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The Condition of the Happy People and their Destination

Allah, the Exalted, says,

﴿ وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ سُعِدُواْ

(And those who are blessed.) These are the followers of the Messengers.

﴿ فَفِى ٱلۡجَنَّةِ

(they will be in Paradise,) This means that their final abode will be Paradise.

﴿ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا

(abiding therein for all the time) This means that they will remain there forever.

﴿ مَا دَامَتِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ إِلَّا مَا شَآءَ رَبُّكَ‌ۚ

(that the heavens and the earth endure, except as your Lord wills:) The meaning of the exception that is made here is that the condition of eternal pleasure that they will experience therein is something that is not mandatory by itself. Rather, it is something that is dependent upon the will of Allah. Unto Him belongs the favor of immortality upon them. For this reason they are inspired to glorify and praise Him, just as they are inspired to breathe. Ad-Dahhak and Al-Hasan Al-Basri both said, "It is about the right of the disobedient people of Tawhid who were in the Fire and then brought out of it.'' Then Allah finished this statement by saying,

﴿ عَطَآءً غَيۡرَ مَجۡذُوذٍ۬

(a gift without an end.) This means that it will never be cut off. This has been mentioned by Mujahid, Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah and others. This has been mentioned so that the suspicious person will not doubt after the mention of the will of Allah. Someone may think that the mention of Allah's will here means that the pleasure of Paradise may end or change. To the contrary, it has been decreed that this pleasure will truly be forever and will never end. Likewise, Allah has clarified here that the eternal torment of the people of the Fire in Hell also is due to His will. He explains that He punishes them due to His justness and wisdom. This is why He says,

﴿ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ فَعَّالٌ۬ لِّمَا يُرِيدُ

(Verily, your Lord is the doer of whatsoever He intends.) Similarly, Allah says,

﴿ لَا يُسۡـَٔلُ عَمَّا يَفۡعَلُ وَهُمۡ يُسۡـَٔلُونَ

(He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they will be questioned.) (21:23) Here, Allah soothes the hearts and affirms the intent, by His saying,

﴿ عَطَآءً غَيۡرَ مَجۡذُوذٍ۬

(a gift without an end.) It has been recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

« يُؤتَى بِالْمَوْتِ فِي صُورَةِ كَبْشٍ أَمْلَحَ فَيُذْبَحُ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ، ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ خُلُودٌ فَلَا مَوْتَ، وَيَا أَهْلَ النَّارِ خُلُودٌ فَلَا مَوْت »

(Death will be brought in the form of a handsome ram (on the Day of Judgment) and it will be slaughtered between Paradise and the Hellfire. Then, it will be said, "O people of Paradise! Eternity and no death! O people of Hellfire! Eternity and no death!'') In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

« فَيُقَالُ: يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَعِيشُوا فَلَا تَمُوتُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَشِبُّوا فَلَا تَهْرَمُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَصِحُّوا فَلَا تَسْقَمُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَنْعَمُوا فَلَا تَبْأَسُوا أَبَدًا »

(It will be said, `O people of Paradise, verily you will live and you will never die. You will remain young and you will never grow old. You will remain healthy and you will never become ill. You will be happy and you will never grieve.)

﴿ فَلَا تَكُ فِى مِرۡيَةٍ۬ مِّمَّا يَعۡبُدُ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ‌ۚ مَا يَعۡبُدُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُهُم مِّن قَبۡلُ‌ۚ وَإِنَّا لَمُوَفُّوهُمۡ نَصِيبَہُمۡ غَيۡرَ مَنقُوصٍ۬ وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَى ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ فَٱخۡتُلِفَ فِيهِ‌ۗ وَلَوۡلَا ڪَلِمَةٌ۬ سَبَقَتۡ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَقُضِىَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ‌ۚ وَإِنَّهُمۡ لَفِى شَكٍّ۬ مِّنۡهُ مُرِيبٍ۬ وَإِنَّ كُلاًّ۬ لَّمَّا لَيُوَفِّيَنَّہُمۡ رَبُّكَ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

(109. So be not in doubt as to what these people (pagans and polytheists) worship. They worship nothing but what their fathers worshipped before (them). And verily, We shall repay them in full their portion without diminution.) (110. Indeed, We gave the Book to Musa, but differences arose therein, and had it not been for a Word that had gone forth before from your Lord, the case would have been judged between them, and indeed they are in grave doubt concerning it (this Qur'an).) (111. And verily, to each of them your Lord will repay their works in full. Surely, He is All-Aware of what they do.)

Associating Partners with Allah is no doubt Misguidance

Allah, the Exalted, says,

﴿ فَلَا تَكُ فِى مِرۡيَةٍ۬ مِّمَّا يَعۡبُدُ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ‌ۚ

(So be not in doubt as to what these people worship.) This refers to the polytheists. Verily, what they are doing is falsehood, ignorance and misguidance. Verily, they are only worshipping what their fathers worshipped before. This means that they have no support for their Shirk. They are only mimicking their fathers in ignorance. Therefore, Allah will give them due recompense for that and He will punish them with a punishment the likes of which none can give besides Him. If they did any good deeds, then Allah will reward them for those good works in this life, before the life of the Hereafter. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِنَّا لَمُوَفُّوهُمۡ نَصِيبَہُمۡ غَيۡرَ مَنقُوصٍ۬

(And verily, We shall repay them in full their portion without diminution.) `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "We will pay them in full their portion of punishment without diminution.'' Then, Allah mentions that He gave Musa the Book, but the people differed concerning it. Some believed in it and some disbelieved in it. Therefore, you, Muhammad, have an example in the Prophets who came before you. So do not grieve or be upset by their denial of you.

﴿ وَلَوۡلَا كَلِمَةٌ۬ سَبَقَتۡ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَقُضِىَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(and had it not been for a Word )Kalimah( that had gone forth before from your Lord, the case would have been judged between them,) Ibn Jarir said, "If it were not that the punishment had already been delayed until an appointed time, then Allah would have decided the matter between you now. The word Kalimah carries the meaning that Allah will not punish anyone until the proof has been established against him and a Messenger has been sent to him.'' This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبۡعَثَ رَسُولاً۬

(And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).) (17:15) For verily, Allah says in another verse,

﴿ وَلَوۡلَا كَلِمَةٌ۬ سَبَقَتۡ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَكَانَ لِزَامً۬ا وَأَجَلٌ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى فَٱصۡبِرۡ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ

(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined, (their punishment) must necessarily have come (in this world). So bear patiently what they say.) (20:129-130) Then, Allah informs that He will gather the early generations and the later generations from all of the nations. He will then reward them based upon their deeds. If they did good deeds, their reward will be good, and if they did evil deeds, their reward will be bad. Allah says,

﴿ وَإِنَّ كُلاًّ۬ لَّمَّا لَيُوَفِّيَنَّہُمۡ رَبُّكَ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

(And verily, to each of them your Lord will repay their works in full. Surely, He is All-Aware of what they do.) This means that He is All-Knower of all of their deeds. This includes their honorable deeds and their despicable deeds, their small deeds and their great deeds. There are many different modes of recitation for this verse, yet all of their meanings agree with what we have mentioned. This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِن كُلٌّ۬ لَّمَّا جَمِيعٌ۬ لَّدَيۡنَا مُحۡضَرُونَ

(And surely, all - everyone of them will be brought before Us.) (36:32)

﴿ فَٱسۡتَقِمۡ كَمَآ أُمِرۡتَ وَمَن تَابَ مَعَكَ وَلَا تَطۡغَوۡاْ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ۬ وَلَا تَرۡكَنُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ فَتَمَسَّكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

(112. So stand (ask Allah to make) you firm and straight as you are commanded and those who turn in repentance with you, and transgress not. Verily, He is All-Seer of what you do.) (113. And incline not toward those who do wrong, lest the Fire should touch you, and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor would you then be helped.)

The Command to Stand Firm and Straight

Allah, the Exalted, commands His Messenger and His believing servants to be firm and to always be upright. This is of the greatest aid for gaining victory over the enemy and confronting the opposition. Allah also forbids transgression, which is to exceed the bounds (of what is allowed). Verily, transgression causes destruction to its practitioner, even if the transgression was directed against a polytheist. Then, Allah informs that He is All-Seer of the actions of His servants. He is not unaware of anything and nothing is hidden from Him. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا تَرۡكَنُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ

(And incline not toward those who do wrong,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Do not compromise with them.'' Ibn Jarir said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Do not side with those who do wrong.'' This is a good statement. This means, "Do not seek assistance from wrongdoers, because it will be as if you are condoning their actions (of evil).''

﴿ فَتَمَسَّكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِنۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ثُمَّ لَا تُنصَرُونَ

(lest the Fire should touch you, and you have no protectors other than Allah, nor you would then be helped.) This means that you will not have besides Allah any friend who can save you, nor any helper who can remove you from His torment.

﴿ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ طَرَفَىِ ٱلنَّہَارِ وَزُلَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَـٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ ذِكۡرَىٰ لِلذَّٲكِرِينَ وَٱصۡبِرۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجۡرَ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ

(114. And perform the Salah, at the two ends of the day and in some hours of the night. Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds. That is a reminder for the mindful.) (115. And be patient; verily, Allah wastes not the reward of the doers of good.)

The Command to establish the Prayer

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ طَرَفَىِ ٱلنَّہَارِ

(And perform the Salah, at the two ends of the day) "This is referring to the morning prayer (Subh) and the evening prayer (Maghrib).'' The same was said by Al-Hasan and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. In one narration reported by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others, Al-Hasan said, "It means the morning prayer (Subh) and the late afternoon prayer (`Asr).'' Mujahid said, "It is the morning prayer at the beginning of the day and the noon prayer (Zuhr) and late afternoon prayer (`Asr) at the end of the day.'' This was also said by Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Ad-Dahhak in one narration from him.

﴿ وَزُلَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۚ

(and in some hours of the night.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and others said, "This means the night prayer (`Isha').'' Ibn Al-Mubarak reported from Mubarak bin Fadalah that Al-Hasan said,

﴿ وَزُلَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۚ

(and in some hours of the night.) "This means the evening (Maghrib) and late night (`Isha') prayers. The Messenger of Allah said,

« هُمَا زُلَفَا اللَّيْلِ: الْمَغْرِبُ وَالْعِشَاء »

(They are the approach of the night: Maghrib and `Isha'.) The same was said by Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak (that this means the Maghrib and `Isha' prayers). It should be noted that this verse was revealed before the five daily prayers were made obligatory during the night of Isra' (the Prophet's night journey to Jerusalem). At that time there were only two obligatory prayers: a prayer before sunrise and a prayer before sunset. During the late night another prayer (Tahajjud) was also made obligatory upon the Prophet and his nation. Later, this obligation was abrogated for his nation and remained obligatory upon him. Finally, this obligation was abrogated for the Prophet as well, according to one opinion. Allah knows best.

The Good Deeds wipe away the Evil Deeds

Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَـٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ‌ۚ

(Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds.) This is saying that the performance of good deeds is an expiation of previous sins. This has been mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad and the Sunan Compilers, that the Commander of the faithful, `Ali bin Abi Talib, said, "Whenever I used to hear a narration from the Messenger of Allah (), Allah would cause me to benefit by it however He willed. If anyone informed me of any statement that he said, I would make him swear (by Allah) that the Prophet said it. If he swore by Allah, then I would believe him. Abu Bakr once told me -- and Abu Bakr was truthful -- that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

« مَا مِنْ مُسْلِمٍ يُذْنِبُ ذَنْبًا فَيَتَوَضَّأُ وَيُصَلِّي رَكْعَتَيْنِ إِلَّا غُفِرَ لَه »

(There is not any Muslim who commits a sin, then he makes Wudu' and prays two units of prayer, except that he will be forgiven (that sin).) In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Commander of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan made Wudu' for the people (to see), just like the Wudu' of the Messenger of Allah. Then he said, "I saw the Messenger of Allah make Wudu' like this, and he said,

« مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ وُضُوئِي هَذَا ثُمَّ صَلَّى رَكْعَتَيْنِ لَا يُحَدِّثُ فِيهِمَا نَفْسَهُ غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّم مِنْ ذَنْبِه »

(Whoever makes Wudu' like this Wudu' of mine, then he prays two units of prayer in which he does not speak to himself, he will be forgiven for his previous sins.) In the Sahih it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَرَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ أَنَّ بِبَابِ أَحَدِكُمْ نَهْرًا غَمْرًا، يَغْتَسِلُ فِيهِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ خَمْسَ مَرَّاتٍ، هَلْ يُبْقِي مِنْ دَرَنِهِ شَيْئًا؟ »

(Do you think that if there was a flowing river at the door of anyone of you and he bathed in it five times every day, would there be any dirt left on him) They said, "No, O Messenger of Allah!'' He () said;

« كَذَلِكَ الصَّلَوَاتُ الْخَمْسُ يَمْحُو اللهُ بِهِنَّ الذُّنُوبَ وَالْخَطَايَا »

(This is like the five daily prayers, for Allah uses them to wipe away the sins and wrongdoings.) Muslim recorded in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah used to say,

« الصَّلَوَاتُ الْخَمْسُ، وَالْجُمُعَةُ إِلَى الْجُمُعَةِ، وَرَمَضَانُ إِلَى رَمَضَانَ، مُكَفِّرَاتٌ لِمَا بَيْنَهُنَّ مَا اجْتُنِبَتِ الْكَبَائِر »

(The five daily prayers, Jumu`ah (Friday prayer) to Jumu`ah and (the fast of) Ramadan to Ramadan are expiations for whatever sins were committed between them, as long as you stay away from the major sins.) Al-Bukhari recorded Ibn Mas`ud saying that a man kissed a woman (who was not his relative or wife). He then came to the Prophet and informed him about the incident. Thus, Allah revealed,

﴿ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ طَرَفَىِ ٱلنَّہَارِ وَزُلَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَـٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ‌ۚ

(And perform Salah, at the two ends of the day and in some hours of the night. Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds.))11:114) The man then said, "O Messenger of Allah, is this only for me'' The Prophet replied,

« لِجَمِيعِ أُمَّتِي كُلِّهِم »

(This is for all of my (Ummah) followers.) Al-Bukhari recorded this narration in the Book of Prayer as well and the Book of Tafsir. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that a man came to `Umar and said that a woman came to do business with him. During the course of their business, he took her into his place and did everything with her except the actual act of sexual intercourse. `Umar said, "Woe unto you! She probably was a woman whose husband is away (fighting) in the path of Allah.'' The man said, "Of course she was.'' `Umar then said, "Go to Abu Bakr and ask him about this.'' The man went to Abu Bakr and asked him about the matter. Abu Bakr said, "She probably was a woman whose husband is away (fighting) in the path of Allah,'' just as `Umar had said. Then he went to the Prophet and told him the same story. The Prophet said,

« فَلَعَلَّهَا مُغِيبَةٌ فِي سَبِيلِ الله »

(She probably was a woman whose husband is away (fighting) in the path of Allah.) Then a verse of Qur'an was revealed,

﴿ وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ طَرَفَىِ ٱلنَّہَارِ وَزُلَفً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَـٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ‌ۚ

(And perform the Salah, at the two ends of the day and in some hours of the night. Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds.) The man then said, "O Messenger of Allah! Is this verse only for me, or does it apply to all of the people in general'' `Umar then struck the man on his chest with his hand and said, "No, rather it is for all of the people in general.'' Then the Messenger of Allah said,

« صَدَقَ عُمَر »

(`Umar has spoken the truth.)

﴿ فَلَوۡلَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡقُرُونِ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ أُوْلُواْ بَقِيَّةٍ۬ يَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡفَسَادِ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ مِّمَّنۡ أَنجَيۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱتَّبَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مَآ أُتۡرِفُواْ فِيهِ وَكَانُواْ مُجۡرِمِينَ وَمَا ڪَانَ رَبُّكَ لِيُهۡلِكَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ بِظُلۡمٍ۬ وَأَهۡلُهَا مُصۡلِحُونَ

(116. If only there had been among the generations before you persons having wisdom, prohibiting (others) from Fasad (corruption) in the earth, except a few of those whom We saved from among them! Those who did wrong pursued the enjoyment of good things of (this worldly) life, and were criminals.) (117. And your Lord would never destroy the towns wrongfully, while their people were doers of good.)