Allah, the Exalted, informs that when the people of the earth were all drowned, except for the people on the ship, He commanded the earth to swallow its water, which had sprang from it and gathered upon it. Then He commanded the sky to cease raining.
(And the water was made to subside) This means that it (the water) began to decrease.
(and the decree was fulfilled.) This means that all of those who disbelieved in Allah were removed from the people of the earth. Not a single one of them remained upon the earth.
(And it (the ship) rested) This is referring to the ship and those who were in it.
(on (Mount) Judi.) Mujahid said, "Judi is a mountain in Al-Jazirah (Northwest Mesopotamia) where the mountains sought to tower above each other on the day of the drowning. On that day of destruction, all the mountains sought to be higher (to avoid being overcome by the water). However, this mountain (Judi) humbled itself for Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and therefore it was not drowned. This is why Nuh's ship anchored upon it.'' Qatadah said, "The ship rested upon it (Mount Judi) for a month before they (the people) came down from it. '' Qatadah also said, "Allah made Nuh's ship remain on Mount Judi in the land of Al-Jazirah, as a lesson and a sign.'' Even the early generations of this Ummah saw it. How many ships are there that have come after it and have been destroyed and became dust
(and it was said: "Away with the people who are wrongdoing!'') means destruction and loss for them. The term "away with'' here implies being far away from the mercy of Allah. For verily, they were destroyed to the last of them, and none of them survived.
(45. And Nuh called upon his Lord and said, "O my Lord! Verily, my son is of my family! And certainly, Your promise is true, and You are the Most Just of the judges.'') (46. He said: "O Nuh! Surely, he is not of your family; verily, his work is unrighteous, so ask not of Me that of which you have no knowledge! I admonish you, lest you should be one of the ignorant.'') (47. Nuh said: "O my Lord! I seek refuge with You from asking You that of which I have no knowledge. And unless You forgive me and have mercy on me, I would indeed be one of the losers.'')
This was a request for information and an inquiry from Nuh concerning the cirumstances of his son's drowning.
(and said, "O my Lord! Verily, my son is of my family!'') This means, "Verily, You promised to save my family and Your promise is the truth that does not fail. Therefore, how can he (my son) be drowned and You are the Most Just of the judges''
(He (Allah) said: "O Nuh! Surely, he is not of your family...'') This means, "He (your son) is not of those whom I promised to save. I only promised you that I would save those of your family who believe.'' For this reason Allah said,
l(and your family except him against whom the Word has already gone forth.) (11:40) Thus, for his son, it had already been decreed that he would be drowned due to his disbelief and his opposition to his father, the Prophet of Allah, Nuh peace be upon him. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Surely, he is not of your family;) meaning that he (Nuh's son) was not among those whom Allah promised to save. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "He was the son of Nuh, but he opposed him in deeds and intention.'' `Ikrimah said in some of the modes of recitation it said here, (إِنَّهُ عَمِلَ عَمَلًا غَيْرَ صَالِحٍ) "Verily, he (Nuh's son) worked deeds that were not righteous.''
(48. It was said: "O Nuh! Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us and blessings on you and on the people who are with you (and on some of their offspring), but (there will be other) people to whom We shall grant their pleasures (for a time), but in the end a painful torment will reach them from Us.'')
Allah, the Exalted, informs of what was said to Nuh when the ship anchored on Mount Judi, peace be upon him, peace were sent upon him and the believers with him. This salutation was also for every believer from his progeny until the Day of Resurrection. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, "Every male and female believer until the Day of Resurrection is included in this salutation of peace. Likewise, every male and female disbeliever until the Day of Resurrection is included in this promise of torment and pleasure. Muhammad bin Ishaq said, "When Allah wanted to stop the flood, He sent a wind upon the face of the earth that caused the water to be still. Then the springs of the earth were closed off from the great flooding and the pouring (rain) from the sky halted. Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And it was said: "O earth! Swallow up your water...'') (11:44) Thus, the water began decreasing and subsiding until the ship settled on Mount Judi. The People of the Tawrah (the Jews) claim that this occurred during the seventh month (of the year) and it lasted for seventeen nights. Then, on the first day of the tenth month, he (Nuh) saw the mountain tops. Then after forty more days, Nuh opened the small window in the roof of the ship and he sent a raven out to see what the water had done. However, the raven did not return to him. Then, he sent a pigeon out but it returned to him without finding any place (land) to put its two feet down. He extended his hand out of the ship and the pigeon grabbed his hand so that Nuh could pull it back into the ship. Then, after seven more days passed, he sent the pigeon out again to investigate for him. The pigeon returned in the evening with a leaf from an olive tree in its mouth. From this, Nuh knew that the water had decreased from the face of the earth. He remained in the ship for seven more days before he sent the pigeon out again. This time the pigeon did not return to him, so he knew that the earth had appeared. Thus, a year was completed from the time that Allah sent the flood, until the time of Nuh sending the pigeon. The first day of the first month of the second year began when the face of the earth appeared and land became visible. This is when Nuh uncovered the opening of the ship. During the second month of the second year, after twenty six nights,
(It was said: "O Nuh! Come down (from the ship) with peace from Us)
(49. This is of the news of the Unseen which We reveal unto you; neither you nor your people knew it before this. So be patient. Surely, the (good) end is for those who have Taqwa.)
Allah, the Exalted, says to His Prophet concerning these stories and their like,
(of the news of the Unseen) from the information of the unseen of the past. Allah revealed it to you (the Prophet) in the way that it occurred, as if he witnessed it himself.
(which We reveal unto you;) This means, "We teach it to you (Muhammad) as revelation from Us to you.''
(neither you nor your people knew it before this.) This means that neither you (Muhammad) nor anyone of your people, have any knowledge of this. This is so that no one who rejects you can say that you learned it from him. Rather, it was Allah Who informed you of it in conformity with the true situation (of the story), just as the Books of the Prophets who were before you testify to. Therefore, you should be patient with the rejection of your people and their harming you. For verily, We shall help you and surround you with Our aid. Then, We will make the (good) end for you and those who follow you in this life and the Hereafter. This is what We did with the Messengers when We helped them against their enemies.
(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe.) Allah also said,
(And, verily, Our Word has gone forth of old for Our servants, the Messengers, that they verily, would be made triumphant.) (37:171-172) Then, Allah says,
(So be patient. Surely, the (good) end is for those who have Taqwa.)
(50. And to the `Ad (people We sent) their brother Hud. He said, "O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other god but Him. Certainly, you do nothing but invent lies!) (51. "O my people I ask of you no reward for it (the Message). My reward is only from Him Who created me. Will you not then understand'') (52. "And O my people! Ask forgiveness of your Lord and then repent to Him, He will send you (from the sky) abundant rain, and add strength to your strength, so do not turn away as criminals.'')
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And) This is an introductory to what is implied: "Verily, We sent.''
(to the `Ad (people) their brother Hud.) Hud came to them commanding them to worship Allah alone, without any associates. He forbade them from worshipping the idols which they made up, inventing names as gods. He informed them that he did not want any reward from them for his sincere advising and conveying of Allah's Message. He only sought his reward from Allah, the One Who created him.
(Will you not then understand) Someone has come calling you to what will benefit your situation in this life and the Hereafter without asking for any wage (from them). Then he commanded them to seek the forgiveness of the One Who is capable of expiating previous sins. He also commanded them to repent for that which they may do in the future. Whoever has these characteristics, Allah will make his sustenance easy for him, grant him ease in his affairs and guard over his situation. For this reason Allah says,
(He will send you (from the sky) abundant rain,)
(53. They said: "O Hud! No evidence have you brought us, and we shall not leave our gods for your (mere) saying! And we are not believers in you.) (54. All that we say is that some of our gods (false deities) have seized you with evil (madness). He said: "I call Allah to witness and bear you witness that I am free from that which you ascribe as partners in worship,) (55. Besides Him (Allah). So plot against me, all of you, and give me no respite.'') (56. I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving creature but He has the grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on the straight path (the truth).)