If a blessing, such as victory and triumph over the enemies, is given to the Prophet , thus pleasing him and his Companions, it grieves the hypocrites,
(but if a calamity overtakes you, they say: "We took our precaution beforehand,''), they say, we took precautions when we did not join him,
(and they turn away rejoicing.) Allah directed His Prophet to reply to the perfect enmity they have towards him,
(Say), to them,
(Nothing shall ever happen to us except what Allah has ordained for us.) for we are under His control and decree,
(He is our Mawla.), Master and protector,
(And in Allah let the believers put their trust) (9:51), and we trust in Him. Verily, He is sufficient for us and what an excellent guardian.
(52. Say: "Do you wait for us (anything) except one of the two best things; while we await for you either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands. So wait, we too are waiting with you.'') (53. Say: "Spend willingly or unwillingly, it will not be accepted from you. Verily, you are ever a people who are rebellious.'') (54. And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger, and that they came not to the Salah except in a lazy state, and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly.) Allah said,
(Say), O Muhammad to them,
(Do you wait for us), anything,
(except one of the two best things), martyrdom or victory over you, according to the meaning given by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, and others.
(while we await for you), that this will touch you,
(either that Allah will afflict you with a punishment from Himself or at our hands), either capture or killing,
(So wait, we too are waiting with you.) Allah said next,
(Say: Spend willingly or unwillingly), for whatever you spend either way,
(it will not be accepted from you. Verily, you are ever a people who are rebellious.) Allah mentions the reason behind not accepting their charity from them,
(except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger. ) and the deeds are accepted if they are preceded with faith,
(and that they came not to the Salah except in a lazy state.) Therefore, they neither have good intention nor eagerness to perform the acts (of faith),
(And nothing prevents their contributions from being accepted from them except that they disbelieved in Allah and in His Messenger, and that they came not to the Salah (the prayer) except in a lazy state, and that they offer not contributions but unwillingly.) The Truthful, to whom the Truth was revealed, Muhammad, peace be upon him, said that Allah does not stop giving rewards until you (believers) stop performing good deeds, and that Allah is Tayyib (Good and Pure) and only accepts what is Tayyib. This is why Allah does not accept charity or good deeds from the people described in these Ayat, because He only accepts it from those who have Taqwa.
(55. So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you; in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers.) Allah says to His Messenger ,
(So let not their wealth nor their children amaze you...) In similar Ayat, Allah said,
(And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them, the splendor of the life of this world, that We may test them thereby. But the provision (good reward in the Hereafter) of your Lord is better and more lasting) (20:131), and,
(Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not.) (23:55-56). Allah said next,
(in reality Allah's plan is to punish them with these things in the life of this world,) by taking the Zakah due on their money from them and spending it in Allah's cause, according to the meaning given by Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Allah's statement,
(and that their souls shall depart while they are disbelievers) means, so that when Allah brings death to them, they will still be disbelievers, to make matters worse for them and the torment more severe. We seek refuge from such an end, which includes being led astray gradually by these things which they have.
(56. They swear by Allah that they are truly of you while they are not of you, but they are a people (hypocrites) who are afraid (that you may kill them).) (57. Should they find a refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.)
Allah describes to His Prophet the fright, fear, anxiety and nervousness of the hypocrites,
(They swear by Allah that they are truly of you), swearing a sure oath,
(while they are not of you), in reality,
(but they are a people who are afraid), and this is what made them swear.
(Should they find a refuge), such as a fort in which they hide and fortify themselves,
(or caves), in some mountains,
(or a place of concealment), a tunnel or a hole in the ground, according to the explanation given by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah,
(they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush) away from you because they associate with you unwillingly, not because they are fond of you. They prefer that they do not have to mix with you, but necessity has its rules! It is because of this that they feel grief, sadness and sorrow, seeing Islam and its people enjoying ever more might, triumph and glory. Therefore, whatever pleases Muslims brings them grief, and this is why they prefer to disassociate themselves from the believers. Hence Allah's statement,
(Should they find a refuge, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto with a swift rush.)
(58. And of them are some who accuse you concerning (the distribution of) the alms. If they are given part thereof, they are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!) (59. Would that they were content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them and had said: "Allah is sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His bounty, and so will His Messenger. We implore Allah (to enrich us).'')
Allah said next,
(And of them), among the hypocrites,
(who accuse you) or question your integrity,
(concerning), division of,
(the alms), when you divide them. They question your fairness, even though it is they who deserve that their integrity be questioned. The hypocrites do not do this in defense of the religion, but to gain more for themselves. This is why,
(If they are given) meaning, from the Zakah,
(They are pleased, but if they are not given thereof, behold! They are enraged!) (9:58), angry for themselves. Qatadah commented on Allah's statement,
(And of them are some who accuse you concerning the alms. ) "Allah says, `Some of them question your integrity in the matter of distribution of the alms.' We were told that a bedouin man, who had recently embraced Islam, came to the Prophet , when he was dividing some gold and silver, and said to him, `O Muhammad! Even though Allah commanded you to divide in fairness, you have not done so.' The Prophet of Allah said,
(Woe to you! Who would be fair to you after me then) The Prophet of Allah said next,
(Beware of this man and his likes! There are similar persons in my Ummah who recite the Qur'an, but the Qur'an will not go beyond their throat. If they rise (against Muslims rulers) then kill them, if they rise, kill them, then if they rise kill them.) We were also told that the Prophet of Allah used to say,
(By He in Whose Hand is my life! I do not give or withhold anything; I am only a keeper.)'' This statement from Qatadah is similar to the Hadith that the Two Shaykhs narrated from Abu Sa`id about the story of Dhul-Khuwaysirah, whose name was Hurqus. Hurqus protested against the Prophet's division of the war spoils of Hunayn, saying, "Be fair, for you have not been fair!'' The Prophet said,
(I would have become a loser and a failure if I was not fair!) The Messenger said after that man left,
(Among the offspring of this man will be some with whose prayer, when one of you sees it, would belittle his prayer, and his fast as compared to their fast. They will be renegades from the religion, just like an arrow goes through the game's body. Wherever you find them, kill them, for verily, they are the worst dead people under the cover of the sky.) Allah said next, while directing such people to what is more beneficial for them than their behavior,
(Would that they were content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them and had said: "Allah is sufficient for us. Allah will give us of His bounty, and so will His Messenger (from alms). We implore Allah (to enrich us).'') This honorable Ayah contains a gracious type of conduct and an honorable secret. Allah listed; contentment with what He and His Messenger give, trusting in Allah alone -- by saying;
(and they had said: Allah is sufficient for us), and hoping in Allah alone, and He made these the indications of obedience to the Messenger , adhering to his commands, avoiding his prohibitions, believing his narrations and following his footsteps.
(60. As-Sadaqat (i.e., Zakah) are only for the Fuqara', and Al-Masakin and those employed to collect (the funds); and to attract the hearts of those who have been inclined (towards Islam); and to free the captives; and for those in debt; and for Allah's cause, and for Ibn As-Sabil; a duty imposed by Allah. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.)
After Allah mentioned the protest that the ignorant hypocrites mentioned to the Prophet about the distribution of alms. He stated that it is He who divided the alms, explained its rulings and decided in its division; He did not delegate this decision to anyone else. Allah mentioned the expenditures of Zakah in this Ayah, starting with the Fuqara' (the poor) because they have more need than the other categories, since their need is pressing and precarious. It was reported that Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibn Zayd and several others said that the Faqir is a graceful person who does not ask anyone for anything, while the Miskin is the one who follows after people, begging. Qatadah said, "The Faqir is the ill person, while the Miskin is physically fit.'' We will now mention the Hadiths about each of these eight categories
Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The alms should not be given to the wealthy and the physically fit.) Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith.
Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The needy person is not the one who goes round the people and asks them for a mouthful or two (of meals) or a date or two). They asked, "Then who is the needy person, O Allah's Messenger!'' He said, (The one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, that others may give him something in charity, and who does not beg of people.) The Two Shaykhs collected this Hadith
Those employed to collect alms deserve a part of the alms, unless they are relatives of the Messenger of Allah , who are not allowed to accept any Sadaqah. Muslim recorded that `Abdul-Muttalib bin Rabi`ah bin Al-Harith and Al-Fadl bin Al-`Abbas went to the Messenger of Allah asking him to employ them to collect the alms. The Messenger replied,
(Verily, the alms are not allowed for Muhammad nor the relatives of Muhammad, for it is only the dirt that the people discard.) Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum There are several types of Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum. There are those who are given alms to embrace Islam. For instance, the Prophet of Allah gave something to Safwan bin Umayyah from the war spoils of Hunayn, even though he attended it while a Mushrik. Safwan said, "He kept giving me until he became the dearest person to me after he had been the most hated person to me.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Safwan bin Umayyah said, "The Messenger of Allah gave me (from the spoils of) Hunayn while he was the most hateful person to me. He kept giving me until he became the most beloved person to me.'' Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, as well. Some of Al-Mu'allafatu Qulubuhum are given from alms so that they become better in Islam and their heart firmer in faith. For instance, the Prophet gave some of the chiefs of the Tulaqa' a hundred camels each after the battle of Hunayn, saying,
(I give a man (from the alms) while another man is dearer to me than him, for fear that Allah might throw him on his face in the fire of Jahannam.) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Sa`id said that `Ali sent the Messenger of Allah a gold nugget still in its dirt from Yemen. The Prophet divided it between four men: Al-Aqra` bin Habis, `Uyaynah bin Badr, `Alqamah bin `Ulathah and Zayd Al-Khayr, saying,
(To draw their hearts closer.) Some people are given because some of his peers might embrace Islam, while others are given to collect alms from surrounding areas, or to defend Muslim outposts. Allah knows best.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Muqatil bin Hayyan, `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, Sa`id bin Jubayr, An-Nakha`i, Az-Zuhri and Ibn Zayd said Riqab means those slaves who make an agreement with the master to pay a certain ransom for their freedom.'' Similar was reported from Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari. Ibn `Abbas and Al-Hasan said, "It is allowed to use Zakah funds to buy the freedom of slaves,'' indicating that `Riqab' has more general meanings than merely giving money to slaves to buy their freedom or one's buying a slave and freeing him on an individual basis. A Hadith states that for every limb ﴿of the servant﴾ freed, Allah frees a limb of the one who freed him from slavery, even a sexual organ for a sexual organ, for the reward is equitable to the deed,
(And you will be requited nothing except for what you used to do.) (37:39)
In the Musnad, there is a Hadith from Al-Bara' bin `Azib that a man asked, "O Allah's Messenger! Direct me to an action that draws me closer to Paradise and away from the Fire.'' The Messenger of Allah said,
(Emancipate the person and free the neck (slave).) The man asked, "O Allah's Messenger! Are they not one and the same'' He said,
(No, you emancipate a person by freeing him on your own, but you untie a neck (slave) by helping in its price.)
There are several types of indebted persons. They include those who incur expenses in solving disputes between people, those who guarantee a loan that became due, causing financial strain to them, and those whose funds do not sufficiently cover their debts. It also includes those who indulged in a sin and repented from it. These types have a right to a part of alms (designated for Al-Gharimun). Qabisah bin Mukhariq Al-Hilali said, "I carried a debt ﴿resolving a dispute between people﴾ and went to the Messenger of Allah asking him to help pay it. The Messenger said,
(Be patient until some alms are brought to us so that we give it to you.) He then said,
(O Qabisah! Begging is only allowed for three: a man who incurred debts solving disputes, so he is allowed to beg until he collects its amount and then stops. A man who was inflicted by a disaster that consumed his wealth, he is allowed to beg until he collects what suffices for his livelihood. And a man who was overcome by poverty, that three wise relatives of his stand up and proclaim, `So-and-so was overcome by poverty.' This man is allowed to beg until he collects what sustains his livelihood. Other than these cases, begging is an unlawful amount that one illegally devours.) Muslim collected this Hadith. Abu Sa`id said, "During the time of the Messenger of Allah , a man was struck by disaster because of fruits that he bought, causing him extensive debts. The Prophet said,
(Give him charity.) The people did that but the amount collected did not cover his debts. The Prophet said to the man's debtors,
(Take what was collected, you will have nothing beyond that.)'' Muslim collected this Hadith.
In the cause of Allah is exclusive for the benefit of the fighters in Jihad, who do not receive compensation from the Muslim Treasury.
Ibn As-Sabil is a term used for the needy traveler in a land, where he does not have what helps him continue his trip. This type has a share in the Zakah for what suffices him to reach his destination, even if he had money there. The same is true for whoever intends to travel from his area but does not have enough money. This type also has a share in the Zakah money to suffice for his trip and back. This is proven in the Ayah as well as the following Hadith. Imams Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded that Ma`mar said that Zayd bin Aslam said that `Ata' bin Yasar said that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Sadaqah is not rightful for a wealthy person except in five cases: those employed to collect it, one who bought a charity item with his money, a Gharim (debtor), a fighter in the cause of Allah, or a poor man who gets a part of the Zakah so he gives it as a gift to a rich man.) Allah's statement,
(a duty imposed by Allah), means, a decision, decree and division ordained by Allah,
(And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise), knowledgeable of all things outwardly and inwardly and what benefits His servants,
(All-Wise), in all what he declares, does, legislates and decides, there is no true deity or lord except Him.
(61. And among them are men who annoy the Prophet and say: "He is (lending his) ear (to every news).'' Say: "He listens to what is best for you; he believes in Allah; has faith in the believers; and is a mercy to those of you who believe.'' But those who annoy Allah's Messenger, will have a painful torment.)