gog and Magog and will invoke Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, against them, and Allah will bring death to all of them until the earth rots with their stinking odor. Allah will send down rain on them and the rain will carry their corpses, until it throws them in the sea... My Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored has conveyed to me that when this occurs, the Hour will be just like the pregnant women when the term of pregnancy is full, her family does not know when she will surprise them and give birth, whether by night or by day.) Ibn Majah also collected a similar Hadith Therefore these are the greatest of the Messengers but they did not have knowledge of the appointed term of the Hour. They asked `Isa about it and he spoke about its Signs, since he will descend in the last generations of this Ummah, implementing the Law of Allah's Messenger , killing the Dajjal and destroying Gog and Magog people by the blessing of his supplication. `Isa merely informed them of the knowledge Allah gave him on this subject. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah said, "The Messenger of Allah was asked about the Hour and he said,

« عِلْمُهَا عِنْدَ رَبِّي عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَا يُجَلِّيهَا لِوَقْتِهَا إِلَّا هُوَ، وَلَكِنْ سَأُخْبِرُكُمْ بِمَشَارِيطِهَا وَمَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا، إِنَّ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا فِتْنَةً وَهَرَجًا »

(Its knowledge is with my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored, none can reveal its time except Him. However, I will tell you about its portents and the signs that precede it. Before it commences, there will be Fitnah (trials) and Harj.) They asked, `O Allah's Messenger! We know the meaning of the Fitnah, so what is the Harj' He said,

« بِلِسَانِ الْحَبَشَةِ الْقَتْل »

(It means killing, in the Language of the Ethiopians. ) He then said,

« وَيُلْقَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ التَّنَاكُرُ، فَلَا يَكَادُ أَحَدٌ يَعْرِفُ أَحَدًا »

(Isolation and loneliness will be common between people, and therefore, almost no one will be able to recognize any other.)'' None among the collectors of the six Sunan collected this Hadith using this chain of narration. Tariq bin Shihab said that the Messenger of Allah kept mentioning the Last Hour (for people kept asking about it), until this Ayah was revealed,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلسَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرۡسَٮٰهَا‌ۖ

(They ask you about the Hour (Day of Resurrection): "When will be its appointed time''). An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith, which has a strong chain. Therefore, this unlettered Prophet , the chief of the Messengers and their Seal, Muhammad, may Allah's peace and blessings be on him, Muhammad, the Prophet of mercy, repentance, Al-Malhmah (great demise of the disbelievers), Al-`Aqib (who came after many Prophets), Al-Muqaffi (the last of a succession) and Al-Hashir (below whom will all people be gathered (on the Day of Gathering)) Muhammad who said, as collected in the Sahih from Anas and Sahl bin Sa`d,

« بُعِثْتُ أَنَا وَالسَّاعَةَ كَهَاتَيْن »

(My sending and the Hour are like this,) and he joined his index and middle fingers. Yet, he was commanded to defer knowledge of the Last Hour to Allah if he was asked about it,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَا عِلۡمُهَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ

(Say: "The knowledge thereof is with Allah (alone), but most of mankind know not.'')

﴿ قُل لَّآ أَمۡلِكُ لِنَفۡسِى نَفۡعً۬ا وَلَا ضَرًّا إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ وَلَوۡ كُنتُ أَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبَ لَٱسۡتَڪۡثَرۡتُ مِنَ ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَمَا مَسَّنِىَ ٱلسُّوٓءُ‌ۚ إِنۡ أَنَا۟ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ۬ وَبَشِيرٌ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ

(188. Say : "I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Ghayb (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil should have touched me. I am but a warner, and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe.'')

The Messenger does not know the Unseen, and He cannot bring Benefit or Harm even to Himself

Allah commanded His Prophet to entrust all matters to Him and to inform, about himself, that he does not know the unseen future, but he knows of it only what Allah informs him. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ فَلَا يُظۡهِرُ عَلَىٰ غَيۡبِهِۦۤ أَحَدًا

((He Alone is) the All-Knower of the Ghayb (Unseen), and He reveals to none His Ghayb.) (72:26) Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

﴿ وَلَوۡ كُنتُ أَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبَ لَٱسۡتَڪۡثَرۡتُ مِنَ ٱلۡخَيۡرِ

(If I had the knowledge of the Ghayb (Unseen), I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth.) refers to money. In another narration, Ibn `Abbas commented, "I would have knowledge of how much profit I would make with what I buy, and I would always sell what I would make profit from,

﴿ وَمَا مَسَّنِىَ ٱلسُّوٓءُ‌ۚ

("and no evil should have touched me.'') and poverty would never touch me.'' Ibn Jarir said, "And others said, `This means that if I know the Unseen then I would prepare for the years of famine during the prosperous years, and in the time of high cost, I would have prepared for it.''' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam also commented on this Ayah;

﴿ وَمَا مَسَّنِىَ ٱلسُّوٓءُ‌ۚ

("and no evil should have touched me. ''), "I would have avoided and saved myself from any type of harm before it comes.'' Allah then stated that the Prophet is a warner and bearer of good news. He warns against the torment and brings good news of Paradise for the believers,

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرۡنَـٰهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنذِرَ بِهِۦ قَوۡمً۬ا لُّدًّ۬ا

(So We have made this (the Qur'an) easy on your tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to the pious, and warn with it the most quarrelsome of people.) (19:97)

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡہَا‌ۖ فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّٮٰهَا حَمَلَتۡ حَمۡلاً خَفِيفً۬ا فَمَرَّتۡ بِهِۦ‌ۖ فَلَمَّآ أَثۡقَلَت دَّعَوَا ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَٮِٕنۡ ءَاتَيۡتَنَا صَـٰلِحً۬ا لَّنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
﴿ فَلَمَّآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا صَـٰلِحً۬ا جَعَلَا لَهُ ۥ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا‌ۚ فَتَعَـٰلَى ٱللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

(189. It is He Who has created you from a single person, and (then) He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. When he covered ﴿had sexual relation with her, she became pregnant and she carried it about (lightly). Then when it became heavy, they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying): "If You give us a Salih (good in every aspect) child, we shall indeed be among the grateful.'') (190. But when He gave them a Salih child, they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them. High be Allah, Exalted above all that they ascribe as partners to Him.)

All Mankind are the Offspring of Adam

Allah states that He has created all mankind from Adam, peace be upon him, and from Adam, He created his wife, Hawwa' and from them, people started to spread. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَـٰكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ۬ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلۡنَـٰكُمۡ شُعُوبً۬ا وَقَبَآٮِٕلَ لِتَعَارَفُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّ أَڪۡرَمَكُمۡ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَتۡقَٮٰكُمۡ‌ۚ

(O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has Taqwa) (49:13), and,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَخَلَقَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his wife.) (4:1) In this honorable Ayah, Allah said;

﴿ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡہَا‌ۖ

(And (then) He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her.) so that he is intimate and compassionate with her. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا لِّتَسۡكُنُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَڪُم مَّوَدَّةً۬ وَرَحۡمَةً‌ۚ

(And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives (spouses) from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy.) (30:21) Indeed, there is no intimacy between two souls like that between the spouses. This is why Allah mentioned that the sorcerer might be able with his trick to separate between a man and his wife (thus indicating the difficulty of separating them in normal circumstances). Allah said next,

﴿ فَلَمَّا تَغَشَّٮٰهَا

(When he covered her) meaning had sexual intercourses with her.

﴿ حَمَلَتۡ حَمۡلاً خَفِيفً۬ا

(she became pregnant and she carried it about lightly) in reference to the first stage of pregnancy when the woman does not feel pain, for at that time, the fetus will be just a Nutfah (the mixture of the male and female discharge), then becomes an `Alaqah (a piece of thick coagulated blood) and then a Mudghah (a small lump of flesh). Allah said next,

﴿ فَمَرَّتۡ بِهِۦ‌ۖ

(and she carried it about), she continued the pregnancy, according to Mujahid. It was reported that Al-Hasan, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and As-Suddi said similarly. Maymun bin Mahran reported that his father said, "She found the pregnancy unnoticeable.'' Ayyub said, "I asked Al-Hasan about the Ayah,

﴿ فَمَرَّتۡ بِهِۦ‌ۖ

(and she carried it about) and he said, `Had you been an Arab, you would know what it means! It means that she continued the pregnancy (through its various stages).''' Qatadah said,

﴿ فَمَرَّتۡ بِهِۦ‌ۖ

(and she carried it about (lightly).), means, it became clear that she was pregnant. Ibn Jarir commented, "This Ayah means that the liquid remained, whether she stood up or sat down.'' Al-`Awfi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The semen remained in, but she was unsure if she became pregnant or not,

﴿ فَلَمَّآ أَثۡقَلَت

(Then when it became heavy), she became heavier with the fetus'', As-Suddi said, "The fetus grew in her womb.''

﴿ دَّعَوَا ٱللَّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَٮِٕنۡ ءَاتَيۡتَنَا صَـٰلِحً۬ا

(they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying): "If You give us a Salih child,) if he is born human in every respect. Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas commented, "They feared that their child might be born in the shape of an animal!'' while Abu Al-Bakhtri and Abu Malik commented, "They feared that their newborn might not be human.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri also commented, "If You (Allah) give us a boy.''

﴿ لَّنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلشَّـٰكِرِينَ
﴿ فَلَمَّآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا صَـٰلِحً۬ا جَعَلَا لَهُ ۥ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا‌ۚ فَتَعَـٰلَى ٱللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

(we shall indeed be among the grateful. But when He gave them a Salih child, they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them. High be Allah, Exalted above all that they ascribe as partners to Him.) (7:189-190) Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on this part of the Ayah,

﴿ جَعَلَا لَهُ ۥ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا‌ۚ

(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them) "This occurred by followers of some religion, not from Adam (or Hawwa').'' Al-Hasan also said, "This Ayah refers to those among the offspring of Adam who fell into Shirk,

﴿ جَعَلَا لَهُ ۥ شُرَكَآءَ فِيمَآ ءَاتَٮٰهُمَا‌ۚ

(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them.)'' Qatadah said, "Al-Hasan used to say that it refers to the Jews and Christians. Allah gave them children, and they turned them into Jews and Christians.'' The explanations from Al-Hasan have authentic chains of narration leading to him, and certainly, it is one of the best interpretations. This Ayah should therefore be understood this way, for it is apparent that it does not refer to Adam and Hawa', but about the idolators among their offspring. Allah mentioned the person first (Adam and Hawwa') and then continued to mention the species (mankind, many of whom committed Shirk). There are similar cases in the Qur'an. For cases, Allah said

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ

(And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps) It is well-known that the stars that were made as lamps in the sky are not the same as the shooting missiles that are thrown at the devils (mentioned later in the Ayah). There are similar instances in the Qur'an. Allah knows best.

﴿ أَيُشۡرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخۡلُقُ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَهُمۡ يُخۡلَقُونَ وَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمۡ نَصۡرً۬ا وَلَآ أَنفُسَہُمۡ يَنصُرُونَ وَإِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡهُدَىٰ لَا يَتَّبِعُوڪُمۡ‌ۚ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ أَدَعَوۡتُمُوهُمۡ أَمۡ أَنتُمۡ صَـٰمِتُونَ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمۡثَالُڪُمۡ‌ۖ فَٱدۡعُوهُمۡ فَلۡيَسۡتَجِيبُواْ لَڪُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ أَلَهُمۡ أَرۡجُلٌ۬ يَمۡشُونَ بِہَآ‌ۖ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ أَيۡدٍ۬ يَبۡطِشُونَ بِہَآ‌ۖ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ أَعۡيُنٌ۬ يُبۡصِرُونَ بِہَآ‌ۖ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ ءَاذَانٌ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ بِہَا‌ۗ قُلِ ٱدۡعُواْ شُرَكَآءَكُمۡ ثُمَّ كِيدُونِ فَلَا تُنظِرُونِ إِنَّ وَلِـِّۧىَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى نَزَّلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ‌ۖ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ وَٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ لَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ نَصۡرَڪُمۡ وَلَآ أَنفُسَہُمۡ يَنصُرُونَ وَإِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡهُدَىٰ لَا يَسۡمَعُواْ‌ۖ وَتَرَٮٰهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيۡكَ وَهُمۡ لَا يُبۡصِرُونَ

(191. Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created) (192. No help can they give them, nor can they help themselves.) (193. And if you call them to guidance, they follow you not. It is the same for you whether you call them or you keep silent.) (194. Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. So call upon them and let them answer you if you are truthful.) (195. Have they feet wherewith they walk Or have they hands wherewith they hold Or have they eyes wherewith they see Or have they ears wherewith they hear Say: "Call your (so-called) partners (of Allah) and then plot against me, and give me no respite!) (196. Verily, my protector is Allah Who has revealed the Book (the Qur'an), and He protects the righteous.) (197. And those whom you call upon besides Him (Allah) cannot help you nor can they help themselves.) (198. And if you call them to guidance, they hear not and you will see them looking at you, yet they see not.'')