He said to them: Do you see O my people, that if I
(have a clear evidence from my Lord) meaning, upon clear guidance in that which I am calling to.
(and He has given me a good sustenance from Himself.) It has been said that he meant the prophethood. It has also been said that he meant the lawful provisions. It seems that the verse carries both meanings. Ath-Thawri said,
(I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you.) meaning, `do not forbid you from something and at the same time I contradict my prohibitions in secret behind your backs, doing what I have forbidden.' This is similar to what Qatadah said concerning Allah's statement,
(I wish not, in contradiction to you, to do that which I forbid you.) "He is saying, `I do not forbid you all from something while I do it myself.'''
(I only desire reform to the best of my power.) This means, "In that which I command and forbid you, I only want to correct your affair as much as I am able.''
(And my guidance cannot come) This means, "In whatever I intend that agrees with the truth.''
(except from Allah, in Him I put my trust) This means in all of my affairs.
(and unto Him I repent.) meaning; "I return.'' This has been said by Mujahid and others.
(89. "And O my people! Let not my Shiqaq cause you to suffer the fate similar to that of the people of Nuh or of Hud or of Salih, and the people of Lut are not far off from you!'') (90. "And ask forgiveness of your Lord and turn unto Him in repentance. Verily, my Lord is Most Merciful, Most Loving.'') He (Shu`ayb) said to them,
(And O my people! Let not my Shiqaq cause you) This means, "Do not let your hatred and enmity of me cause you to persist in your corruption and disbelief. If you continue this way, you will suffer the same vengeance and torment that overcame Nuh's people, Hud's people, Salih's people and Lut's people.'' Qatadah said,
(And O my people! Let not my Shiqaq cause you) "He is saying, `Do not be influenced by your differing with me.''' As-Suddi said, "This means your enmity of me should not lead you to continue in misguidance and disbelief, or else you will be afflicted by what afflicted them.'' Concerning His statement,
(and the people of Lut are not far off from you!) It has been said that this refers to the period of time. Qatadah said, "This means that they were only destroyed before you yesterday.'' It has also been said that it refers to place. Actually, the verse carries both meanings.
(And ask forgiveness of your Lord) from the previous sins.
(and turn unto Him in repentance.) In whatever evil actions you may encounter in the future. Concerning his statement,
(Verily, my Lord is Most Merciful, Most Loving.) to those who repent.
(91. They said: "O Shu`ayb! We do not understand much of what you say, and we see you weak among us. Were it not for your family, you would have been stoned, and you are not powerful against us.'') (92. He said: "O my people! Is then my family of more weight with you than Allah And you have cast Him away behind your backs. Verily, my Lord is surrounding all that you do.'')
(O Shu`ayb! We do not understand) This means that we do not comprehend.
(much) `most of what you say'. Ath-Thawri said, "He (Shu`ayb) was called the orator of the Prophets.'' As-Suddi said,
(and we see you weak among us.) "They meant, `You are only one person.''' Abu Rawq said, "They meant, `You are despised, because your tribe is not upon your religion.'''
(Were it not for your family, you would have been stoned,) This means, your people. Were it not for their powerful position over the people of Madyan, they would have stoned him to death. Some said that this means with rocks. It has also been said that this means that they would have cursed and insulted him verbally.
(and you are not powerful against us.) This means, "You have no position of power over us.''
(He said: "O my people! Is then my family of more weight with you than Allah'')( He says: You would leave me alone out of respect for my people but not out of respect for the greatness of the Lord, the Most Blessed and Exalted Does not your awe of Allah prevent you from harming His Prophet Indeed you have placed the fear of Allah,
(behind your backs.) This means that you have thrown it behind you. You do not obey it, nor do you respect it.
(Verily, my Lord is surrounding all that you do.) This means that He knows all of your actions and He will reward you according to them.
(93. "And O my people! Act according to your ability, and I am acting. You will come to know who it is on whom descends the torment that will cover him with ignominy, and who is a liar! And watch you! Verily, I too am watching with you.'') (94. And when Our commandment came, We saved Shu`ayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us. And As-Sayhah (awful cry) seized the wrongdoers, and they lay (Jathimin) in their homes.) (95. As if they had never lived there! So away with Madyan just as Thamud went away!)
(Act according to your ability,) This means, "Act according to your current ways.'' This is actually a severe threat.
(I am acting.) according to my way.
(You will come to know who it is on whom descends the torment that will cover him with ignominy, and who is a liar!) meaning, between me and you.
(And watch you!) This means to wait.
(I too am watching with you.) Allah then says,
(And when Our commandment came, We saved Shu`ayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us. And As-Sayhah (awful cry) seized the wrongdoers, and they lay (Jathimin) in their homes.) His saying Jathimin means extinct and lifeless without any movement. Here Allah mentions that a loud cry (Sayhah) came to them. In Surat Al-A`raf He says a severe quake (Rajfah) came to them. In Surat Ash-Shu`ara', He said it was a torment of a cloudy day. They were one nation upon which all of these punishments were gathered on the day of their destruction. In each context, Allah only mentioned that which was suitable. In Surat Al-A`raf when they said,
(We shall certainly drive you out, O Shu`ayb, and those who have believed with you from our town.) (7:88) In this verse it was suitable to mention a tremor, or quake (Rajfah). The earth in which they practiced their wrongdoing and they wanted to expel their Prophet from it, shook them. Here, due to their disrespectful manners in speaking to their Prophet, Allah mentioned the awful cry (Sayhah) which overcame them and killed them. In Surat Ash-Shu`ara' when they said,
(So cause a piece of the heaven to fall on us, if you are of the truthful!))26:187) Allah said in response,
(So the torment of the day of Shadow seized them. Indeed that was the torment of a Great Day.))26:189( This is from the intricate secrets and to Allah belongs all praise and much bounty forever. Concerning the statement,
(As if they had never lived there!) This means it was as if they had not lived in their homes before that.
(So away with Madyan as just as Thamud went away!) They (Thamud) were their neighbors and they did not live far from the homes of the people of Madyan. They were similar in their disbelief and their highway robbery. They were also both Arabs.
(96. And indeed We sent Musa with Our Ayat and a manifest authority.) (97. To Fir`awn and his chiefs, but they followed the command of Fir`awn, and the command of Fir`awn was no right guide.) (98. He will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them into the Fire, and evil indeed is the place to which they are led.) (99. They were pursued by a curse in this (deceiving life of this world) and (so they will be pursued by a curse) on the Day of Resurrection, evil indeed is the gift granted.)