;
The Presence of the Prophet, and the Idolators' asking For forgiveness, were the Shelters against receiving Allah's immediate Torment

Allah said,

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَأَنتَ فِيہِمۡ‌ۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ مُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَهُمۡ يَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ

(And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah's) forgiveness.)

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Pagans used to go around the House in Tawaf and proclaim, `We rush to Your obedience, O Allah, there is no partner with You,' and the Prophet would tell them,

« قَدٍ، قَد »

(Enough, enough.) But they would go on, `We rush to Your obedience, O Allah, there is no partner with You except a partner who is with You, You own Him but he does not own! They also used to say, `O Allah, Your forgiveness, Your forgiveness.' Allah revealed this verse;

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَأَنتَ فِيہِمۡ‌ۚ

(And Allah would not punish them while you are among them...)'''

Ibn `Abbas commented, "They had two safety shelters: the Prophet , and their seeking forgiveness (from Allah). The Prophet went away, and only seeking forgiveness remained.'' At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Musa said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَنْزَلَ اللهُ عَلَيَّ أَمَانَيْنِ لِأُمَّتِي »

("Allah sent down to me two safe shelters for the benefit of my Ummah)

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَأَنتَ فِيہِمۡ‌ۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ مُعَذِّبَهُمۡ وَهُمۡ يَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ

(And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah's) forgiveness.)

« فَإِذَا مَضَيْتُ تَرَكْتُ فِيهِمُ الْاسْتِغْفَارَ إِلَى يَومِ الْقِيَامَة »

(When I die, I will leave the seeking of forgiveness with them, until the Day of Resurrection.)

What testifies to this Hadith, is the Hadith that Ahmad recorded in his Musnad and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, that Abu Sa`id narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ قَالَ: وَعِزَّتِكَ يَا رَبِّ لَا أَبْرَحُ أَغْوِي عِبَادَكَ مَا دَامَتْ أَرْوَاحُهُمْ فِي أَجْسَادِهِمْ. فَقَالَ الرَّبُّ: وَعِزَّتِي وَجَلَالِي لَا أَزَالُ أَغْفِرُ لَهُمْ مَا اسْتَغْفَرُونِي »

(Shaytan said, `By Your might, O Lord! I will go on luring Your servants as long as their souls are still in their bodies.' The Lord said, `By My might and majesty! I will keep forgiving them, as long as they keep invoking Me for forgiveness.')

Al-Hakim, "Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it.''

﴿ وَمَا لَهُمۡ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَہُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَهُمۡ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَمَا ڪَانُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ إِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُہُمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ إِلَّا مُڪَآءً۬ وَتَصۡدِيَةً۬‌ۚ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ

(34. And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa, but most of them know not.) (35. Their Salah at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah. Therefore taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.)

The Idolators deserved Allah's Torment after Their Atrocities

Allah states that the idolators deserved the torment, but He did not torment them in honor of the Prophet residing among them. After Allah allowed the Prophet to migrate away from them, He sent His torment upon them on the day of Badr. During that battle, the chief pagans were killed, or captured. Allah also directed them to seek forgiveness for the sins, Shirk and wickedness they indulged in. If it was not for the fact that there were some weak Muslims living among the Makkan pagans, those Muslims who invoked Allah for His forgiveness, Allah would have sent down to them the torment that could never be averted. Allah did not do that on account of the weak, ill-treated, and oppressed believers living among them, as He reiterated about the day at Al-Hudaybiyyah,

﴿ هُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَصَدُّوڪُمۡ عَنِ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَٱلۡهَدۡىَ مَعۡكُوفًا أَن يَبۡلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَلَوۡلَا رِجَالٌ۬ مُّؤۡمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ۬ مُّؤۡمِنَـٰتٌ۬ لَّمۡ تَعۡلَمُوهُمۡ أَن تَطَـُٔوهُمۡ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنۡهُم مَّعَرَّةُۢ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ۬‌ۖ لِّيُدۡخِلَ ٱللَّهُ فِى رَحۡمَتِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ لَوۡ تَزَيَّلُواْ لَعَذَّبۡنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

(They are the ones who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily, would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment.) (48:25)

Allah said here,

﴿ وَمَا لَهُمۡ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَہُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَهُمۡ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ ٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَمَا ڪَانُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ إِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ

(And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa, but most of them know not.)

Allah asks, `why would not He torment them while they are stopping Muslims from going to Al-Masjid Al-Haram, thus hindering the believers, its own people, from praying and performing Tawaf in it' Allah said,

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآءَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ إِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ

(And they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa,) meaning, the Prophet and his Companions are the true dwellers (or worthy maintainers) of Al-Masjid Al-Haram, not the pagans. Allah said in other Ayah,

﴿ مَا كَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ أَن يَعۡمُرُواْ مَسَـٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ شَـٰهِدِينَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِهِم بِٱلۡكُفۡرِ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ وَفِى ٱلنَّارِ هُمۡ خَـٰلِدُونَ إِنَّمَا يَعۡمُرُ مَسَـٰجِدَ ٱللَّهِ مَنۡ ءَامَنَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ وَأَقَامَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتَى ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَلَمۡ يَخۡشَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ‌ۖ فَعَسَىٰٓ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَن يَكُونُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِينَ

(It is not for the polytheists, to maintain the Masjids of Allah, while they witness disbelief against themselves. The works of such are in vain and in the Fire shall they abide. The Masjids of Allah shall be maintained only by those who believe in Allah and the Last Day; perform the Salah, and give the Zakah and fear none but Allah. It is they who are on true guidance.) (9:17-18), and,

﴿ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَڪُفۡرُۢ بِهِۦ وَٱلۡمَسۡجِدِ ٱلۡحَرَامِ وَإِخۡرَاجُ أَهۡلِهِۦ مِنۡهُ أَكۡبَرُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(But a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants,) (2:217).

`Urwah, As-Suddi and Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ

(None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa,) refers to Muhammad and his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. Mujahid explained that this Ayah is about the Mujahidin (in Allah's cause), whomever and wherever they may be.

Allah then mentioned the practice of the pagans next to Al-Masjid Al-Haram and the respect they observed in its vicinity,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُہُمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ إِلَّا مُڪَآءً۬ وَتَصۡدِيَةً۬‌ۚ

(Their Salah (prayer) at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah. )

`Abdullah bin `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Raja' Al-Utardi, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Hujr bin `Anbas, Nubayt bin Sharit, Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this part of the Ayah refers to whistling. Mujahid added that the pagans used to place their fingers in their mouth (while whistling). Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُہُمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ إِلَّا مُڪَآءً۬ وَتَصۡدِيَةً۬‌ۚ

(Their Salat at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah.)

"The Quraysh used to perform Tawaf (encircling the Ka`bah) while naked, whistling and clapping their hands, for Muka' means `whistling', while, Tasdiyah means `clapping the hands.''' This meaning was also reported from Ibn `Abbas, by `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Al-`Awfi. Similar was recorded from Ibn `Umar, Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Abu Salamah bin `Abdur-Rahman, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi, Hujr bin `Anbas and Ibn Abza. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Umar explained the Ayah,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُہُمۡ عِندَ ٱلۡبَيۡتِ إِلَّا مُڪَآءً۬ وَتَصۡدِيَةً۬‌ۚ

(Their Salat at the House was nothing but Muka' and Tasdiyah.) "Muka' means `whistling', while, `Tasdiyah' means `clapping the hands.''' Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said that,

﴿ وَتَصۡدِيَةً۬‌ۚ

(and Tasdiyah), means, they hindered from the path of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Allah said,

﴿ فَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡفُرُونَ

(Therefore taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.)

This refers to the death and capture that they suffered during the battle of Badr, according to Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Jurayj and Muhammad bin Ishaq.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٲلَهُمۡ لِيَصُدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ فَسَيُنفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَسۡرَةً۬ ثُمَّ يُغۡلَبُونَ‌ۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ يُحۡشَرُونَ لِيَمِيزَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ وَيَجۡعَلَ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ بَعۡضَهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬ فَيَرۡڪُمَهُ ۥ جَمِيعً۬ا فَيَجۡعَلَهُ ۥ فِى جَهَنَّمَ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(36. Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the path of Allah, and so will they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they will be overcome. And those who disbelieve will be gathered unto Hell.) (37. In order that Allah may distinguish the wicked from the good, and put the wicked one over another, heap them together and cast them into Hell. Those! it is they who are the losers.)

The Disbelievers spend Their Wealth to hinder Others from Allah's Path, but this will only cause Them Grief

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Az-Zuhri, Muhammad bin Yahya bin Hibban, `Asim bin `Umar bin Qatadah, and Al-Husayn bin `Abdur-Rahman bin `Amr bin Sa`id bin Mu`adh said, "The Quraysh suffered defeat at Badr and their forces went back to Makkah, while Abu Sufyan went back with the caravan intact. This is when `Abdullah bin Abi Rabi`ah, `Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Safwan bin Umayyah and other men from Quraysh who lost their fathers, sons or brothers in Badr, went to Abu Sufyan bin Harb. They said to him, and to those among the Quraysh who had wealth in that caravan, `O people of Quraysh! Muhammad has grieved you and killed the chiefs among you. Therefore, help us with this wealth so that we can fight him, it may be that we will avenge our losses.' They agreed.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "This Ayah was revealed about them, according to Ibn `Abbas,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُنفِقُونَ أَمۡوَٲلَهُمۡ

(Verily, those who disbelieve spend their wealth...) until,

﴿ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(they who are the losers.)'' Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hakam bin `Uyaynah, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Abza said that this Ayah was revealed about Abu Sufyan and his spending money in Uhud to fight the Messenger of Allah . Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah was revealed about the idolators of Badr. In any case, the Ayah is general, even though there was a specific incident that accompanied its revelation. Allah states here that the disbelievers spend their wealth to hinder from the path of truth. However, by doing that, their money will be spent and then will become a source of grief and anguish for them, availing them nothing in the least. They seek to extinguish the Light of Allah and make their word higher than the word of truth. However, Allah will complete His Light, even though the disbelievers hate it. He will give aid to His religion, make His Word dominant, and His religion will prevail above all religions. This is the disgrace that the disbelievers will taste in this life; and in the Hereafter, they will taste the torment of the Fire. Whoever among them lives long, will witness with his eyes and hear with his ears what causes grief to him. Those among them who are killed or die will be returned to eternal disgrace and the everlasting punishment. This is why Allah said,

﴿ فَسَيُنفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَسۡرَةً۬ ثُمَّ يُغۡلَبُونَ‌ۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ يُحۡشَرُونَ

(And so will they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they will be overcome. And those who disbelieve will be gathered unto Hell.)

Allah said,

﴿ لِيَمِيزَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ

(In order that Allah may distinguish the wicked from the good.), meaning recognize the difference between the people of happiness and the people of misery, according to Ibn `Abbas, as `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from him. Allah distinguishes between those believers who obey Him and fight His disbelieving enemies and those who disobey Him. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ مَّا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَذَرَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ عَلَىٰ مَآ أَنتُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ حَتَّىٰ يَمِيزَ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ‌ۗ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُطۡلِعَكُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡغَيۡبِ

(Allah will not leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked from the good. Nor will Allah disclose to you the secrets of the Ghayb (Unseen).) (3:179), and,

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ أَن تَدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعۡلَمِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ جَـٰهَدُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَيَعۡلَمَ ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ

(Do you think that you will enter Paradise before Allah (tests) those of you who fought (in His cause) and (also) tests those who are the patient) (3:142).

Therefore, the Ayah (8:37) means, `We tried you with combatant disbelievers whom We made able to spend money in fighting you,'

﴿ لِيَمِيزَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ وَيَجۡعَلَ ٱلۡخَبِيثَ بَعۡضَهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ بَعۡضٍ۬ فَيَرۡڪُمَهُ ۥ

(in order that Allah may distinguish the wicked from the good, and put the wicked one over another, heap them together) put in a pile on top of each other,

﴿ فَيَجۡعَلَهُ ۥ فِى جَهَنَّمَ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(and cast them into Hell. Those! It is they who are the losers.) (8:37), in this life and the Hereafter.

﴿ قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُوٓاْ إِن يَنتَهُواْ يُغۡفَرۡ لَهُم مَّا قَدۡ سَلَفَ وَإِن يَعُودُواْ فَقَدۡ مَضَتۡ سُنَّتُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ
﴿ وَقَـٰتِلُوهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتۡنَةٌ۬ وَيَڪُونَ ٱلدِّينُ ڪُلُّهُ ۥ لِلَّهِ‌ۚ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوۡاْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ۬ وَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَٱعۡلَمُوٓاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَوۡلَٮٰكُمۡ‌ۚ نِعۡمَ ٱلۡمَوۡلَىٰ وَنِعۡمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ

(38. Say to those who have disbelieved, if they cease, their past will be forgiven. But if they return (thereto), then the examples of those (punished) before them have already preceded (as a warning).) (39. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah, and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah alone. But if they cease, then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do.) (40. And if they turn away, then know that Allah is your protector -- (what) an excellent protector and (what) an excellent helper!)