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Hypocrites defame Believers Who give the Little Charity They can afford

Among the traits of the hypocrites is that they will not leave anyone without defaming and ridiculing him in all circumstances even those who give away charity. If, for instance, someone gives away a large amount, the hypocrites say that he is showing off. If someone gives away a small amount they say that Allah stands not in need of this man's charity. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Ubaydullah bin Sa`id said that Abu An-Nu`man Al-Basri said that Shu`bah narrated that Sulayman said that Abu Wa'il said that Abu Mas`ud said, "When the verses of charity were revealed, we used to work as porters. A man came and distributed objects of charity in abundance and they (hypocrites) said, `He is showing off.' Another man came and gave a Sa` (a small measure of food grains); they said, `Allah is not in need of this small amount of charity.' Then the Ayah was revealed;

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ يَلۡمِزُونَ ٱلۡمُطَّوِّعِينَ

(Those who defame the volunteers...)'' Muslim collected this Hadith in the Sahih. Al-`Awfi narrated that Ibn `Abbas said, "One day, the Messenger of Allah went out to the people and called them to bring forth their charity, and they started bringing their charity. Among the last to come forth was a man who brought a Sa` of dates, saying, `O Allah's Messenger! This is a Sa` of dates. I spent the night bringing water and earned two Sa` of dates for my work. I kept one Sa` and brought you the other Sa`. ' The Messenger of Allah ordered him to add it to the charity. Some men mocked that man, saying, `Allah and His Messenger are not in need of this charity. What benefit would this Sa` of yours bring' `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf asked Allah's Messenger , `Are there any more people who give charity' The Messenger of Allah said,

« لَمْ يَبْقَ أَحَدٌ غَيْرُك »

(None besides you!) `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf said, `I will give a hundred Uqiyah of gold as a charity.' `Umar bin Al-Khattab said to him, `Are you crazy' `Abdur-Rahman said, `I am not crazy.' `Umar said, `Have you given what you said would give' `Abdur-Rahman said, `Yes. I have eight thousand (Dirhams), four thousand I give as a loan to my Lord and four thousand I keep for myself.' The Messenger of Allah said,

« بَارَكَ اللهُ لَكَ فِيمَا أَمْسَكْتَ وَفِيمَا أَعْطَيْت »

(May Allah bless you for what you kept and what you gave away). However, the hypocrites defamed him, `By Allah! `Abdur-Rahman gave what he gave just to show off.' They lied, for `Abdur-Rahman willingly gave that money, and Allah revealed about his innocence and the innocence of the fellow who was poor and brought only a Sa` of dates. Allah said in His Book,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ يَلۡمِزُونَ ٱلۡمُطَّوِّعِينَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ فِى ٱلصَّدَقَـٰتِ

(Those who defame such of the believers who give charity voluntarily) (9:79).''' A similar story was narrated from Mujahid and several others. Ibn Ishaq said, "Among the believers who gave away charity were `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf who gave four thousand Dirhams and `Asim bin `Adi from Bani `Ajlan. This occurred after the Messenger of Allah encouraged and called for paying charity. `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf stood and gave away four thousand Dirhams. `Asim bin `Adi also stood and gave a hundred Wasaq of dates, but some people defamed them, saying, `They are showing off.' As for the person who gave the little that he could afford, he was Abu `Aqil, from Bani Anif Al-Arashi, who was an ally of Bani `Amr bin `Awf. He brought a Sa` of dates and added it to the charity. They laughed at him, saying, `Allah does not need the Sa` of Abu `Aqil.''' Allah said,

﴿ فَيَسۡخَرُونَ مِنۡہُمۡ‌ۙ سَخِرَ ٱللَّهُ مِنۡہُمۡ

(so they mock at them (believers); Allah will throw back their mockery on them) rebuking them for their evil actions and defaming the believers. Truly, the reward, or punishment, is equitable to the action. Allah treated them the way mocked people are treated, to aid the believers in this life. Allah has prepared a painful torment in the Hereafter for the hypocrites, for the recompense is similar to the deed.

﴿ ٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ أَوۡ لَا تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ إِن تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ سَبۡعِينَ مَرَّةً۬ فَلَن يَغۡفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمۡ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّہُمۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقِينَ

(80. Whether you (O Muhammad ) ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites) or ask not forgiveness for them -- (and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness -- Allah will not forgive them because they have disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger. And Allah guides not those people who are rebellious.)

The Prohibition of asking for Forgiveness for Hypocrites

Allah says to His Prophet that hypocrites are not worthy of seeking forgiveness for them and that if he asks Allah to forgive them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them. The number seventy here was mentioned to close the door on this subject, for Arabs use this number when they exaggerate, not that they actually mean seventy or more than seventy. Ash-Sha`bi said that when `Abdullah bin Ubayy was dying, his son went to the Prophet and said to him, "My father has died, I wish you could attend him and pray the funeral prayer for him.'' The Prophet said,

« مَا اسْمُك »

("What is you name) He said, "Al-Hubab bin `Abdullah.'' The Prophet said,

« بَلْ أَنْتَ عَبْدُ اللهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللهِ إِنَّ الْحُبَابَ اسْمَ شَيْطَان »

(Rather, you are `Abdullah bin `Abdullah, for Al-Hubab is a devil's name.) The Prophet went along with him, attended his father's funeral, gave him his shirt as a shroud and prayed the funeral prayer for him. He was asked, "Would you pray on him, when he is a hypocrite'' He said,

« إِنَّ اللهَ قَالَ:
﴿ إِن تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ سَبۡعِينَ مَرَّةً۬
وَلَأسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَهُمْ سَبْعِينَ وَسَبْعِينَ وَسَبْعِين »

(Allah said,(...(and even) if you ask seventy times for their forgiveness...) Verily, I will ask Allah to forgive them seventy times and seventy more and seventy more.)'' Similar narrations were collected from `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid, Qatadah bin Di`amah and Ibn Jarir.

﴿ فَرِحَ ٱلۡمُخَلَّفُونَ بِمَقۡعَدِهِمۡ خِلَـٰفَ رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَرِهُوٓاْ أَن يُجَـٰهِدُواْ بِأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِہِمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَالُواْ لَا تَنفِرُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَرِّ‌ۗ قُلۡ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرًّ۬ا‌ۚ لَّوۡ كَانُواْ يَفۡقَهُونَ فَلۡيَضۡحَكُواْ قَلِيلاً۬ وَلۡيَبۡكُواْ كَثِيرً۬ا جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ

(81. Those who stayed away (from Tabuk expedition) rejoiced in their staying behind the Messenger of Allah; they hated to strive and fight with their properties and their lives in the cause of Allah, and they said: "March not forth in the heat.'' Say: "The fire of Hell is more intense in heat;'' if only they could understand!) (82. So let them laugh a little and (they will) cry much as a recompense of what they used to earn (by committing sins).)

Hypocrites rejoice because They remained behind from Tabuk!

Allah admonishes the hypocrites who lagged behind from the battle of Tabuk with the Companions of the Messenger of Allah , rejoicing that they remained behind after the Messenger departed for the battle,

﴿ وَكَرِهُوٓاْ أَن يُجَـٰهِدُواْ

(they hated to strive and fight), along with the Messenger ,

﴿ بِأَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِہِمۡ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَالُواْ

(with their properties and their lives in the cause of Allah, and they said), to each other,

﴿ لَا تَنفِرُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَرِّ‌ۗ

("March not forth in the heat.'') Tabuk occurred at a time when the heat was intense and the fruits and shades became delightful. This is why they said,

﴿ لَا تَنفِرُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَرِّ‌ۗ

("March not forth in the heat'') Allah said to His Messenger ,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say) to them,

﴿ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ

("The fire of Hell...), which will be your destination because of your disobedience,

﴿ أَشَدُّ حَرًّ۬ا‌ۚ

(". ..is more intense in heat;''), than the heat that you sought to avoid; it is even more intense than fire. Imam Malik narrated that Abu Az-Zinad said that Al-A`raj narrated that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« نَارُ بَنِي آدَمَ الَّتِي تُوقِدُونَهَا جُزْءٌ مِنْ سَبْعِينَ جُزْءًا مِنْ نَارِ جَهَنَّم »

(The fire that the son of Adam kindles is but one part of seventy parts of the Fire of Jahannam.) They said, "O Allah's Messenger! This fire alone is enough.'' He said,

« فُضِّلَتْ عَلَيْهَا بِتِسْعَةٍ وَسِتِّينَ جُزْءًا »

((Hellfire) was favored by sixty-nine parts.) The Two Sahihs collected this Hadith. Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Ishaq said that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ أَهْوَنَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ عَذَابًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لِمَنْ لَهُ نَعْلَانِ وَشِرَاكَانِ مِنْ نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ يَغْلِي مِنْهُمَا دِمَاغُهُ كَمَا يَغْلِي الْمِرْجَلُ، لَا يَرَى أَنَّ أَحَدًا مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ أَشَدُّ عَذَابًا مِنْهُ وَإِنَّهُ أَهْوَنُهُمْ عَذَابًا »

(On the Day of Resurrection, the person who will receive the least punishment among the people of the Fire, wears two slippers made from the Fire of Jahannam causing his brain to boil, just as a pot boils. He thinks that none in the Fire is receiving a more severe torment than he, when in fact he is receiving the least torment.) The Two Sahihs collected this Hadith. There are many other Ayat and Prophetic Hadiths on this subject. Allah said in His Glorious Book,

﴿ كَلَّآ‌ۖ إِنَّہَا لَظَىٰ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ

(By no means! Verily, it will be the Fire of Hell. Taking away (burning completely) the scalp!) (70:15-16),

﴿ هَـٰذَانِ خَصۡمَانِ ٱخۡتَصَمُواْ فِى رَبِّہِمۡ‌ۖ فَٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ قُطِّعَتۡ لَهُمۡ ثِيَابٌ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ يُصَبُّ مِن فَوۡقِ رُءُوسِہِمُ ٱلۡحَمِيمُ يُصۡهَرُ بِهِۦ مَا فِى بُطُونِہِمۡ وَٱلۡجُلُودُ وَلَهُم مَّقَـٰمِعُ مِنۡ حَدِيدٍ۬ ڪُلَّمَآ أَرَادُوٓاْ أَن يَخۡرُجُواْ مِنۡہَا مِنۡ غَمٍّ أُعِيدُواْ فِيہَا وَذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ ٱلۡحَرِيقِ

(Al-Hamim (boiling water) will be poured down over their heads. With it will melt (or vanish away) what is within their bellies, as well as (their) skins. And for them are hooked rods of iron (to punish them). Every time they seek to get away therefrom, from anguish, they will be driven back therein, and (it will be said to them): "Taste the torment of burning!'') (22:19-22), and,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا سَوۡفَ نُصۡلِيہِمۡ نَارً۬ا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتۡ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ جُلُودًا غَيۡرَهَا لِيَذُوقُواْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ‌ۗ

(Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment.) (4:56) Allah said here,

﴿ قُلۡ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ أَشَدُّ حَرًّ۬ا‌ۚ لَّوۡ كَانُواْ يَفۡقَهُونَ

(Say: "The fire of Hell is more intense in heat;'' if only they could understand!) meaning, if they have any comprehension or understanding, they would have marched with the Messenger of Allah during the heat, so as to save themselves from the Fire of Jahannam, which is much more severe. Allah, the Exalted, then warns the hypocrites against their conduct,

﴿ فَلۡيَضۡحَكُواْ قَلِيلاً۬

(So let them laugh a little...) Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented, "Life is short, so let them laugh as much as they like in it. But when life ends and they are returned to Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, they will start crying forever without end.''

﴿ فَإِن رَّجَعَكَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَىٰ طَآٮِٕفَةٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ فَٱسۡتَـٔۡذَنُوكَ لِلۡخُرُوجِ فَقُل لَّن تَخۡرُجُواْ مَعِىَ أَبَدً۬ا وَلَن تُقَـٰتِلُواْ مَعِىَ عَدُوًّا‌ۖ إِنَّكُمۡ رَضِيتُم بِٱلۡقُعُودِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬ فَٱقۡعُدُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡخَـٰلِفِينَ

(83. If Allah brings you back to a party of them (the hypocrites), and they ask your permission to go out (to fight), say: "Never shall you go out with me nor fight an enemy with me; you were pleased to sit (inactive) on the first occasion, then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.'')

Hypocrites are barred from participating in Jihad

Allah commands His Messenger, peace be upon him,

﴿ فَإِن رَّجَعَكَ ٱللَّهُ

(If Allah brings you back), from this battle,

﴿ إِلَىٰ طَآٮِٕفَةٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ

(to a party of them) in reference to the twelve (hypocrite) men, according to Qatadah,

﴿ فَٱسۡتَـٔۡذَنُوكَ لِلۡخُرُوجِ

(and they ask your permission to go out), with you to another battle,

﴿ فَقُل لَّن تَخۡرُجُواْ مَعِىَ أَبَدً۬ا وَلَن تُقَـٰتِلُواْ مَعِىَ عَدُوًّا‌ۖ

(say: "Never shall you go out with me nor fight an enemy with me...'') as an admonishment and punishment for them. Allah mentioned the reason for this decision,

﴿ إِنَّكُمۡ رَضِيتُم بِٱلۡقُعُودِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬

("You were pleased to sit (inactive) on the first occasion...'') Allah said in a similar Ayah,

﴿ وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفۡـِٔدَتَہُمۡ وَأَبۡصَـٰرَهُمۡ كَمَا لَمۡ يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِهِۦۤ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away (from guidance), as they refused to believe therein for the first time. ) (6:110) The recompense of an evil deed includes being directed to follow it with another evil deed, while the reward of a good deed includes being directed to another good deed after it. For instance, Allah said concerning the `Umrah of Hudaybiyyah,

﴿ سَيَقُولُ ٱلۡمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا ٱنطَلَقۡتُمۡ إِلَىٰ مَغَانِمَ لِتَأۡخُذُوهَا

(Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils.) (48:15) Allah said next,

﴿ فَٱقۡعُدُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡخَـٰلِفِينَ

("...then you sit (now) with those who lag behind.'') in reference to the men who lagged behind from ﴿Tabuk battle, according to Ibn `Abbas.

﴿ وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰٓ أَحَدٍ۬ مِّنۡہُم مَّاتَ أَبَدً۬ا وَلَا تَقُمۡ عَلَىٰ قَبۡرِهِۦۤ‌ۖ إِنَّہُمۡ كَفَرُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَمَاتُواْ وَهُمۡ فَـٰسِقُونَ

(84. And never (O Muhammad ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and died while they were Fasiqun.)

The Prohibition of Prayer for the Funeral of Hypocrites

Allah commands His Messenger to disown the hypocrites, to abstain from praying the funeral prayer when any of them dies, from standing next to his grave to seek Allah's forgiveness for him, or to invoke Allah for his benefit. This is because hypocrites disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger and died as such. This ruling applies to all those who are known to be hypocrites, even though it was revealed about the specific case of `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, the chief hypocrite. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "When `Abdullah bin Ubayy died, his son, `Abdullah bin `Abdullah, came to the Messenger of Allah and asked him to give him his shirt to shroud his father in, and the Messenger did that. He also asked that the Prophet offer his father's funeral prayer, and Allah's Messenger stood up to offer the funeral prayer. `Umar took hold of the Prophet's robe and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Are you going to offer his funeral prayer even though your Lord has forbidden you to do so' Allah's Messenger said,

« إِنَّمَا خَيَّرَنِي اللهُ فَقَالَ:

(I have been given the choice, for Allah says:

﴿ ٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ أَوۡ لَا تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ إِن تَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُمۡ سَبۡعِينَ مَرَّةً۬ فَلَن يَغۡفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمۡ‌ۚ

(Whether you ask forgiveness for them (hypocrites), or do not ask for forgiveness for them. Even though you ask for their forgiveness seventy times, Allah will not forgive them.)

وَسَأَزِيدُهُ عَلَى السَّبْعِين »

(Verily, I will ask (for forgiveness for him) more than seventy times).' `Umar said, `He is a hypocrite!' So Allah's Messenger offered the funeral prayer and on that Allah revealed this Verse,

﴿ وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰٓ أَحَدٍ۬ مِّنۡہُم مَّاتَ أَبَدً۬ا وَلَا تَقُمۡ عَلَىٰ قَبۡرِهِۦۤ‌ۖ

(And never (O Muhammad) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave.)'' `Umar bin Al-Khattab narrated a similar narration. In this narration, `Umar said, "The Prophet offered his funeral prayer, walked with the funeral procession and stood on his grave until he was buried. I was amazed at my daring to talk like this to the Messenger of Allah , while Allah and His Messenger have better knowledge. By Allah, soon afterwards, these two Ayat were revealed,

﴿ وَلَا تُصَلِّ عَلَىٰٓ أَحَدٍ۬ مِّنۡہُم مَّاتَ أَبَدً۬ا

(And never (O Muhammad ) pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies.) Ever since this revelation came, the Prophet never offered the funeral prayer for any hypocrite nor stood on his grave until Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, brought death to him.'' At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith in his Tafsir (section of his Sunan) and said, "Hasan Sahih''. Al-Bukhari also recorded it.

﴿ وَلَا تُعۡجِبۡكَ أَمۡوَٲلُهُمۡ وَأَوۡلَـٰدُهُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُعَذِّبَہُم بِہَا فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَتَزۡهَقَ أَنفُسُہُمۡ وَهُمۡ ڪَـٰفِرُونَ

(85. And let not their wealth or their children amaze you. Allah only wants to punish them with these things in this world, and that their souls shall depart (die) while they are disbelievers.) We mentioned before the explanation of a similar Ayah, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.

﴿ وَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتۡ سُورَةٌ أَنۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِٱللَّهِ وَجَـٰهِدُواْ مَعَ رَسُولِهِ ٱسۡتَـٔۡذَنَكَ أُوْلُواْ ٱلطَّوۡلِ مِنۡهُمۡ وَقَالُواْ ذَرۡنَا نَكُن مَّعَ ٱلۡقَـٰعِدِينَ رَضُواْ بِأَن يَكُونُواْ مَعَ ٱلۡخَوَالِفِ وَطُبِعَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِہِمۡ فَهُمۡ لَا يَفۡقَهُونَ

(86. And when a Surah is revealed, enjoining them to believe in Allah and to strive hard and fight along with His Messenger, the wealthy among them ask your leave to exempt them and say, "Leave us (behind), we would be with those who sit (at home).'') (87. They are content to be with those who sit behind. Their hearts are sealed up, so they understand not.)