;
Exposing Hypocrites

Allah said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ أَرَادُواْ ٱلۡخُرُوجَ

(And if they had intended to march out,), with you to participate in Jihad

﴿ لَأَعَدُّواْ لَهُ ۥ عُدَّةً۬

(certainly, they would have made some preparation for it) they would have prepared for such task,

﴿ وَلَـٰكِن ڪَرِهَ ٱللَّهُ ٱنۢبِعَاثَهُمۡ

(but Allah was averse to their being sent forth) Allah hated that they should go with you,

﴿ فَثَبَّطَهُمۡ

(so He made them lag behind, and stay away (from Jihad),

﴿ وَقِيلَ ٱقۡعُدُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡقَـٰعِدِينَ

(and it was said (to them): "Sit you among those who sit (at home)'') as a part of what was decreed for them (not that He legislated that they stay behind). Allah then explained why He disliked that they march with the believers, saying,

﴿ لَوۡ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمۡ إِلَّا خَبَالاً۬

(Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder), because they are cowards and failures,

﴿ وَلَأَوۡضَعُواْ خِلَـٰلَكُمۡ يَبۡغُونَڪُمُ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ

(and they would have hurried about in your midst sowing sedition among you) They would have rushed to spread false stories, hatred and discord among you,

﴿ وَفِيكُمۡ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لَهُمۡ‌ۗ

(and there are some among you who would have listened to them.) who would have obeyed them, given preference to their speech and words and asked them for advice, unaware of the true reality of these hypocrites. This might have caused corruption and great evil between the believers. Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "Those who sought permission (from the Messenger to lag behind) included some of the chiefs, such as `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul and Al-Jadd bin Qays, who were masters of their people. Allah also made them lag behind because He knew that if they went along with the Messenger they would sow sedition in his army.'' There were some in the Prophet's army who liked these chiefs and were ready to obey them, because they considered them honorable,

﴿ وَفِيكُمۡ سَمَّـٰعُونَ لَهُمۡ‌ۗ

(and there are some among you who would have listened to them) (9:47). Allah next reminds of His perfect knowledge, saying,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمُۢ بِٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(And Allah is the All-Knower of the wrongdoers.) Allah says that He knows what occurred, what will occur and if anything would have occurred, how it would occur, such as,

﴿ لَوۡ خَرَجُواْ فِيكُم مَّا زَادُوكُمۡ إِلَّا خَبَالاً۬

(Had they marched out with you, they would have added to you nothing except disorder,) indicating what they would have done had they marched, even though they did not. Allah said in similar Ayat,

﴿ وَلَوۡ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُہُواْ عَنۡهُ وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ

(But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (6:28),

﴿ وَلَوۡ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ فِيہِمۡ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّأَسۡمَعَهُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَوۡ أَسۡمَعَهُمۡ لَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُم مُّعۡرِضُونَ

(Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen; and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away with aversion (to the truth)) (8:23), and,

﴿ وَلَوۡ أَنَّا كَتَبۡنَا عَلَيۡہِمۡ أَنِ ٱقۡتُلُوٓاْ أَنفُسَكُمۡ أَوِ ٱخۡرُجُواْ مِن دِيَـٰرِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ‌ۖ وَلَوۡ أَنَّہُمۡ فَعَلُواْ مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِۦ لَكَانَ خَيۡرً۬ا لَّهُمۡ وَأَشَدَّ تَثۡبِيتً۬ا وَإِذً۬ا لَّأَتَيۡنَـٰهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّآ أَجۡرًا عَظِيمً۬ا وَلَهَدَيۡنَـٰهُمۡ صِرَٲطً۬ا مُّسۡتَقِيمً۬ا

(And if We had ordered them (saying), "Kill yourselves (the innocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,'' very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and would have strengthened their conviction. And indeed We would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves. And indeed We would have guided them to the straight way) (4:66-68).

﴿ لَقَدِ ٱبۡتَغَوُاْ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَقَلَّبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأُمُورَ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَهُمۡ ڪَـٰرِهُونَ

(48. Verily, they had plotted sedition before, and had upset matters for you, until the truth (victory) came and the decree of Allah became manifest though they hated it.)

Allah encourages His Prophet against hypocrites,
﴿ لَقَدِ ٱبۡتَغَوُاْ ٱلۡفِتۡنَةَ مِن قَبۡلُ وَقَلَّبُواْ لَكَ ٱلۡأُمُورَ

(Verily, they had plotted sedition before, and had upset matters for you,) `For a long time,' Allah says, hypocrites thought and plotted against you and your Companions, as well as, failing and attempting to extinguish your religion.' This occurred soon after the Prophet migrated to Al-Madinah, when pagan Arabs joined force and the Jews and hypocrites of Al-Madinah waged war against the Messenger . When Allah gave victory to the Prophet in Badr and raised high his word, `Abdullah bin Ubayy and his fellows said, "This (Islam) is a matter that has prevailed.'' They embraced Islam outwardly, and whenever Allah elevated Islam and its people in might, hypocrites increased in rage and disappointment,

﴿ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَظَهَرَ أَمۡرُ ٱللَّهِ وَهُمۡ ڪَـٰرِهُونَ

(until the truth (victory) came and the decree of Allah became manifest though they hated it.)

﴿ وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ٱئۡذَن لِّى وَلَا تَفۡتِنِّىٓ‌ۚ أَلَا فِى ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ سَقَطُواْ‌ۗ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةُۢ بِٱلۡڪَـٰفِرِينَ

(49. And among them is he who says: "Grant me leave and put me not into trial.'' Surely, they have fallen into trial. And verily, Hell is surrounding the disbelievers.) Allah says, some hypocrites say to you, O Muhammad ,

﴿ ٱئۡذَن لِّى

(Grant me leave), to stay behind,

﴿ وَلَا تَفۡتِنِّىٓ‌ۚ

(and put me not into trial.), if I go with you and see the women of the Romans. Allah, the Exalted, replied,

﴿ أَلَا فِى ٱلۡفِتۡنَةِ سَقَطُواْ‌ۗ

(Surely, they have fallen into trial) because of the statement they uttered. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Az-Zuhri, Yazid bin Ruwman, `Abdullah bin Abi Bakr, `Asim bin Qatadah and several others that they said, "The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Jadd bin Qays from Bani Salimah,

« هَلْ لَكَ يَا جَدُّ الْعَامَ فِي جَلَادِ بَنِي الْأَصْفَرِ؟ »

(`Would you like to fight the yellow ones (Romans) this year) He said, `O Allah's Messenger! Give me permission (to remain behind) and do not cause Fitnah for me. By Allah! My people know that there is not a man who is more fond of women than I. I fear that if I see the women of the yellow ones, I would not be patient.' The Messenger of Allah turned away from him and said,

« قَدْ أَذِنْتُ لَك »

(I give you permission.) In Al-Jadd's case, this Ayah was revealed,

﴿ وَمِنۡهُم مَّن يَقُولُ ٱئۡذَن لِّى وَلَا تَفۡتِنِّىٓ‌ۚ

(And among them is he who says: "Grant me leave and put me not into trial.'') Therefore, Allah says that the Fitnah that he fell into because of not joining the Messenger of Allah (in Jihad) and preferring his safety to the safety of the Messenger is worse than the Fitnah that he falsely claimed to fear.'' It was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Al-Jadd bin Qays, who was among the chiefs of Bani Salimah. It is also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah asked,

« مَنْ سَيِّدُكُمْ يَا بَنِي سَلَمَةَ؟ »

(Who is your chief, O Bani Salamah) They said, "Al-Jadd bin Qays, although we consider him a miser.'' The Messenger of Allah said,

« وَأَيُّ دَاءٍ أَدْوَأُ مِنَ الْبُخْلِ وَلَكِنْ سَيِّدُكُمْ الْفَتَى الْجَعْدُ الْأَبْيَضُ بِشْرُ بْنُ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ مَعْرُور »

(There is not a disease worse than stinginess! Therefore, your chief is the white young man with curly hair, Bishr bin Al-Bara' bin Ma'rur.) Allah said next,

﴿ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةُۢ بِٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(And verily, Hell is surrounding the disbelievers.) and they will never be able to avoid, avert, or escape from it.

﴿ إِن تُصِبۡكَ حَسَنَةٌ۬ تَسُؤۡهُمۡ‌ۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡكَ مُصِيبَةٌ۬ يَقُولُواْ قَدۡ أَخَذۡنَآ أَمۡرَنَا مِن قَبۡلُ وَيَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُمۡ فَرِحُونَ قُل لَّن يُصِيبَنَآ إِلَّا مَا ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَنَا هُوَ مَوۡلَٮٰنَا‌ۚ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَڪَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ

(50. If good befalls you, it grieves them, but if a calamity overtakes you, they say: "We took our precaution beforehand,'' and they turn away rejoicing.) (51. Say: "Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us. He is our Mawla (protector).'' And in Allah let the believers put their trust.)

Allah emphasizes the enmity that the hypocrites have for the Prophet.

If a blessing, such as victory and triumph over the enemies, is given to the Prophet , thus pleasing him and his Companions, it grieves the hypocrites,

﴿ وَإِن تُصِبۡكَ مُصِيبَةٌ۬ يَقُولُواْ قَدۡ أَخَذۡنَآ أَمۡرَنَا مِن قَبۡلُ

(but if a calamity overtakes you, they say: "We took our precaution beforehand,''), they say, we took precautions when we did not join him,

﴿ وَيَتَوَلَّواْ وَّهُمۡ فَرِحُونَ

(and they turn away rejoicing.) Allah directed His Prophet to reply to the perfect enmity they have towards him,

﴿ قُل

(Say), to them,

﴿ لَّن يُصِيبَنَآ إِلَّا مَا ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَنَا

(Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us.) for we are under His control and decree,

﴿ هُوَ مَوۡلَٮٰنَا‌ۚ

(He is our Mawla.), Master and protector,

﴿ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَلۡيَتَوَڪَّلِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ

(And in Allah let the believers put their trust) (9:51), and we trust in Him. Verily, He is sufficient for us and what an excellent guardian.

﴿ قُلۡ هَلۡ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَآ إِلَّآ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡحُسۡنَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ وَنَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمۡ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦۤ أَوۡ بِأَيۡدِينَا‌ۖ فَتَرَبَّصُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَڪُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ قُلۡ أَنفِقُواْ طَوۡعًا أَوۡ كَرۡهً۬ا لَّن يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّكُمۡ ڪُنتُمۡ قَوۡمً۬ا فَـٰسِقِينَ وَمَا مَنَعَهُمۡ أَن تُقۡبَلَ مِنۡہُمۡ نَفَقَـٰتُهُمۡ إِلَّآ أَنَّهُمۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِۦ وَلَا يَأۡتُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ ڪُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ كَـٰرِهُونَ

(52. Say: "Do you wait for us (anything) except one of the two best things; while we await for you either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands. So wait, we too are waiting with you.'') (53. Say: "Spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. Verily, you are ever a people who are rebellious.'') (54. And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger, and that they came not to the Salah except in a lazy state, and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly.) Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say), O Muhammad to them,

﴿ هَلۡ تَرَبَّصُونَ بِنَآ

(Do you wait for us), anything,

﴿ إِلَّآ إِحۡدَى ٱلۡحُسۡنَيَيۡنِ‌ۖ

(except one of the two best things), martyrdom or victory over you, according to the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, and others.

﴿ وَنَحۡنُ نَتَرَبَّصُ بِكُمۡ

(while we await for you), that this will touch you,

﴿ أَن يُصِيبَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِندِهِۦۤ أَوۡ بِأَيۡدِينَا‌ۖ

(either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands), either capture or killing,

﴿ فَتَرَبَّصُوٓاْ إِنَّا مَعَڪُم مُّتَرَبِّصُونَ

(So wait, we too are waiting with you.) Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ أَنفِقُواْ طَوۡعًا أَوۡ كَرۡهً۬ا

(Say: Spend willingly or unwillingly), for whatever you spend either way,

﴿ لَّن يُتَقَبَّلَ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّكُمۡ ڪُنتُمۡ قَوۡمً۬ا فَـٰسِقِينَ

(it will not be accepted from you. Verily, you are ever a people who are rebellious.) Allah mentions the reason behind not accepting their charity from them,

﴿ إِلَّآ أَنَّهُمۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِۦ

(except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger. ) and the deeds are accepted if they are preceded with faith,

﴿ وَلَا يَأۡتُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ ڪُسَالَىٰ

(and that they came not to the Salah except in a lazy state.) Therefore, they neither have good intention nor eagerness to perform the acts (of faith),

﴿ وَمَا مَنَعَهُمۡ أَن تُقۡبَلَ مِنۡہُمۡ نَفَقَـٰتُهُمۡ إِلَّآ أَنَّهُمۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَبِرَسُولِهِۦ وَلَا يَأۡتُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ ڪُسَالَىٰ وَلَا يُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا وَهُمۡ كَـٰرِهُونَ

(And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger, and that they came not to the Salah (the prayer) except in a lazy state, and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly.) The Truthful, to whom the Truth was revealed, Muhammad, peace be upon him, said that Allah does not stop giving rewards until you (believers) stop performing good deeds, and that Allah is Tayyib (Good and Pure) and only accepts what is Tayyib. This is why Allah does not accept charity or good deeds from the people described in these Ayat, because He only accepts it from those who have Taqwa.

﴿ فَلَا تُعۡجِبۡكَ أَمۡوَٲلُهُمۡ وَلَآ أَوۡلَـٰدُهُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَہُم بِہَا فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَتَزۡهَقَ أَنفُسُہُمۡ وَهُمۡ كَـٰفِرُونَ

(55. So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you; in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers.) Allah says to His Messenger ,

﴿ فَلَا تُعۡجِبۡكَ أَمۡوَٲلُهُمۡ وَلَآ أَوۡلَـٰدُهُمۡ‌ۚ

(So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you...) In similar Ayat, Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيۡنَيۡكَ إِلَىٰ مَا مَتَّعۡنَا بِهِۦۤ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا مِّنۡہُمۡ زَهۡرَةَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا لِنَفۡتِنَہُمۡ فِيهِ‌ۚ وَرِزۡقُ رَبِّكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَبۡقَىٰ

(And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them, the splendor of the life of this world, that We may test them thereby. But the provision (good reward in the Hereafter) of your Lord is better and more lasting) (20:131), and,

﴿ أَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُم بِهِۦ مِن مَّالٍ۬ وَبَنِينَ نُسَارِعُ لَهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡخَيۡرَٲتِ‌ۚ بَل لَّا يَشۡعُرُونَ

(Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not.) (23:55-56). Allah said next,

﴿ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَہُم بِہَا فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا

(in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world,) by taking the Zakah due on their money from them and spending it in Allah's cause, according to the meaning given by Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَتَزۡهَقَ أَنفُسُہُمۡ وَهُمۡ كَـٰفِرُونَ

(and that their souls shall depart while they are disbelievers) means, so that when Allah brings death to them, they will still be disbelievers, to make matters worse for them and the torment more severe. We seek refuge from such an end, which includes being led astray gradually by these things which they have.

﴿ وَيَحۡلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ إِنَّہُمۡ لَمِنڪُمۡ وَمَا هُم مِّنكُمۡ وَلَـٰكِنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ يَفۡرَقُونَ لَوۡ يَجِدُونَ مَلۡجَـًٔا أَوۡ مَغَـٰرَٲتٍ أَوۡ مُدَّخَلاً۬ لَّوَلَّوۡاْ إِلَيۡهِ وَهُمۡ يَجۡمَحُونَ

(56. They swear by Allah that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people (hypocrites) who are afraid (that you may kill them).) (57. Should they find a refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.)