Allah says, if you witnessed the angels capturing the souls of the disbelievers, you would witness a tremendous, terrible, momentous and awful matter,
(they smite their faces and their backs), saying to them,
("Taste the punishment of the blazing Fire.'')
Ibn Jurayj said that Mujahid said that,
(and their backs), refers to their back sides, as happened on the day of Badr. Ibn Jurayj also reported from Ibn `Abbas, "When the idolators faced the Muslims ﴿in Badr﴾, the Muslims smote their faces with swords. When they gave flight, the angels smote their rear ends.''
Although these Ayat are describing Badr, they are general in the case of every disbeliever. This is why Allah did not make His statement here restrictive to the disbelievers at Badr,
(And if you could see when the angels take away the souls of those who disbelieve (at death); they smite their faces and their backs,)
In Surat Al-Qital (or Muhammad chapter 47) there is a similar Ayah, as well as in Surat Al-An`am,
(And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels are stretching forth their hands (saying): "Deliver your souls!'') (6:93)
The angels stretch their hands and smite the disbelievers by Allah's command, since their souls refuse to leave their bodies, so they are taken out by force. This occurs when the angels give them the news of torment and Allah's anger. There is a Hadith narrated from Al-Bara' that when the angel of death attends the disbeliever at the time of death, he comes to him in a terrifying and disgusting shape, saying, "Get out, O wicked soul, to fierce hot wind, boiling water and a shadow of black smoke.'' The disbeliever's soul then scatters throughout his body, but the angels retrieve it, just as a needle is retrieved from wet wool. In this case, veins and nerve cells will be still attached to the soul. Allah states here that angels bring news of the torment of the Fire to the disbelievers. Allah said next,
(This is because of that which your hands forwarded.) meaning, this punishment is the recompense of the evil deeds that you have committed in the life of the world. This is your reckoning from Allah for your deeds,
(And verily, Allah is not unjust to His servants.)
Certainly, Allah does not wrong any of His creatures, for He is the Just, who never puts anything in an inappropriate place. Honored, Glorified, Exalted and Praised be He, the All-Rich, Worthy of all praise. Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said;
(Allah, the Exalted, said, `O My servants! I have prohibited injustice for Myself, and made it prohibited to you between each other. Therefore, do not commit injustice against each other. O My servants! It is your deeds that I am keeping count of, so whoever found something good, let him praise Allah for it. Whoever found other than that, has only himself to blame.)
This is why Allah said,
(52. Similar to the behavior of the people of Fir`awn, and of those before them -- they rejected the Ayat of Allah, so Allah punished them for their sins. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, severe in punishment.)
Allah says, `The behavior of these rebellious disbelievers against what I sent you with, O Muhammad, is similar to the behavior of earlier disbelieving nations. So We behaved with them according to Our Da'b, that is, Our behavior (or custom) and way, as We did with them with what We often do and decide concerning their likes, the denying people of Fir`awn and the earlier nations who rejected the Messengers and disbelieved in Our Ayat,'
(so Allah punished them for their sins.)
Because of their sins, Allah destroyed them
(Verily, Allah is All-Strong, severe in punishment.)
none can resist Him or escape His grasp.
(53. That is so because Allah will never change a grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in themselves. And verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) (54. Similar to the behavior of the people of Fir`awn, and those before them. They belied the Ayat of their Lord, so We destroyed them for their sins, and We drowned the people of Fir`awn for they were all wrongdoers.)
Allah affirms His perfect justice and fairness in His decisions, for He decided that He will not change a bounty that He has granted someone, except on account of an evil that they committed. Allah said in another Ayah,
(Verily, Allah will not change the (good) condition of a people as long as they do not change their state (of goodness) themselves. But when Allah wills a people's punishment, there can be no turning it back, and they will find besides Him no protector.) (13:11)
Allah said next,
(Similar to the behavior of the people of Fir`awn,) meaning, He punished Fir`awn and his kind, those who denied His Ayat. Allah destroyed them because of their sins, and took away the favors that He granted them, such as gardens, springs, plants, treasures and pleasant dwellings, as well as all of the delights that they enjoyed. Allah did not wrong them, but it is they who wronged themselves.
(55. Verily, the worst of living creatures before Allah are those who disbelieve, -- so they shall not believe.) (56. They are those with whom you made a covenant, but they break their covenant every time and they do not have Taqwa.) (57. So if you gain the mastery over them in war, then disperse those who are behind them, so that they may learn a lesson.)
Allah states here that the worst moving creatures on the face of the earth are those who disbelieve, who do not embrace the faith, and break promises whenever they make a covenant, even when they vow to keep them,
(and they do not have Taqwa) meaning they do not fear Allah regarding any of the sins they commit.
(So if you gain the mastery over them in war), if you defeat them and have victory over them in war,
(then disperse those who are behind them,) by severely punishing (the captured people) according to Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Ibn `Uyaynah. This Ayah commands punishing them harshly and inflicting casualties on them. This way, other enemies, Arabs and non-Arabs, will be afraid and take a lesson from their end,
(so that they may learn a lesson. )
As-Suddi commented, "They might be careful not to break treaties, so that they do not meet the same end.''
(58. If you fear treachery from any people, throw back (their covenant) to them (so as to be) on equal terms. Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous.) make a heading, Allah says to His Prophet ,
(If you fear from any people), with whom you have a treaty of peace,
(treachery), and betrayal of peace treaties and agreements that you have conducted with them,
(then throw back (their covenant) to them), meaning their treaty of peace.
(on equal terms), informing them that you are severing the treaty. This way, you will be on equal terms, in that, you and they will be aware that a state of war exists between you and that the bilateral peace treaty is null and void,
(Certainly Allah likes not the treacherous.) This even includes treachery against the disbelievers. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim bin `Amir said, "Mu`awiyah was leading an army in Roman lands, at a time the bilateral peace treaty was valid. He wanted to go closer to their forces so that when the treaty of peace ended, he could invade them. An old man riding on his animal said, `Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Great), Allahu Akbar! Be honest and stay away from betrayal.' The Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever has a treaty of peace with a people, then he should not untie any part of it or tie it harder until the treaty reaches its appointed term. Or, he should declare the treaty null and void so that they are both on equal terms.) When Mu`awiyah was informed of the Prophet's statement, he retreated. They found that man to be `Amr bin `Anbasah, may Allah be pleased with him.'' This Hadith was also collected by Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''
(59. And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves (from Allah's punishment).) (60. And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides them, whom you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.)
Allah says to His Prophet , in this Ayah,
(those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip), Do not think that such disbelievers have escaped Us or that We are unable to grasp them. Rather, they are under the power of Our ability and in the grasp of Our will; they will never escape Us.' Allah also said,
(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us (escape Our punishment) Evil is that which they judge!) (29:4),
(Consider not that the disbelievers can escape in the land. Their abode shall be the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination.) (24:57), and,
(Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you. A brief enjoyment; then their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.) (3:196-197)
Allah commands Muslims to prepare for war against disbelievers, as much as possible, according to affordability and availability. Allah said,
(And make ready against them all you can) whatever you can muster,
(of power, including steeds of war). Imam Ahmad recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying, while standing on the Minbar;
(And make ready against them all you can of power,)
(Verily, Power is shooting! Power is shooting.)
Muslim collected this Hadith.
Imam Malik recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said,
(Horses are kept for one of three purposes; for some people they are a source of reward, for some others they are a means of shelter, and for some others they are a source of sin. The one for whom they are a source of reward, is he who keeps a horse for Allah's cause (Jihad) tying it with a long tether on a meadow or in a garden. The result is that whatever it eats from the area of the meadow or the garden where it is tied, will be counted as good deeds for his benefit; and if it should break its rope and jump over one or two hillocks then all its dung and its footmarks will be written as good deeds for him. If it passes by a river and drinks water from it, even though he had no intention of watering it, then he will get the reward for its drinking. Therefore, this type of horse is a source of good deeds for him. As for the man who tied his horse maintaining self - sufficiency and abstinence from begging, all the while not forgetting Allah's right concerning the neck and back of his horse, then it is a means of shelter for him. And a man who tied a horse for the sake of pride, pretense and showing enmity for Muslims, then this type of horse is a source of sins.)
When Allah's Messenger was asked about donkeys, he replied,
(Nothing has been revealed to me from Allah about them except these unique, comprehensive Ayat:
(Then anyone who does an atom's weight of good, shall see it. And anyone who does an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.)) (99:7-8)''
Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith, this is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Prophet said,
(There are three reasons why horses are kept: A horse that is kept for Ar-Rahman (the Most Beneficent), a horse kept for Shaytan and a horse kept for the man. As for the horse kept for Ar-Rahman, it is the horse that is being kept for the cause of Allah (for Jihad), and as such, its food, dung and urine, etc., (he made mention of many things). As for the horse that is for Shaytan, it is one that is being used for gambling. As for the horse that is for man, it is the horse that one tethers, seeking its benefit. For him, this horse will be a shield against poverty.) Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah bin Abi Al-Ja`d Al-Bariqi said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Good will remain in the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection, (that is) reward, and the spoils of war.)
Allah said next,
(to threaten), or to strike fear,
(the enemy of Allah and your enemy), the disbelievers,
(and others besides them), such as Bani Qurayzah, according to Mujahid, or Persians, according to As-Suddi.
Muqatil bin Hayyan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this Ayah refers to hypocrites, as supported by Allah's statement,
(And among the bedouins around you, some are hypocrites, and so are some among the people of Al-Madinah who persist in hypocrisy; you know them not, We know them.) (9:101).
Allah said next,
(And whatever you shall spend in the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.)
Allah says, whatever you spend on Jihad will be repaid to you in full.
We also mentioned Allah's statement,
(The parable of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah, is that of a grain (of corn); it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.) (2:261)
(61. But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it, and trust in Allah. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) (62. And if they intend to deceive you, then verily, Allah is All-Sufficient for you. He it is Who has supported you with His help and with the believers.) (63. And He has united their (believers') hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is All-Mighty, All-Wise.)