Allah tells us about the signs He created that are indicative of His complete power and great might. He made the rays that come forth from the bright sun as the source of light, and made the beams that come forth from the moon as light. He made them of two different natures so they would not be confused with one another. Allah made the dominion of the sun in the daytime and the moon in the night. He ordained phases for the moon, where it starts small then its light increases until it completes a full moon. Then it begins to decrease until it returns to its first phase at the conclusion of the month. Allah said:
(And the moon, We have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old dried curved date stalk. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.) (36:39-40) And He said:
(And the sun and the moon for counting) And in this Ayah He said:
(and measured) that is the moon, Allah said:
(And measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and the reckoning. '') The days are revealed by the action of the sun, and the months and the years by the moon. Allah then stated
(Allah did not create this but in truth.) He didn't create that for amusement but with great wisdom and perfect reasoning. With a similar meaning, Allah said:
(And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the consideration of those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire!) (38:27) He also said:
("Did you think that We had created you in play (without any purpose), and that you would not be brought back to Us'' So Exalted be Allah, the True King: None has the right to be worshipped but He, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!) (23:115-116) Allah said:
(He explains the Ayat in detail for people who have knowledge.) In other words, He explained the signs and proofs for people who know. Allah further stated:
(Verily, in the alternation of the night and the day) The day and the night alternate, when one arrives, the other goes, and so on, with no errors. This is similar to the meaning indicated in the following Ayat:
(He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly...).
(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon.) (36:40), and
((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting). (6:96) Allah continued:
(and in all that Allah has created in the heavens and the earth) meaning the signs that indicate His greatness. This is similar to Allah's statements:
(And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth...) (12:105),
("Say: "Behold all that is in the heavens and the earth,'' but neither Ayat nor warners benefit those who believe not.) (10:101)
(See they not what is before them and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth.) (34:9).
(Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.) (3:190) means intelligent men. Allah said here,
(Ayat for those who have Taqwa.) meaning fear Allah's punishment, wrath and torment.
(7. Verily, those who hope not for their meeting with Us, but are pleased and satisfied with the life of the present world, and those who are heedless of Our Ayat,) (8. Those, their abode will be the Fire, because of what they used to earn.)
Allah describes the state of the wretched who disbelieved in the meeting with Allah on the Day of Resurrection and did not look forward to it, who were well-pleased with the life of this world and at rest in it. Al-Hasan said: "They adorned it and praised it until they were well pleased with it. Whereas they were heedless of Allah's signs in the universe, they did not contemplate them. They were also heedless of Allah's Laws, for they didn't abide by them. Their abode on the Day of Return is Fire, a reward for what they have earned in their worldly life from among their sins and crimes. That is beside their disbelief in Allah, His Messenger and the Last Day.''
(9. Verily, those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, their Lord will guide them through their faith; under them will flow rivers in the Gardens of delight (Paradise).) (10. Their way of request therein will be: "Glory to You, O Allah!'' and "Salam'' (peace, safety from evil) will be their greetings therein! And the close of their request will be: "All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.'')
In these two Ayat, Allah promises the happy blessings for those who believed in Allah and His Messengers. And for those that have complied with what they were commanded to follow. The promise is that He will guide them because of their faith, or it may mean through their faith. As to the first interpretation, the meaning is that Allah will guide them on the Day of Resurrection to the straight path until they pass into Paradise because of their faith in this world. The other meaning is that their faith will assist them on the Day of Resurrection as Mujahid said:
(Their Lord will guide them through their faith) meaning "Their faith will be a light in which they will walk.''
(Their way of request therein will be: "Glory to You, O Allah!'' And Salam (peace, safety from evil) will be their greetings therein! And the close of their request will be: "All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.'') meaning this is the condition of the people of Paradise. This is similar to what is found in the following Ayat:
(Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be "Salam )Peace(!'') (33:44),
(No Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk) will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech. But only the saying of: Salam! Salam!!'') (56:25-26),
((It will be said to them): "Salam'' -- a Word from the Lord, Most Merciful.) (36:58),
(And angels shall enter unto them from every gate (saying): "Salamun `Alaykum (peace be upon you)!'') (13:23-24) In Allah's statement,
(And the close of their request will be: All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.'') There is an indication that Allah Almighty is the Praised One always, the Worshipped at all times. This is why He praised Himself at the beginning and the duration of His creation. He also praised Himself in the beginning of His Book and the beginning of its revelation. Allah said:
(All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has sent down to His servant the Book (the Qur'an).) (18:1),
(All praise is due to Allah, Who (alone) created the heavens and the earth,) (6:1), and many other citations with this meaning. The Ayah also indicates that Allah is the Praised One in this world and in the Hereafter and in all situations. In a Hadith recorded by Muslim:
(The people of Paradise will be inspired to glorify Allah and praise Him as they instinctively breath.) This will be their nature because of the increasing bounties of Allah upon them. These bounties are repeated and brought back again and increased with no limit or termination. So praise be to Allah for there is no God but He and no Lord save He.
(11. And were Allah to hasten for mankind the evil as He hastens for them the good then they would have been ruined. So We leave those who expect not their meeting with Us, in their trespasses, wandering blindly in distraction.)
Allah tells us about His Forbearance and Benevolence with His servants. He does not respond to them when they pray with evil intentions against themselves, their wealth or their children during times of grief or anger. He knows that they do not truly intend evil for themselves so He doesn't respond to them. This is in reality kindness and mercy. On the other hand, He responds to them when they pray for themselves, wealth and money, with good, blessing and growth. Allah has said,
(And were Allah to hasten for mankind the evil as He hastens for them the good then they would have been ruined.) This means that if He had responded to all of their evil requests, He would have destroyed them. However, people should avoid praying for evil as much as they can. Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded in his Musnad that Jabir said, "Allah's Messenger said:
(Do not pray against yourselves, do not pray against your children, do not pray against your wealth, for your prayer may coincide with a time of response from Allah and Allah will respond to you.) This Hadith was also recorded by Abu Dawud. This is similar to what is understood from the following Ayah:
(And man invokes (Allah) for evil as he invokes (Allah) for good.) (17:11) In regard to the interpretation of this Ayah,
(And were Allah to hasten for mankind the evil as He hastens for them the good) Mujahid said: "It is the man saying to his son or money when he is angry, `O Allah don't bless him (or it) and curse him (or it).' Should Allah respond to this man in this request as He responds to him with good, He would destroy them.''
(12. And when harm touches man, he invokes Us, lying on his side, or sitting or standing. But when We have removed his harm from him, he passes on as if he had never invoked Us for a harm that touched him! Thus it is made fair seeming to the wasteful that which they used to do.)
Allah tells us about man and how he becomes annoyed and worried when he is touched with distress.
(but when evil touches him, then he has recourse to long supplications.) (41:51) `Long supplications' also means many supplications. When man suffers adversity he becomes worried and anxious. So he supplicates more. He prays to Allah to lift and remove the adversity. He prays while standing, sitting or laying down. When Allah removes his adversity and lifts his distress, he turns away and becomes arrogant. He goes on as if nothing were wrong with him before.
(He passes on as if he had never invoked Us for a harm that touched him!) Allah then criticized and condemned those who have these qualities or act this way, so He said:
(Thus it is made fair seeming to the wasteful that which they used to do.) But those on whom Allah has bestowed good guidance and support are an exception.
(Except those who have patience believe and do righteous good deeds.) (11:11) The Prophet said:
(How wonderful is the case of a believer; there is good for him in everything and this is not the case with anyone except a believer. If prosperity attends him, he expresses gratitude to Allah, and that is good for him. And if adversity befalls him, he endures it patiently and that is also good for him.)
(13. And indeed, We destroyed generations before you when they did wrong, while their Messengers came to them with clear proofs, but they were not such as to believe! Thus do We requite the people who are criminals.) (14. Then We made you successors after them, generations after generations in the land, that We might see how you would work.)