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Other Characteristics of Hypocrites

Allah admonishes the hypocrites who, unlike the believers, who enjoin righteousness and forbid evil,

﴿ يَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمُنڪَرِ وَيَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَقۡبِضُونَ أَيۡدِيَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(they enjoin evil, and forbid the good, and they close their hands), from spending in Allah's cause,

﴿ نَسُواْ ٱللَّهَ

(They have forgotten Allah), they have forgotten the remembrance of Allah,

﴿ فَنَسِيَہُمۡ‌ۗ

(so He has forgotten them.), by treating them as if He has forgotten them. Allah also,

﴿ وَقِيلَ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ نَنسَٮٰكُمۡ كَمَا نَسِيتُمۡ لِقَآءَ يَوۡمِكُمۡ هَـٰذَا

(And it will be said: "This Day We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours) (45:34). Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقِينَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقُونَ

(Verily, the hypocrites are the rebellious) the rebellious from the way of truth who embrace the wicked way,

﴿ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقِينَ وَٱلۡمُنَـٰفِقَـٰتِ وَٱلۡكُفَّارَ نَارَ جَهَنَّمَ

(Allah has promised the hypocrites -- men and women -- and the disbelievers, the fire of Hell), on account of their evildoing mentioned here,

﴿ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا‌ۚ

(therein shall they abide.), for eternity, they and the disbelievers,

﴿ هِىَ حَسۡبُهُمۡ‌ۚ

(It will suffice them.), as a torment,

﴿ وَلَعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ

(Allah has cursed them), He expelled and banished them (from His mercy),

﴿ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّقِيمٌ۬

(and for them is the lasting torment.)

﴿ كَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ أَشَدَّ مِنكُمۡ قُوَّةً۬ وَأَكۡثَرَ أَمۡوَٲلاً۬ وَأَوۡلَـٰدً۬ا فَٱسۡتَمۡتَعُواْ بِخَلَـٰقِهِمۡ فَٱسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُم بِخَلَـٰقِكُمۡ ڪَمَا ٱسۡتَمۡتَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُم بِخَلَـٰقِهِمۡ وَخُضۡتُمۡ كَٱلَّذِى خَاضُوٓاْ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(69. Like those before you: they were mightier than you in power, and more abundant in wealth and children. They had enjoyed their portion (a while), so enjoy your portion (a while) as those before you enjoyed their portion (a while); and you indulged in play and pastime as they indulged in play and pastime. Such are they whose deeds are in vain in this world and in the Hereafter. Such are they who are the losers.) Allah says, these people were touched by torment in this life and the Hereafter, just as those before them. Allah's statement,

﴿ بِخَلَـٰقِهِمۡ

(their portion), means, (they mocked) their religion, according to Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَخُضۡتُمۡ كَٱلَّذِى خَاضُوٓاْ‌ۚ

(and you indulged in play and pastime as they indulged in play and pastime), indulged in lies and falsehood,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَـٰلُهُمۡ

(Such are they whose deeds are in vain), their deeds are annulled; they will not acquire any rewards for them because they are invalid,

﴿ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۖ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(in this world and in the Hereafter. Such are they who are the losers.) because they will not acquire any rewards for their actions. Ibn `Abbas commented, "How similar is this night to the last night,

﴿ كَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ

(Like those before you...) These are the Children of Israel, with whom we were compared. The Prophet said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَتَّبِعُنَّهُمْ حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلَ الرَّجُلُ مِنْهُمْ جُحْرَ ضَبَ لَدَخَلْتُمُوه »

(By He in Whose Hand is my life! You will imitate them, and even if a man of them entered the den of a lizard, you will enter it likewise!)'' Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَتَّبِعُنَّ سَنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ شِبْرًا بِشِبْرٍ وَذِرَاعًا بِذِرَاعٍ، وَبَاعًا بِبَاعٍ حَتَّى لَوْ دَخَلُوا جُحْرَ ضَبَ لَدَخَلْتُمُوه »
قالوا: ومن هم يا رسول الله، أهل الكتاب؟ قال:
« فَمَنْ؟ »

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will follow the traditions of those who were before you a hand span for a hand-span and forearm's length for forearm's length, and an arm's length for an arm's length. And even if they enter the den of a lizard, you will also enter it.) They asked, "Who, O Allah's Messenger, the People of the Book'' He said, (Who else)'' This Hadith is similar to another Hadith collected in the Sahih.

﴿ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِہِمۡ نَبَأُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوحٍ۬ وَعَادٍ۬ وَثَمُودَ وَقَوۡمِ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ وَأَصۡحَـٰبِ مَدۡيَنَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡتَفِڪَـٰتِ‌ۚ أَتَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ‌ۖ فَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَہُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ

(70. Has not the story reached them of those before them -- The people of Nuh, `Ad, Thamud, the people of Ibrahim, the dwellers of Madyan and the overturned cities; to them came their Messengers with clear proofs. So it was not Allah Who wronged them, but they used to wrong themselves.)

Advising the Hypocrites to learn a Lesson from Those before Them

Allah advises the hypocrites who reject the Messengers,

﴿ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِہِمۡ نَبَأُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ

(Has not the story reached them of those before them) have you (hypocrites) not learned the end of the nations before you who rejected the Messengers,

﴿ قَوۡمِ نُوحٍ۬

(The people of Nuh), and the flood that drowned the entire population of the earth, except those who believed in Allah's servant and Messenger Nuh, peace be upon him,

﴿ وَعَادٍ۬

(and `Ad), who perished with the barren wind when they rejected Hud, peace be upon him,

﴿ وَثَمُودَ

(and Thamud), who were overtaken by the Sayhah (awful cry) when they denied Salih, peace be upon him, and killed the camel,

﴿ وَقَوۡمِ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ

(and the people of Ibrahim), over whom He gave Ibrahim victory and the aid of clear miracles. Allah destroyed their king Nimrod, son of Canaan, son of Koch from Canaan, may Allah curse him,

﴿ وَأَصۡحَـٰبِ مَدۡيَنَ

(and the dwellers of Madyan), the people of Shu`ayb, peace be upon him, who were destroyed by the earthquake and the torment of the day of the Shade,

﴿ وَٱلۡمُؤۡتَفِڪَـٰتِ‌ۚ

(and the overturned cities), the people of Lut who used to live in Madyan. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَٱلۡمُؤۡتَفِكَةَ أَهۡوَىٰ

(And He destroyed the overturned cities) (53:53), meaning the people of the overturned cities in reference to Sadum (Sodom), their major city. Allah destroyed them all because they rejected Allah's Prophet Lut, peace be upon him, and because they committed the sin that none before them had committed (homosexuality).

﴿ أَتَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ‌ۖ

(to them came their Messengers with clear proofs.), and unequivocal evidence,

﴿ فَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ

(So it was not Allah Who wronged them), when He destroyed them, for He established the proofs against them by sending the Messengers and dissipating the doubts,

﴿ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ

(but they used to wrong themselves), on account of their denying the Messengers and defying the Truth; this is why they earned the end, torment and punishment, that they did.

﴿ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٍ۬‌ۚ يَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ سَيَرۡحَمُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ۬

(71. The believers, men and women, are supporters of one another; they enjoin good, and forbid evil; they perform the Salah, and give the Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah will have His mercy on them. Surely, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.)

Qualities of Faithful Believers

After Allah mentioned the evil characteristics of the hypocrites, He then mentioned the good qualities of the believers,

﴿ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٍ۬‌ۚ

(The believers, men and women, are supporters of one another;) they help and aid each other. Surely, an authentic Hadith states,

« الْمُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ كَالْبُنْيَانِ يَشُدُّ بَعْضُهُ بَعْضًا »

(The believer to the believer is just like a building, its parts support each other.) and the Prophet crossed his fingers together. In the Sahih it is recorded,

« مَثَلُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَرَاحُمِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ الْجَسَدِ الْوَاحِدِ، إِذَا اشْتَكَى مِنْهُ عُضْوٌ تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ الْجَسَدِ بِالْحُمَّى وَالسَّهَر »

(The example of the believers in the compassion and mercy they have for each other, is the example of one body: if a part of it falls ill, the rest of the body suffers with fever and sleeplessness.) Allah's statement,

﴿ يَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ

(...they enjoin good, and forbid evil), this is similar to,

﴿ وَلۡتَكُن مِّنكُمۡ أُمَّةٌ۬ يَدۡعُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ‌ۚ

(Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining Al-Ma`ruf and forbidding the Munkar...) (3:104). Allah said next,

﴿ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ

(they perform the Salah, and give the Zakah), they obey Allah and are kind to His creation,

﴿ وَيُطِيعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ

(and obey Allah and His Messenger), concerning what he commands and refraining from what he prohibits,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ سَيَرۡحَمُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۗ

(Allah will have mercy on them.) Therefore, Allah will give mercy to those who have these qualities,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ

(Surely, Allah is All-Mighty), He grants glory to those who obey Him, for indeed, might and glory is from Allah Who gives it to His Messenger and the believers,

﴿ حَكِيمٌ۬

(All-Wise), in granting these qualities to the believers, while giving evil characteristics to hypocrites. Surely, Allah's wisdom is perfect in all His actions; praise and glory be to Him.

﴿ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتِ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا وَمَسَـٰكِنَ طَيِّبَةً۬ فِى جَنَّـٰتِ عَدۡنٍ۬‌ۚ وَرِضۡوَٲنٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ أَڪۡبَرُ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ هُوَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ

(72. Allah has promised the believers -- men and women, -- Gardens under which rivers flow to dwell therein forever, and beautiful mansions in gardens of `Adn (Eden; Paradise). But the greatest bliss is the good pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme success.)