(And (remember) when We showed Ibrahim the site of the (Sacred) House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me...'') (22:26) and,
(Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-`Alamin (mankind and Jinn). In it are manifest signs (for example), the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim; whosoever enters it, he attains security) (3:96-97).
The last honorable Ayah emphasized the honor of Ibrahim's Maqam, and the instruction to pray next to it,
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer). The Maqam of Ibrahim
Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented on the Ayah,
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim as a place of prayer) "The stone (Maqam) is the standing place of Ibrahim, Allah's Prophet, and a mercy from Allah. Ibrahim stood on the stone, while Isma`il was handing him the stones (constructing the Ka`bah).''As-Suddi said, "The Maqam of Ibrahim is a stone which Isma`il's wife put under Ibrahim's feet when washing his head." Al-Qurtubi mentioned this, but he considered it unauthentic, although others gave it preference, Ar-Razi reported it in his Tafsir from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.
Ibn Abi Hatim reported that Jabir, describing the Hajj (pilgrimage) of the Prophet said, "When the Prophet performed Tawaf, `Umar asked him, `Is this the Maqam of our father' He said, `Yes.' `Umar said, `Should we take it a place of prayer' So Allah revealed,
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer.'')
Al-Bukhari said, "Chapter: Allah's statement,
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham) as a place of prayer) meaning, they return to it repeatedly.'' He then narrated that Anas bin Malik said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, "I agreed with my Lord, or my Lord agreed with me, regarding three matters. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I wish you take the Maqam of Ibrahim a place for prayer.' The Ayah,
(And take you (people) the Maqam (place) of Ibrahim (Abraham)) was revealed. I also said, `O Messenger of Allah! The righteous and the wicked enter your house. I wish you would command the Mothers of the believers (the Prophet's wives) to wear Hijab. Allah sent down the Ayah that required the Hijab. And when I knew that the Prophet was angry with some of his wives, I came to them and said, `Either you stop what you are doing, or Allah will endow His Messenger with better women than you are.' I advised one of his wives and she said to me, `O `Umar! Does the Messenger of Allah not know how to advise his wives, so that you have to do the job instead of him' Allah then revealed,
(It may be if he divorced you (all) that his Lord will give him instead of you, wives better than you, ـ Muslims (who submit to Allah)).'' (66:5)
Also, Ibn Jarir narrated that Jabir said, "After the Messenger of Allah kissed the Black Stone, he went around the house three times in a fast pace and four times in a slow pace. He then went to Maqam of Ibrahim, with it between him and the House, and prayed two Rak`ahs.'' This is part of the long Hadith that Muslim recorded in Sahih. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Dinar said that he heard Ibn `Umar say, "The Messenger of Allah performed Tawaf around the House seven times and then prayed two Rak`ahs behind the Maqam.''
All these texts indicate that the Maqam is the stone that Ibrahim was standing on while building the House. As the House's walls became higher, Isma`il brought his father a stone, so that he could stand on it, while Isma`il handed him the stones. Ibrahim would place the stones on the wall, and whenever he finished one side, he would move to the next side, to complete the building all around. Ibrahim kept repeating this until he finished building the House, as we will describe when we explain the story of Ibrahim and Isma`il and how they built the House, as narrated from Ibn `Abbas and collected by Al-Bukhari. Ibrahim's footprints were still visible in the stone, and the Arabs knew this fact during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is why Abu Talib said in his poem known as `Al-Lamiyyah', "And Ibrahim's footprint with his bare feet on the stone is still visible.''
The Muslims also saw Ibrahim's footprints on the stone, as Anas bin Malik said, "I saw the Maqam with the print of Ibrahim's toes and feet still visible in it, but the footprints dissipated because of the people rubbing the stone with their hands.''
Earlier, the Maqam was placed close to the Ka`bah's wall. In the present time, the Maqam is placed next to Al-Hijr on the right side of those entering through the door.
When Ibrahim finished building the House, he placed the stone next to the wall of Al-Ka`bah. Or, when the House was finished being built, Ibrahim just left the stone where it was last standing, and he was commanded to pray next to the stone when he finished the Tawaf (circumambulating). It is understandable that the Maqam of Ibrahim would stand where the building of the House ended. The Leader of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, one of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs whom we were commanded to emulate, moved the stone away from the Ka`bah's wall during his reign. `Umar is one of the two men, whom the Messenger of Allah described when he said,
(Imitate the two men who will come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar.)
`Umar was also the person whom the Qur'an agreed with regarding praying next to Maqam of Ibrahim. This is why none among the Companions rejected it when he moved it.
`Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ibn Jurayj from `Ata', "`Umar bin Al-Khattab moved the Maqam back.'' Also, `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Mujahid said that `Umar was the first person who moved the Maqam back to where it is now standing.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr, Ahmad bin `Ali bin Al-Husayn Al-Bayhaqi recorded `A'ishah saying, "During the time of the Messenger of Allah and Abu Bakr, the Maqam was right next to the House. `Umar moved the Maqam during his reign.'' This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration.
(125. And We commanded Ibrahim (Abraham) and Isma`il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I`tikaf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).) (126. And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!'') (127. And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma`il were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.'') (128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that,
(And We gave Our 'Ahd (command) to Ibrahim and Isma`il) means, "Allah ordered them to purify it from all filth and impurities, of which none should ever touch it.'' Also, Ibn Jurayj said, "I said to `Ata', `What is Allah's `Ahd' He said, `His command.''' Also, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,
(that they should purify My House (the Ka`bah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I`tikaf)) "Purify it from the idols.'' Further, Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,
(purify My House for those who are circumambulating it) means, "From the idols, sexual activity, false witness and sins of all kinds.''
(for those who are performing Tawaf (circumambulating) it).
The Tawaf around the House is a well-established ritual, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that,
(for those who are circumambulating it) means, strangers (he means who do not live in Makkah), while;
(or staying (I`tikaf)) is about those who live in the area of the Sacred House. Also, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that I`tikaf is in reference to those who live in the area of the House, just as Sa`id bin Jubayr stated. Allah said,
(or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer))
Ibn `Abbas said, when it is a place of prayer it includes those who are described as bowing and prostrating themselves. Also, `Ata' and Qatadah offered the same Tafsir.
Purifying all Masjids is required according to this Ayah and according to Allah's statement,
(In houses (mosques) which Allah has ordered to be raised (to be cleaned, and to be honored), in them His Name is remembered (i.e. Adhan, Iqamah, Salah, invocations, recitation of the Qur'an). Therein glorify Him (Allah) in the mornings and in the (late) afternoons) (24:36).
There are many Hadiths that give a general order for purifying the Masjids and keeping filth and impurities away from them. This is why the Prophet said,
(The Masjids are established for the purpose that they were built for (i. e. worshipping Allah alone).)
I have collected a book on this subject, and all praise is due to Allah.
(And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.'')
Imam Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari narrated that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Ibrahim made Allah's House a Sacred Area and a safe refuge. I have made what is between the two sides of Al-Madinah a Sacred Area. Therefore, its game should not be hunted, and its trees should not be cut.) An-Nasa'i and Muslim also recorded this Hadith.
There are several other Hadiths that indicate that Allah made Makkah a sacred area before He created the heavens and earth. The Two Sahihs recorded `Abdullah bin `Abbas saying that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah has made this city a sanctuary (sacred place) the Day He created the heavens and earth. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection because Allah made it a sanctuary. It was not legal for anyone to fight in it before me, and it was legal for me for a few hours of one day. Therefore, it is a sanctuary until the Day of Resurrection, because Allah made it a sanctuary. None is allowed to uproot its thorny shrubs, or to chase its game, or to pick up something that has fallen, except by a person who announces it publicly, nor should any of its trees be cut.) Al-`Abbas said, `O Messenger of Allah! Except the lemon-grass, for our goldsmiths and for our graves.' The Prophet added, (Except lemon-grass.)
This is the wording of Muslim. The Two Sahihs also recorded Abu Hurayrah narrating a similar Hadith, while Al-Bukhari recorded a similar Hadith from Safiyyah bint Shaybah who narrated it from the Prophet .
Abu Shurayh Al-`Adawi said that he said to `Amr bin Sa`id while he was sending armies to Makkah, "O Commander! Let me narrate a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah said the day that followed the victory of Makkah. My ears heard the Hadith, my heart comprehended it, and my eyes saw the Prophet when he said it. He thanked Allah and praised him and then said,
(Allah, not the people, made Makkah a sanctuary, so any person who has belief in Allah and the Last Day, should neither shed blood in it nor should he cut down its trees. If anybody argues that fighting in it is permissible on the basis that Allah's Messenger fought in Makkah, say to him, `Allah allowed His Messenger and did not allow you.' Allah allowed me only for a few hours on that day (of the Conquest), and today its sanctity is valid as it was before. So, those who are present should inform those who are absent (concerning this fact).)
Abu Shurayh was asked, `What did `Amr reply' He said, (`Amr said) `O Abu Shurayh! I know better than you about this, the Sacred House does not give protection to a sinner, a murderer or a thief.' This Hadith was collected by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
After this, there is no contradiction between the Hadiths that stated that Allah made Makkah a sanctuary when He created the heavens and earth and the Hadiths that Ibrahim made it a sanctuary, since Ibrahim conveyed Allah's decree that Makkah is a sanctuary, before he built the House. Similarly, the Messenger of Allah was written as the Final Prophet when Adam was still clay. Yet, Ibrahim said,
(Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own) (2: 129).
Allah accepted Ibrahim's supplication, although He had full knowledge beforehand that it will occur by His decree. To further elaborate on this subject, we should mention the Hadith about what the Messenger of Allah said when he was asked, "O Messenger of Allah! Tell us about how your prophethood started.'' He said,
(I am the supplication of my father Ibrahim, the good news of Jesus, the son of Mary, and my mother saw a light that radiated from her which illuminated the castles of Ash-Sham (Syria).)
In this Hadith, the Companions asked the Messenger about the beginning of his prophethood. We will explain this matter later, if Allah wills.
Allah said that Ibrahim said,
(My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security) (2:126) from terror, so that its people do not suffer from fear. Allah accepted Ibrahim's supplication. Allah said,
(Whosoever enters it, he attains security) (3:97) and,
(Have they not seen that We have made (Makkah) a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them) (29:67).
We have already mentioned the Hadiths that prohibit fighting in the Sacred Area. Muslim recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(No one is allowed to carry weapons in Makkah.) Allah mentioned that Ibrahim said,
(My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security) meaning, make this a safe city. This occurred before the Ka`bah was built. Allah said in Surat Ibrahim,
(And (remember) when Ibrahim said, "My Lord! Make this city (Makkah) one of peace and security...'') (14:35) as here, Ibrahim supplicated a second time after the House was built and its people lived around it, after Ishaq who was thirteen years Isma`il's junior was born. This is why at the end of his supplication, Ibrahim said here,
(All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has given me in old age Isma`il (Ishmael) and Ishaq (Isaac). Verily, my Lord is indeed the Hearer of invocations) (14:39).
Allah said next,
("...and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.'' He (Allah) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!'')
Ibn Jarir said that Ubayy bin Ka`b commented on,
(He answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!'') "These are Allah's Words (meaning not Ibrahim's)'' This is also the Tafsir of Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Furthermore, Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
(My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.) "Ibrahim asked Allah to grant sustenance for the believers only. However, Allah revealed, `I will also provide for the disbelievers, just as I shall provide for the believers. Would I create something and not sustain and provide for I shall allow the disbelievers little delight, and then force them to the torment of the Fire, and what an evil destination.'' Ibn `Abbas then recited,
(On each these as well as those We bestow from the bounties of your Lord. And the bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden) (17:20).
This was recorded by Ibn Marduwyah, who also recorded similar statements from `Ikrimah and Mujahid. Similarly, Allah said,
(Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah will never be successful. (A brief) enjoyment in this world! And then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.) (10:69-70),
(And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you (O Muhammad). To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the Knower of what is in the breasts (of men). We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) (31:23-24) and,
(And were it not that mankind would have become of one community (all disbelievers desiring worldly life only), We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious (Allah), silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend. And for their houses, doors (of silver), and thrones (of silver) on which they could recline. And adornments of gold. Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world. And the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for the Muttaqin (the pious).) (43:33-35). Allah said next,
(Then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!) meaning, "After the delight that the disbeliever enjoyed in this life, I will make his destination torment in the Fire, and what an evil destination.'' This Ayah indicates that Allah gives the disbelievers respite and then seizes them in a manner compatible to His greatness and ability. This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,
(And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing. Then (in the end) I seized it (with punishment). And to Me is the (final) return (of all)) (22:48).
Also, the Two Sahihs recorded,
(No one is more patient than Allah when hearing abuse. They attribute a son to Him, while He grants them sustenance and health.)
The Sahih also recorded,
(Allah gives respite to the unjust person, until when He seizes him; He never lets go of him.)
He then recited Allah's statement,
(Such is the punishment of your Lord when He punishes the (population of) towns while they are doing wrong. Verily, His punishment is painful (and) severe). (11:102)
(And (remember) when Ibrahim (Abraham) and (his son) Isma`il (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower. Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.'')
Allah said, "O Muhammad! Remind your people when Ibrahim and Isma`il built the House and raised its foundations while saying,
(Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.'')
Al-Qurtubi mentioned that Ubayy and Ibn Mas`ud used to recite the Ayah this way,
(And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma`il were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), Saying, "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.'')
What further testifies to this statement (which adds `saying' to the Ayah) by Ubayy and Ibn Mas`ud, is what came afterwards,
(Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You).
The Prophets Ibrahim and Isma`il were performing a good deed, yet they asked Allah to accept this good deed from them. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Wuhayb bin Al-Ward recited,
(And (remember) when Ibrahim and (his son) Isma`il were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us'') and cried and said, "O Khalil of Ar-Rahman! You raise the foundations of the House of Ar-Rahman (Allah), yet you are afraid that He will not accept it from you'' This is the behavior of the sincere believers, whom Allah described in His statement,
(And those who give that which they give) (23:60) meaning, they give away voluntary charity, and perform the acts of worship yet,
(with their hearts full of fear) (23: 60) afraid that these good deeds might not be accepted of them. There is an authentic Hadith narrated by `A'ishah on this subject, which we will mention later, Allah willing.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Prophet Ibrahim took Isma`il and his mother and went away with them until he reached the area of the House, where he left them next to a tree above Zamzam in the upper area of the Masjid. During that time, Isma`il's mother was still nursing him. Makkah was then uninhabited, and there was no water source in it. Ibrahim left them there with a bag containing some dates and a water-skin containing water. Ibrahim then started to leave, and Isma`il's mother followed him and said, `O Ibrahim! To whom are you leaving us in this barren valley that is not inhabited' She repeated the question several times and Ibrahim did not reply. She asked, `Has Allah commanded you to do this' He said, `Yes.' She said, `I am satisfied that Allah will never abandon us.' Ibrahim left, and when he was far enough away where they could not see him, close to Thaniyyah, he faced the House, raised his hands and supplicated,
(O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring to dwell in an uncultivable valley by Your Sacred House (the Ka`bah at Makkah)) until,
(Give thanks) (14:37). Isma`il's mother then returned to her place, started drinking water from the water-skin and nursing Isma`il. When the water was used up, she and her son became thirsty. She looked at him, and he was suffering from thirst; she left, because she disliked seeing his face in that condition. She found the nearest mountain to where she was, As-Safa, ascended it and looked, in vain, hoping to see somebody. When she came down to the valley, she raised her garment and ran, just as a tired person runs, until she reached the Al-Marwah mountain. In vain, she looked to see if there was someone there. She ran to and fro (between the two mountains) seven times.'' Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said, "This is why the people make the trip between As-Safa and Al-Marwah (during Hajj and Umrah).''
"When she reached Al-Marwah, she heard a voice and said, `Shush,' to herself. She tried to hear the voice again and when she did, she said, `I have heard you. Do you have relief' She found the angel digging with his heel (or his wing) where Zamzam now exists, and the water gushed out. Isma`il's mother was astonished and started digging, using her hand to transfer water to the water-skin.'' Ibn `Abbas said that the Prophet then said, "May Allah grant His mercy to the mother of Isma`il, had she left the water, (flow naturally without her intervention), it would have been flowing on the surface of the earth.''
"Isma`il's mother started drinking the water and her milk increased for her child. The angel (Gabriel) said to her, `Do not fear abandonment. There shall be a House for Allah built here by this boy and his father. Allah does not abandon His people.' During that time, the area of the House was raised above ground level and the floods used to reach its right and left sides.
Afterwards some people of the tribe of Jurhum, passing through Kada', made camp at the bottom of the valley. They saw some birds, they were astonished, and said, `Birds can only be found at a place where there is water. We did not notice before that this valley had water.' They sent a scout or two who searched the area, found the water, and returned to inform them about it. Then they all went to Isma`il's mother, next to the water, and said, `O Mother of Isma`il! Will you allow us to be with you (or dwell with you)' She said, `Yes. But you will have no exclusive right to the water here.' They said, `We agree.''' Ibn `Abbas said that the Prophet said, "At that time, Isma`il's mother liked to have human company.''
"And thus they stayed there and sent for their relatives to join them. Later on, her boy reached the age of puberty and married a lady from them, for Isma`il learned Arabic from them, and they liked the way he was raised. Isma`il's mother died after that.
Then an idea occurred to Abraham to visit his dependents. So he left (to Makkah). When he arrived, he did not find Isma`il, so he asked his wife about him. She said, `He has gone out hunting.' When he asked her about their living conditions, she complained to him that they live in misery and poverty. Abraham said (to her), `When your husband comes, convey my greeting and tell him to change the threshold of his gate.' When Isma`il came, he sensed that they had a visitor and asked his wife, `Did we have a visitor' She said, `Yes. An old man came to visit us and asked me about you, and I told him where you were. He also asked about our condition, and I told him that we live in hardship and poverty.' Isma`il said, `Did he ask you to do anything' She said, `Yes. He asked me to convey his greeting and that you should change the threshold of your gate.' Isma`il said to her, `He was my father and you are the threshold, so go to your family (i.e. you are divorced).' So he divorced her and married another woman. Again Ibrahim thought of visiting his dependents whom he had left (at Makkah). Ibrahim came to Isma`il's house, but did not find Isma`il and asked his wife, `Where is Isma`il' Isma`il's wife replied, `He has gone out hunting.' He asked her about their condition, and she said that they have a good life and praised Allah. Ibrahim asked, `What is your food and what is your drink' She replied, `Our food is meat and our drink is water.' He said, `O Allah! Bless their meat and their drink.''' The Prophet (Muhammad) said, "They did not have crops then, otherwise Ibrahim would have invoked Allah to bless that too. Those who do not live in Makkah cannot bear eating a diet only containing meat and water.''
"Ibrahim said, `When Isma`il comes back, convey my greeting to him and ask him to keep the threshold of his gate.' When Isma`il came back, he asked, `Has anyone visited us.' She said, `Yes. A good looking old man,' and she praised Ibrahim, `And he asked me about our livelihood and I told him that we live in good conditions.' He asked, `Did he ask you to convey any message' She said, `Yes. He conveyed his greeting to you and said that you should keep the threshold of your gate.' Isma`il said, `That was my father, and you are the threshold; he commanded me to keep you.'
Ibrahim then came back visiting and found Isma`il behind the Zamzam well, next to a tree, mending his arrows. When he saw Ibrahim, he stood up and they greeted each other, just as the father and son greet each other. Ibrahim said, `O Isma`il, Your Lord has ordered me to do something.' He said, `Obey your Lord.' He asked Isma`il, `Will you help me' He said, `Yes, I will help you.' Ibrahim said, `Allah has commanded me to build a house for Him there, ' and he pointed to an area that was above ground level. So, both of them rose and started to raise the foundations of the House. Abraham started building (the Ka`bah), while Isma`il continued handing him the stones. Both of them were saying, `O our Lord ! Accept (this service) from us, Verily, You are the Hearing, the Knowing.' (2.127).''' Hence, they were building the House, part by part, going around it and saying,
(Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily, You are the Hearer, the Knower.)
In his Sirah, Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said, "When the Messenger of Allah reached thirty-five years of age, the Quraysh gathered to rebuild the Ka`bah, this included covering it with a roof. However, they were weary of demolishing it. During that time, the Ka`bah was barely above a man's shoulder, so they wanted to raise its height and build a ceiling on top. Some people had stolen the Ka`bah's treasure beforehand, which used to be in a well in the middle of the Ka`bah. The treasure was later found with a man called, Duwayk, a freed servant of Bani Mulayh bin `Amr, from the tribe of Khuza`ah. The Quraysh cut off his hand as punishment. Some people claimed that those who actually stole the treasure left it with Duwayk. Afterwards, the sea brought a ship that belonged to a Roman merchant to the shores of Jeddah, where it washed-up. So they collected the ship's wood to use it for the Ka`bah's ceiling; a Coptic carpenter in Makkah prepared what they needed for the job. When they decided to begin the demolition process to rebuild the House, Abu Wahb bin `Amr bin `A'idh bin `Abd bin `Imran bin Makhzum took a stone from the Ka`bah; the stone slipped from his hand and went back to where it had been. He said, `O people of Quraysh! Do not spend on rebuilding the House, except from what was earned from pure sources. No money earned from a prostitute, usury or injustice should be included.''' Ibn Ishaq commented here that the people also attribute these words to Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah bin `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Makhzum.
Ibn Ishaq continued, "The Quraysh began to organize their efforts to rebuild the Ka`bah, each subtribe taking the responsibility of rebuilding a designated part of it.
However, they were still weary about bringing down the Ka`bah. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said, `I will start to bring it down.' He held an ax and stood by the Ka`bah and said, `O Allah! No harm is meant. O Allah! We only seek to do a good service.' He then started to chop the House's stones. The people waited that night and said, `We will wait and see. If something strikes him, we will not bring it down and instead rebuild it the way it was. If nothing happens to him, then Allah will have agreed to what we are doing.' The next morning, Al-Walid went to work on the Ka`bah, and the people started bringing the Ka`bah down with him. When they reached the foundations that Ibrahim built, they uncovered green stones that were above each other, just like a pile of spears.'' Ibn Ishaq then said that some people told him, "A man from Quraysh, who was helping rebuild the Ka`bah, placed the shovel between two of these stones to pull them up; when one of the stones was moved, all of Makkah shook, so they did not dig up these stones.''
Ibn Ishaq said, "The tribes of Quraysh collected stones to rebuild the House, each tribe collecting on their own. They started rebuilding it, until the rebuilding of the Ka`bah reached the point where the Black Stone was to be placed in its designated site. A dispute erupted between the various tribes of Quraysh, each seeking the honor of placing the Black Stone for their own tribe. The dispute almost led to violence between the leaders of Quraysh in the area of the Sacred House. Banu `Abd Ad-Dar and Banu `Adi bin Ka`b bin Lu'ay, gave their mutual pledge to fight until death. However, five or four days later, Abu Umayyah bin Al-Mughirah bin `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Makhzum, the oldest man from Quraysh then intervened at the right moment. Abu Umayyah suggested that Quraysh should appoint the first man to enter the House from its entrance to be a mediator between them. They agreed.
The Messenger - Muhammad - was the first person to enter the House. When the various leaders of Quraysh realized who the first one was, they all proclaimed, `This is Al-Amin (the Honest one). We all accept him; This is Muhammad.' When the Prophet reached the area where the leaders were gathering and they informed him about their dispute, he asked them to bring a garment and place it on the ground. He placed the Black Stone on it. He then requested that each of the leaders of Quraysh hold the garment from one side and all participate in lifting the Black Stone, moving it to its designated area. Next, the Prophet carried the Black Stone by himself and placed it in its designated position and built around it. The Quraysh used to call the Messenger of Allah `Al-Amin' even before the revelation came to him.''
Ibn Ishaq said, "During the time of the Prophet, the Ka`bah was eighteen cubits high and was covered with Egyptian linen, and they with a striped garment. Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the first person to cover it with silk.'' The Ka`bah remained the same way the Quraysh rebuilt it, until it was burned during the reign of `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, after the year 6o H, at the end of the reign of Yazid bin Mu`awiyah. During that time, Ibn Az-Zubayr was besieged at Makkah. When it was burned, Ibn Az-Zubayr brought the Ka`bah down and built it upon the foundations of Ibrahim, including the Hijr in it. He also made an eastern door and a western door in the Ka`bah and placed them on ground level. He had heard his aunt `A'ishah, the Mother of the believers, narrate that the Messenger of Allah had wished that. The Ka`bah remained like this throughout his reign, until Al-Hajjaj killed Ibn Az-Zubayr and then rebuilt it the way it was before, by the order of `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan.
Muslim recorded that `Ata' said, "The House was burnt during the reign of Yazid bin Mu`awiyah, when the people of Ash-Sham raided Makkah. Ibn Az-Zubayr did not touch the House until the people came for Hajj, for he wanted to incite them against the people of Ash-Sham. He said to them, `O people! Advise me regarding the Ka`bah, should we bring it down and rebuild it, or just repair the damage it sustained' Ibn `Abbas said, `I have an opinion about this. You should rebuild the House the way it was when the people became Muslims. You should leave the stones that existed when the people became Muslims and when the Prophet was sent. ' Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `If the house of one of them gets burned, he will not be satisfied, until he rebuilds it. How about Allah's House I will invoke my Lord for three days and will then implement what I decide.' When the three days had passed, he decided to bring the Ka`bah down. The people hesitated to bring it down, fearing that the first person to climb on the House would be struck down. A man went on top of the House and threw some stones down, and when the people saw that no harm touched him, they started doing the same. They brought the House down to ground level. Ibn Az-Zubayr surrounded the site with curtains hanging from pillars, so that the House would be covered, until the building was erect. Ibn Az-Zubayr then said, `I heard `A'ishah say that the Messenger of Allah said,
(If it was not for the fact that the people have recently abandoned disbelief, and that I do not have enough money to spend on it, I would have included in the House five cubits from Al-Hijr and would have made a door for it that people could enter from, and another door that they could exit from.)
Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `I can spend on this job, and I do not fear the people.' So he added five cubits from the Hijr, which looked like a rear part for the House that people could clearly see. He then built the House and made it eighteen cubits high. He thought that the House was still short and added ten cubits in the front and built two doors in it, one as an entrance and another as an exit.
When Ibn Az-Zubayr was killed, Al-Hajjaj wrote to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan asking him about the House and told him that Ibn Az-Zubayr made a rear section for the House. `Abdul-Malik wrote back, `We do not agree with Ibn Az-Zubayr's actions. As, for the Ka`bah's height, leave it as it is. As for what he added from the Hijr, bring it down, and build the House as it was before and close the door.' Therefore, Al-Hajjaj brought down the House and rebuilt it as it was.'' In his Sunan, An-Nasa'i collected the Hadith of the Prophet narrated from `A'ishah, not the whole story,
The correct Sunnah conformed to Ibn Az-Zubayr's actions, because this was what the Prophet wished he could do, but feared that the hearts of the people who recently became Muslim could not bear rebuilding the House. This Sunnah was not clear to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. Hence, when `Abdul-Malik realized that `A'ishah had narrated the Hadith of the Messenger of Allah on this subject, he said, "I wish we had left it as Ibn Az-Zubayr had made it.'' Muslim recorded that `Ubadydullah bin `Ubayd said that Al-Harith bin `Abdullah came to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan during his reign. `Abdul-Malik said, `I did not think that Abu Khubayb (Ibn Az-Zubayr) heard from `A'ishah what he said he heard from her.' Al-Harith said, `Yes he did. I heard the Hadith from her.' `Abdul-Malik said, `You heard her say what' He said, `She said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Your people rebuilt the House smaller. Had it not been for the fact that your people are not far from the time of Shirk, I would add what was left outside of it. If your people afterwards think about rebuilding it, let me show you what they left out of it.) He showed her around seven cubits.'
One of the narrators of the Hadith, Al-Walid bin `Ata', added that the Prophet said,
(I would have made two doors for the House on ground level, one eastern and one western. Do you know why your people raised its door above ground level) She said, `No.' He said, (To allow only those whom they wanted to enter it. When a man whom they did not wish to enter the House climbed to the level of the door, they would push him down)
`Abdul-Malik then said, `You heard `A'ishah say this Hadith' He said, `Yes.' `Abdul-Malik said, `I wish I left it as it was.''
The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The Ka`bah will be destroyed by Dhus-Sawiqatayn (literally, a person with two lean legs) from Ethiopia.)
Also, Ibn `Abbas said that the Prophet said,
(As if I see him now: a black person with thin legs plucking the stones of the Ka`bah one after another.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith.
Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(Dhus-Sawiqatayn from Ethiopia will destroy the Ka`bah and will loot its adornments and cover. It is as if I see him now: bald, with thin legs striking the Ka`bah with his ax.)
This will occur after the appearance of Gog and Magog people. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(There will be Hajj and `Umrah to the House after the appearance of Gog and Magog people.)
Allah said that Ibrahim and Isma`il supplicated to Him,
(Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manasik, and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.)
Ibn Jarir said, "They meant by their supplication, `Make us submit to Your command and obedience and not associate anyone with You in obedience or worship. ''Also, `Ikrimah commented on the Ayah,
(Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You)
"Allah said, `I shall do that.'''
(And of our offspring a nation submissive unto You)
Allah said, `I shall do that.'"
This supplication by Ibrahim and Isma`il is similar to what Allah informed us of about His believing servants,
(And those who say: `Our Lord! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders of the Muttaqin) (25:74).
This type of supplication is allowed, because loving to have offspring who worship Allah alone without partners is a sign of complete love of Allah. This is why when Allah said to Ibrahim,
(Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind (to follow you)) Ibrahim said,
("And of my offspring (to make leaders).'' (Allah) said, "My covenant (prophethood) includes not the Zalimin (polytheists and wrongdoers)'') which is explained by,
(And keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols)
Muslim narrated in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When the son of Adam dies, his deeds end except for three deeds: an ongoing charity, a knowledge that is being benefited from and a righteous son who supplicates (to Allah) for him.)
Sa`id bin Mansur said that `Attab bin Bashir informed us from Khasif, from Mujahid who said, "The Prophet Ibrahim supplicated,
(and show us our Manasik) Jibril then came down, took him to the House and said, `Raise its foundations.' Ibrahim raised the House's foundations and completed the building. Jibril held Ibrahim's hand, led him to As-Safa and said, `This is among the rituals of Allah.' He then took him to Al-Marwah and said, `And this is among the rituals of Allah.' He then took him to Mina until when they reached the `Aqabah, they found Iblis standing next to a tree. Jibril said, `Say Takbir (Allah is the Great) and throw (pebbles) at him.' Ibrahim said the Takbir and threw (pebbles at) Iblis. Iblis moved to the middle Jamrah, and when Jibril and Ibrahim passed by him, Jibril said to Ibrahim, `Say Takbir and throw at him.' Ibrahim threw at him and said Takbir. The devious Iblis sought to add some evil acts to the rituals of Hajj, but he was unable to succeed. Jibril took Ibrahim's hand and led him to Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram and `Arafat and said to him, `Have you `Arafta (known, learned) what I showed you' thrice. Ibrahim said, `Yes I did.''' Similar statements were reported from Abu Mijlaz and Qatadah.
(129. "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall recite unto them Your verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'an), and purify them. Verily, You are the Mighty, the Wise.'')
Allah mentioned Ibrahim's supplication for the benefit of the people of the Sacred Area (to grant them security and provision), and it was perfected by invoking Allah to send a Messenger from his offspring. This accepted supplication, from Ibrahim, conformed with Allah's appointed destiny that Muhammad be sent as a Messenger among the Ummiyyin and to all non-Arabs, among the Jinns and mankind.
Hence, Ibrahim was the first person to mention the Prophet to the people. Ever since, Muhammad was known to the people, until the last Prophet was sent among the Children of Israel, Jesus the son of Mary, who mentioned Muhammad by name. Jesus addressed the Children of Israel saying,
(I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming what is before me in the Tawrah, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad) (61:6)
This is why the Prophet said,
(The supplication of my father Ibrahim and the glad tidings brought forth by Jesus the son of Mary.)
The Prophet said,
(My mother saw a light that went out of her and radiated the palaces of Ash-Sham.)
It was said that the Prophet's mother saw this vision when she was pregnant with, narrated this vision to her people, and the story became popular among them. The light mentioned in the Hadith appeared in Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), testifying to what will later occur when the Prophet's religion will be firmly established in Ash-Sham area. This is why by the end of time, Ash-Sham will be a refuge for Islam and its people. Also, Jesus the son of Mary will descend in Ash-Sham, next to the eastern white minaret in Damascus. The Two Sahihs stated,
(There will always be a group of my Ummah who will be on the truth, undeterred by those who fail or oppose them, until the command of Allah comes while they are on this.)
Al-Bukhari added in his Sahih, (And they will reside in Ash-Sham.)
(and instruct them in the Book) meaning, Al-Qur'an,
(and Al-Hikmah) meaning, the Sunnah, as Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Abu Malik asserted. It was also said that `Al-Hikmah', means `comprehension in the religion', and both meanings are correct. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said, that Ibn `Abbas said that,
(and purify them) means, "With the obedience of Allah.''
(Verily, You are the Mighty, the Wise).
This Ayah stated that Allah is able to do anything, and nothing escapes His ability. He is Wise in His decisions, His actions, and He puts everything in its rightful place due to His perfect knowledge, wisdom and justice.
(130. And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who fools himself Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous). (131. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).'') (132. And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya`qub (Jacob) (saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.'')
Allah refuted the disbelievers' innovations of associating others with Allah in defiance of the religion of Ibrahim, the leader of the upright. Ibrahim always singled out Allah in worship, with sincerity, and he did not call upon others besides Allah. He did not commit Shirk, even for an instant. He disowned every other deity that was being worshipped instead of Allah and defied all his people in this regard. Prophet Ibrahim said,
(O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners (in worship with Allah). Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism), and I am not of Al-Mushrikin.) (6:78-79). Also, Allah said,
(And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people: "Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. "Except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allah alone) Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me'') (43:26-27),
(And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made to him (his father). But when it became clear to him (Ibrahim) that he (his father) was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah (one who invokes Allah with humility, glorifies Him and remembers Him much) and was forbearing) (9:114), and,
(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all the good qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin. (He was) thankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.) (16:120-122).
This is why Allah said here,
(And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim), meaning, abandons his path, way and method
(except him who fools himself) meaning, who commits injustice against himself by deviating from the truth, to wickedness. Such a person will be defying the path of he who was chosen in this life to be a true Imam, from the time he was young, until Allah chose him to be His Khalil, and who shall be among the successful in the Last Life. Is there anything more insane than deviating from this path and following the path of misguidance and deviation instead Is there more injustice than this Allah said,
(Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed) (31:13).
Abu Al-`Aliyah and Qatadah said, "This Ayah (2:130) was revealed about the Jews who invented a practice that did not come from Allah and that defied the religion of Ibrahim.'' Allah's statement,
(Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers.) (3:67-68), testifies to this fact.
Allah said next,
(When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i. e. be a Muslim)!'' He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).'')
This Ayah indicates that Allah commanded Ibrahim to be sincere with Him and to abide and submit to Him; Ibrahim perfectly adhered to Allah's command. Allah's statement,
(And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Ya`qub) means, Ibrahim commanded his offspring to follow this religion, that is, Islam, for Allah. Or, the Ayah might be referring to Ibrahim's words,
(I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists)).
This means that these Prophets loved these words so much that they preserved them until the time of death and advised their children to adhere to them after them. Similarly, Allah said,
(And he (Ibrahim) made it ﴿i.e. La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone)﴾ a Word lasting among his offspring, (true Monotheism)) (43:28).
It might be that Ibrahim advised his children, including Jacob, Isaac's son, who were present. It appears, and Allah knows best, that Isaac was endowed with Jacob, during the lifetime of Ibrahim and Sarah, for the good news includes both of them in Allah's statement,
(But We gave her (Sarah) glad tidings of Ishaq (Isaac), and after Ishaq, of Ya`qub (Jacob)) (11:71).
Also, if Jacob was not alive then, there would be no use here in mentioning him specifically among Isaac's children. Also, Allah said in Surat Al-`Ankabut,
(And We bestowed on him (Ibrahim), Ishaq and Ya`qub, and We ordained among his offspring prophethood and the Book.) (29:27), and,
(And We bestowed upon him Ishaq, and (a grandson) Ya`qub) (21:72), thus, indicating that this occurred during Ibrahim's lifetime. Also, Jacob built Bayt Al-Maqdis, as earlier books testified. The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Dharr said, "I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which Masjid was built first' He said, (Al-Masjid Al-Haram (Al-Ka`bah).) I said, `Then' He said, (Bayt Al- Maqdis.) I said, `How many years later' He said, (Forty years.)'' Further, the advice that Jacob gave to his children, which we will soon mention, testifies that Jacob was among those who received the advice mentioned in Ayat above (2:130-132).
((Saying), "O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.'') meaning, perform righteous deeds during your lifetime and remain on this path, so that Allah will endow you with the favor of dying upon it. Usually, one dies upon the path that he lived on and is resurrected according to what he died on. Allah, the Most Generous, helps those who seek to do good deeds to remain on the righteous path.
This by no means contradicts the authentic Hadith that says,
(Man might perform the works of the people of Paradise until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from it, then the Book (destiny) takes precedence, and he performs the works of the people of the Fire and thus enters it. Also, man might perform the works of the people of the Fire until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from the Fire, but the Book takes precedence and he performs the works of the people of Paradise and thus enters it.) Allah said, (92:5-10),
(As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him. And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husna (none has the right to be worshipped except Allah). We will make smooth for him the path for evil),
(133. Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya`qub (Jacob) When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me'' They said, "We shall worship your AIlah (God ـ Allah) the Ilah of your fathers, Ibrahim (Abraham), Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), One Ilah, and to Him we submit (in Islam)).'' (134. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.)