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Allah has purchased the Souls and Wealth of the Mujahidin in Return for Paradise

Allah states that He has compensated His believing servants for their lives and wealth -- if they give them up in His cause -- with Paradise. This demonstrates Allah's favor, generosity and bounty, for He has accepted the good that He already owns and bestowed, as a price from His faithful servants. Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah commented, "By Allah! Allah has purchased them and raised their worth.'' Shimr bin `Atiyyah said, "There is not a Muslim but has on his neck a sale that he must conduct with Allah; he either fulfills its terms or dies without doing that.'' He then recited this Ayah. This is why those who fight in the cause of Allah are said to have conducted the sale with Allah, meaning, accepted and fulfilled his covenant. Allah's statement,

﴿ يُقَـٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَيَقۡتُلُونَ وَيُقۡتَلُونَ‌ۖ

(They fight in Allah's cause, so they kill and are killed.) indicates that whether they were killed or they kill the enemy, or both, then Paradise will be theirs. The Two Sahihs recorded the Hadith,

« وَتَكَفَّلَ اللهُ لِمَنْ خَرَجَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ لَا يُخْرِجُهُ إِلَّا جِهَادٌ فِي سَبِيلِي وَتَصْدِيقٌ بِرُسُلِي بِأَنْ تَوَفَّاهُ أَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ الْجَنَّةَ، أَوْ يَرْجِعَهُ إِلَى مَنْزِلِهِ الَّذِي خَرَجَ مِنْهُ، نَائِلًا مَا نَالَ مِنْ أَجْرٍ أَوْ غَنِيمَة »

(Allah has made a promise to the person who goes out (to fight) in His cause; `And nothing compels him to do so except Jihad = in My Cause and belief in My Messengers. ' He will either be admitted to Paradise if he dies, or compensated by Allah, either with a reward or booty if He returns him to the home which he departed from.) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَعۡدًا عَلَيۡهِ حَقًّ۬ا فِى ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةِ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلِ وَٱلۡقُرۡءَانِ‌ۚ

(It is a promise in truth which is binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur'an.) affirms this promise and informs us that Allah has decreed this for His Most Honorable Self, and revealed it to His Messengers in His Glorious Books, the Tawrah that He sent down to Musa, the Injil that He sent down to `Isa, and the Qur'an that was sent down to Muhammad, may Allah's peace and blessings be on them all. Allah said next,

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَوۡفَىٰ بِعَهۡدِهِۦ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(And who is truer to his covenant than Allah) affirming that He never breaks a promise. Allah said in similar statements,

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَصۡدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حَدِيثً۬ا

(And who is truer in statement than Allah) (4:87), and,

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَصۡدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ قِيلاً۬

(And whose words can be truer than those of Allah) (4:122). Allah said next,

﴿ فَٱسۡتَبۡشِرُواْ بِبَيۡعِكُمُ ٱلَّذِى بَايَعۡتُم بِهِۦ‌ۚ وَذَٲلِكَ هُوَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ

(Then rejoice in the bargain which you have concluded. That is the supreme success.), meaning, let those who fulfill the terms of this contract and uphold this covenant receive the good news of great success and everlasting delight.

﴿ ٱلتَّـٰٓٮِٕبُونَ ٱلۡعَـٰبِدُونَ ٱلۡحَـٰمِدُونَ ٱلسَّـٰٓٮِٕحُونَ ٱلرَّٲڪِعُونَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدُونَ ٱلۡأَمِرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَٱلنَّاهُونَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنڪَرِ وَٱلۡحَـٰفِظُونَ لِحُدُودِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

(112. Those who repent, who worship (Him), who praise (Him), who fast, who bow down, who prostrate themselves, who enjoin good and forbid evil, and who observe the limits set by Allah. And give glad tidings to the believers.)

This is the description of the believers from whom Allah has purchased their souls and wealth, who have these beautiful and honorable qualities,
﴿ ٱلتَّـٰٓٮِٕبُونَ

(who repent) from all sins and shun all evils,

﴿ ٱلۡعَـٰبِدُونَ

(who worship), their Lord and preserve the acts of worship that include statements and actions. Praising Allah is among the best statements. This is why Allah said next,

﴿ ٱلۡحَـٰمِدُونَ

(who praise (Him)). Fasting is among the best actions, involving abstaining from the delights of food, drink and sexual intercourse, this is the meaning hereby,

﴿ ٱلسَّـٰٓٮِٕحُونَ

(As-Sa'ihun (who fast)) (9: 112). Allah also described the Prophet's wives that they are,

﴿ سَـٰٓٮِٕحَـٰتٍ۬

(Sa'ihat) (66:5), meaning, they fast. As for prostrating and bowing down, they are acts of the prayer,

﴿ ٱلرَّٲڪِعُونَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدُونَ

(who bow down, who prostrate themselves,) These believers also benefit Allah's creation and direct them to His obedience by ordaining righteousness and forbidding evil. They have knowledge about what should be performed and what should be shunned. This includes abiding by Allah's limits in knowledge and action, meaning, what He allowed and what He prohibited. Therefore, they worship the True Lord and advise creation. This is why Allah said next,

﴿ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

(And give glad tidings to the believers.) since faith includes all of this, and the supreme success is for those who have faith.

﴿ مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَن يَسۡتَغۡفِرُواْ لِلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ أُوْلِى قُرۡبَىٰ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمۡ أَنَّہُمۡ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ وَمَا كَانَ ٱسۡتِغۡفَارُ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوۡعِدَةٍ۬ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ ۥۤ أَنَّهُ ۥ عَدُوٌّ۬ لِّلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنۡهُ‌ۚ إِنَّ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لَأَوَّٲهٌ حَلِيمٌ۬

(113. It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah's forgiveness for the Mushrikin, even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief).) (114. And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made to him (his father). But when it became clear to him (Ibrahim) that he (his father) is an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah and forbearing.)

The Prohibition of supplicating for Polytheists

Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Al-Musayyib said that his father Al-Musayyib said, "When Abu Talib was dying, the Prophet went to him and found Abu Jahl and `Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah present. The Prophet said,

« أَيْ عَمِّ، قُلْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلِّا اللهُ كَلِمَةً أُحَاجُّ لَكَ بِهَا عِنْدَ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَل »

(O uncle! Say, `La ilaha illa-llah,' a word concerning which I will plea for you with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.) Abu Jahl and `Abdullah bin Abi Umayyah said, `O Abu Talib! Would you leave the religion of Abdul-Muttalib' Abu Talib said, `Rather, I will remain on the religion of Abdul-Muttalib.' The Prophet said,

« لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ مَا لَمْ أُنْهَ عَنْك »

(I will invoke Allah for forgiveness for you, as long as I am not prohibited from doing so.) This verse was revealed,

﴿ مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَن يَسۡتَغۡفِرُواْ لِلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ أُوْلِى قُرۡبَىٰ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمۡ أَنَّہُمۡ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَحِيمِ

(It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah's forgiveness for the Mushrikin, even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire.) Concerning Abu Talib, this Ayah was revealed,

﴿ إِنَّكَ لَا تَہۡدِى مَنۡ أَحۡبَبۡتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَہۡدِى مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ

(Verily, you guide not whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills) (28:56).'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Ibn Jarir recorded that Sulayman bin Buraydah said that his father said, "When the Prophet came to Makkah, he went to a grave, sat next to it, started talking and then stood up with tears in his eyes. We said, `O Allah's Messenger! We saw what you did.' He said,

« إِنِّي اسْتَأْذَنْتُ رَبِّي فِي زِيَارَةِ قَبْرِ أُمِّي فَأَذِنَ لِي، وَاسْتَأْذَنْتُهُ فِي الْاسْتِغْفَارِ لَهَا فَلَمْ يَأْذَنْ لِي »

(I asked my Lord for permission to visit the grave of my mother and He gave me permission. I asked for His permission to invoke Him for forgiveness for her, but He did not give me permission.) We never saw him more tearful than on that day.''' Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas about Allah's statement,

﴿ مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَن يَسۡتَغۡفِرُواْ لِلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ

(It is not (proper) for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah's forgiveness for the Mushrikin) "The Prophet wanted to invoke Allah for forgiveness for his mother, but Allah did not allow him. The Prophet said,

« إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلَ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلّم قَدِ اسْتَغْفَرَ لِأَبِيه »

(Ibrahim, Allah's Khalil, invoked Allah for his father.) Allah revealed,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ ٱسۡتِغۡفَارُ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوۡعِدَةٍ۬ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ

(And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made to him (his father)). '' `Ali bin Abi Talhah narrated that Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, "They used to invoke Allah for them (pagans) until this Ayah was revealed. They then refrained from invoking Allah to forgive the dead among them, but were not stopped from invoking Allah for the living among them until they die. Allah sent this Ayah,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ ٱسۡتِغۡفَارُ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ

(And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his father's forgiveness was only...) (9:114).'' Allah said next,

﴿ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ ۥۤ أَنَّهُ ۥ عَدُوٌّ۬ لِّلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنۡهُ‌ۚ

(But when it became clear to him (Ibrahim) that he (his father) is an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him) (9:114). Ibn `Abbas commented, "Ibrahim kept asking Allah to forgive his father until he died, when he realized that he died as an enemy to Allah, he disassociated himself from him.'' In another narration, he said, "When his father died he realized that he died as an enemy of Allah.'' Similar was said by Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and several others. `Ubayd bin `Umayr and Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Ibrahim will disown his father on the Day of Resurrection, but he will meet his father and see dust and fatigue on his face. He will say, `O Ibrahim! I disobeyed you, but today, I will not disobey you.' Ibrahim will say, `O Lord! You promised me that You will not disgrace me on the Day they are resurrected. What more disgrace than witnessing my father being disgraced' He will be told, `Look behind you,' where he will see a bloody hyena -- for his father will have been transformed into that -- and it will be dragged from its feet and thrown in the Fire.''' Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لَأَوَّٲهٌ حَلِيمٌ۬

(Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah and was forbearing.) means, he invoked Allah always, according to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud. Several narrations report this from Ibn Mas`ud. It was also said that, `Awwah', means, `who invokes Allah with humility', `merciful', `who believes with certainty', `who praises (Allah)', and so forth.

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُضِلَّ قَوۡمَۢا بَعۡدَ إِذۡ هَدَٮٰهُمۡ حَتَّىٰ يُبَيِّنَ لَهُم مَّا يَتَّقُونَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَهُ ۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ يُحۡىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ‌ۚ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ۬

(115. And Allah will never lead a people astray after He has guided them until He makes clear to them what they should avoid. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.) (116. Indeed to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, He gives life and He causes death. And besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper.)

Recompense comes after Proof is established

Allah describes His Honorable Self and just judgment in that He does not lead a people astray but after the Message comes to them, so that the proof is established against them. For instance, Allah said,

﴿ وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيۡنَـٰهُمۡ

(And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the path of truth ...) (41:17). Mujahid commented on Allah's saying;

﴿ وَمَا ڪَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُضِلَّ قَوۡمَۢا بَعۡدَ إِذۡ هَدَٮٰهُمۡ

(And Allah will never lead a people astray after He has guided them) "Allah the Mighty and Sublime is clarifying to the believers about not seeking forgiveness for the idolators in particular, and in general, it is an exhortation to beware of disobeying Him, and encouragement to obey Him. So either do or suffer.'' Ibn Jarir commented, "Allah says that He would not direct you to misguidance, so that you invoke Him for forgiveness for your dead idolators, after He gave you guidance and directed you to believe in Him and in His Messenger ! First, He will inform you of what you should avoid, so that you avoid it. Before He informs you that this action is not allowed, you would not have disobeyed Him and fallen into what He prohibited for you (if you indulge in this action). Therefore, in this case, He will not allow you to be misguided. Verily, guidance or misguidance occurs after commands and prohibitions are established. As for those who were neither commanded nor prohibited, they can neither be obedient nor disobedient in doing what they were neither ordered nor prohibited from doing.'' Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَهُ ۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ يُحۡىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ‌ۚ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ۬

(Indeed to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, He gives life and He causes death. And besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper.) Ibn Jarir commented, "This is an encouragement from Allah for His believing servants to fight the idolators and chiefs of disbelief. It is also a command for them to trust in Allah's aid, for He is the Owner of the heavens and earth, and not to fear His enemies. Verily, they have no protector besides Allah, nor a supporter other than Him.''

﴿ لَّقَد تَّابَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُ فِى سَاعَةِ ٱلۡعُسۡرَةِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا ڪَادَ يَزِيغُ قُلُوبُ فَرِيقٍ۬ مِّنۡهُمۡ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِهِمۡ رَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(117. Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin and the Ansar who followed him in the time of distress (Tabuk expedition), after the hearts of a party of them had nearly deviated (from the right path), but He accepted their repentance. Certainly, He is unto them full of kindness, Most Merciful.)