;
There must be a Group of People Who forbid Lewdness

Allah, the Exalted, says that there should have been a group of wise people present among the past generations who called to good and forbade the evil and corruption that took place among them in the land. His statement,

﴿ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

(except a few) This means that there were only a small number of people present among them who were of this caliber. They were those whom Allah saved at the sudden striking of His vengeance, when His anger was let lose. For this reason Allah commanded this noble Ummah (followers of Muhammad) to always have among them those who command the good and forbid the evil. This is as Allah says,

﴿ وَلۡتَكُن مِّنكُمۡ أُمَّةٌ۬ يَدۡعُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ‌ۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. And it is they who are the successful.) (3:104) It is related in a Hadith that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ النَّاسَ إِذَا رَأَوُا الْمُنْكَرَ فَلَمْ يُغَيِّرُوهُ أَوْشَكَ أَنْ يَعُمَّهُمُ اللَّهُ بِعِقَاب »

(Verily, whenever a group of people see an evil and they do not change it, it is likely that Allah will cover them with (His) punishment.) Thus, Allah says,

﴿ فَلَوۡلَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡقُرُونِ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ أُوْلُواْ بَقِيَّةٍ۬ يَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡفَسَادِ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ مِّمَّنۡ أَنجَيۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡ‌ۗ

(If only there had been among the generations before you persons having wisdom, There must be a Group of People Who forbid Lewdness Allah, the Exalted, says that there should have been a group of wise people present among the past generations who called to good and forbade the evil and corruption that took place among them in the land. His statement,

﴿ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

(except a few) This means that there were only a small number of people present among them who were of this caliber. They were those whom Allah saved at the sudden striking of His vengeance, when His anger was let lose. For this reason Allah commanded this noble Ummah (followers of Muhammad) to always have among them those who command the good and forbid the evil. This is as Allah says,

﴿ وَلۡتَكُن مِّنكُمۡ أُمَّةٌ۬ يَدۡعُونَ إِلَى ٱلۡخَيۡرِ وَيَأۡمُرُونَ بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ وَيَنۡهَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡمُنكَرِ‌ۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. And it is they who are the successful.) (3:104) It is related in a Hadith that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ النَّاسَ إِذَا رَأَوُا الْمُنْكَرَ فَلَمْ يُغَيِّرُوهُ أَوْشَكَ أَنْ يَعُمَّهُمُ اللَّهُ بِعِقَاب »

(Verily, whenever a group of people see an evil and they do not change it, it is likely that Allah will cover them with (His) punishment.) Thus, Allah says,

﴿ فَلَوۡلَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلۡقُرُونِ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ أُوْلُواْ بَقِيَّةٍ۬ يَنۡہَوۡنَ عَنِ ٱلۡفَسَادِ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬ مِّمَّنۡ أَنجَيۡنَا مِنۡهُمۡ‌ۗ

(If only there had been among the generations before you persons having wisdom, prohibiting (others) from the Fasad in the earth, - except a few of those whom We saved from among them!) Concerning the statement,

﴿ وَٱتَّبَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مَآ أُتۡرِفُواْ فِيهِ

(Those who did wrong pursued the enjoyment of good things of (this worldly) life,) This means that they continued in their ways of disobedience and evils and they did not heed the protesting of those righteous people, until the torment suddenly seized them.

﴿ وَكَانُواْ مُجۡرِمِينَ

(and were criminals.) Then, Allah informs that he does not destroy any town, except that it has wronged itself. No correctional punishment or torment comes to any town, except that its people were wrongdoers. This is as Allah says, s

﴿ وَمَا ظَلَمۡنَـٰهُمۡ وَلَـٰكِن ظَلَمُوٓاْ أَنفُسَہُمۡ‌ۖ

(We wronged them not, but they wronged themselves.) (11:101) Allah also says,

﴿ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِظَلَّـٰمٍ۬ لِّلۡعَبِيدِ

(And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants.) (41:46)

﴿ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ ٱلنَّاسَ أُمَّةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬‌ۖ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخۡتَلِفِينَ
﴿ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ‌ۚ وَلِذَٲلِكَ خَلَقَهُمۡ‌ۗ وَتَمَّتۡ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمۡلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ أَجۡمَعِينَ

(118. And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made mankind one Ummah, but they will not cease to disagree.) (119. Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy, and for that did He create them. And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled (His saying): "Surely, I shall fill Hell with Jinn and men all together.'')

Allah has not made Faith universally accepted

Allah, the Exalted, informs that He is able to make all of mankind one nation upon belief, or disbelief. This is just as He said,

﴿ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ رَبُّكَ لَأَمَنَ مَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ ڪُلُّهُمۡ جَمِيعًا‌ۚ

(And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together.) )10:99( Allah goes on to say,

﴿ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخۡتَلِفِينَ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ‌ۚ

(but they will not cease to disagree. Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy,) This means that people will always differ in religions, creeds, beliefs, opinions and sects. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ‌ۚ

(Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy,) This means that those who have received the mercy of Allah by following the Messengers are excluded from this. They are those who adhere to what they are commanded in the religion by the Messengers of Allah. That has always been their characteristic until the coming of the finality of the Prophets and Messengers (Muhammad). Those who received Allah's mercy are those who followed him, believed in him and supported him. Therefore, they succeeded by achieving happiness in this life and the Hereafter. They are the Saved Sect mentioned in the Hadith recorded in the Musnad and Sunan collections of Hadith. The routes of transmission of this Hadith all strengthen each other (in authenticity). In these narrations the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ الْيَهُودَ افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى إِحْدَى وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَإِنَّ النَّصَارَى افْتَرَقَتْ عَلَى اثْنَتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، وَسَتَفْتَرِقُ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةُ عَلَى ثَلَاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً، كُلُّهَا فِي النَّارِ إِلَّا فِرْقَةً وَاحِدَة »

(Verily, the Jews split into seventy-one sects, and the Christians split into seventy-two sects, and this nation (of Muslims) will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the Fire except one sect.) They (the Companions) said, "Who are they (the Saved Sect) O Messenger of Allah'' He said,

« مَا أَنَا عَلَيْهِ وَأَصْحَابِي »

(The sect that is upon what my Companions and I are upon.) Al-Hakim recorded this narration in his Mustadrak with this additional wording. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَتَمَّتۡ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ لَأَمۡلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ ٱلۡجِنَّةِ وَٱلنَّاسِ أَجۡمَعِينَ

(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled (His saying): "Surely, I shall fill Hell with Jinn and men all together.'') Allah, the Exalted, informs that He precedes everything in His preordainment and decree, by His perfect knowledge and penetrating wisdom. The result of this decree is that from those whom He has created, some deserve the Paradise and some deserve the Hell Fire. From this decree is that He will fill the Hellfire with both mankind and Jinns. His is the profound evidence and the perfect wisdom. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« اخْتَصَمَتِ الْجَنَّةُ وَالنَّارُ فَقَالَتِ الْجَنَّةُ: مَا لِي لَا يَدْخُلُنِي إِلَّا ضُعَفَاءُ النَّاسِ وَسَقَطُهُمْ وَقَالَتِ النَّارُ: أُوثِرْتُ بِالْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ وَالْمُتَجَبِّرِينَ. فَقَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِلْجَنَّةِ: أَنْتِ رَحْمَتِي أَرْحَمُ بِكِ مَنْ أَشَاءُ، وَقَالَ لِلنَّارِ: أَنْتِ عَذَابِي أَنْتَقِمُ بِكِ مِمَّنْ أَشَاءُ، وَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْكُمَا مِلْؤُهَا، فَأَمَّا الْجَنَّةُ فَلَا يَزَالُ فِيهَا فَضْلٌ، حَتَّى يُنْشِىءَ اللهُ لَهَا خَلْقًا يُسْكِنُ فَضْلَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَأَمَّا النَّارُ فَلَا تَزَالُ تَقُولُ: هَلْ مِنْ مَزِيدٍ حَتَّى يَضَعَ عَلَيْهَا رَبُّ الْعِزَّةِ قَدَمَهُ فَتَقُولُ: قَطْ قَطْ وَعِزَّتِك »

(Paradise and the Hellfire debated. Paradise said, `None will enter me except the weak and despised of the people.' The Hell- fire said, `I have inherited the haughty and the arrogant people.' Then Allah said to the Paradise, `You are My mercy and I grant mercy with you to whoever I wish.' Then He said to the Hellfire, `You are My torment and I take vengeance with you upon whoever I wish. I will fill each one of you.' However, the Paradise will always have more bounties, to such an extent that Allah will create more creatures to dwell in it and enjoy its extra bounties. The Hellfire will continue saying, `Are there anymore (to enter me),' until the Lord of might places His Foot over it. Then it (Hell) will say, "Enough, enough, by Your might!'')

﴿ وَكُلاًّ۬ نَّقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ مِنۡ أَنۢبَآءِ ٱلرُّسُلِ مَا نُثَبِّتُ بِهِۦ فُؤَادَكَ‌ۚ وَجَآءَكَ فِى هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَمَوۡعِظَةٌ۬ وَذِكۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

(120. And all that We relate to you of the news of the Messengers is in order that We may make strong and firm your heart thereby. And in this has come to you the truth, as well as an admonition and a reminder for the believers.)

The Conclusion

Allah, the Exalted, is saying, `We relate all of these stories to you (Muhammad) concerning what happened with the Messengers who came before you with their nations. This is an explanation of what transpired in their arguments and disputes and how the Prophets were all rejected and harmed. These stories also explain how Allah helped His party of believers and disgraced His enemies, the disbelievers. We relate all of this to you (Muhammad) in order to make your heart firm and so that you may take an example from your brothers who passed before you of the Messengers.' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَجَآءَكَ فِى هَـٰذِهِ ٱلۡحَقُّ

(And in this has come to you the truth,) This is referring to this Surah itself. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and a group of the Salaf and it is the correct view. This means, `This comprehensive Surah contains the stories of the Prophets and how Allah saved them, and the believers along with them and how He destroyed the disbelievers. There has come to you (Muhammad) stories of truth and true events in this Surah. In this Surah is an admonition that prevents the disbelievers, and a reminder that causes the believers to reflect.'

﴿ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱعۡمَلُواْ عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمۡ إِنَّا عَـٰمِلُونَ وَٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ

(121. And say to those who do not believe: "Act according to your ability and way, We are acting.) (122. And you wait! We (too) are waiting.'')

Allah, the Exalted, commands His Messenger to say to those who disbelieve in what he has come with from his Lord, by way of warning,
﴿ ٱعۡمَلُواْ عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِكُمۡ

(Act according to your ability) This means upon your path and your way.

﴿ إِنَّا عَـٰمِلُونَ

(We are acting (in our way). This means that we are upon our path and our way (Islam).

﴿ وَٱنتَظِرُوٓاْ إِنَّا مُنتَظِرُونَ

(And you wait ! We (too) are waiting.) This means,

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ مَن تَكُونُ لَهُ ۥ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلدَّارِ‌ۗ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُفۡلِحُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ

(And you will come to know for which of us will be the (happy) end in the Hereafter. Certainly the wrongdoers will not be successful.)(6:135) Verily, Allah fulfilled His promise to His Messenger , helped him and aided him. He made His Word uppermost (victorious), and the word of those who disbelieved lowly and disgraced. Allah is truly the Most Mighty, Most Wise.

﴿ وَلِلَّهِ غَيۡبُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَإِلَيۡهِ يُرۡجَعُ ٱلۡأَمۡرُ كُلُّهُ ۥ فَٱعۡبُدۡهُ وَتَوَڪَّلۡ عَلَيۡهِ‌ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَـٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ

(123. And to Allah belongs the Ghayb of the heavens and the earth, and to Him return all affairs (for decision). So worship Him and put your trust in Him. And your Lord is not unaware of what you (people) do.)

Allah, the Exalted, informs that He is the All-Knower of the unseen of the heavens and the earth and that unto Him is the final return.

He explains that everyone who does a deed, He will give them their deed (reward for it) on the Day of Reckoning. Unto Him belongs the creation and the command. Then He, the Exalted, commands that He should be worshipped and relied upon, for verily, He is sufficient for whoever trusts and turns to Him. Concerning His statement,

﴿ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَـٰفِلٍ عَمَّا تَعۡمَلُونَ

(And your Lord is not unaware of what you do.) This means, `The lies (of the disbelievers) against you O Muhammad are not hidden from Him. He is the All-Knower of the conditions of His creatures and He will give them the perfect recompense for their deeds in this life and the Hereafter. He will aid you (Muhammad) and His party over the disbelievers in this life and in the Hereafter.' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Hud, and all praises and thanks are due to Allah.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ الٓر‌ۚ تِلۡكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ ٱلۡمُبِينِ إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ قُرۡءَٲنًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ نَحۡنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ أَحۡسَنَ ٱلۡقَصَصِ بِمَآ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ وَإِن ڪُنتَ مِن قَبۡلِهِۦ لَمِنَ ٱلۡغَـٰفِلِينَ

(1. Alif-Lam-Ra. These are the verses of the Book that is clear.) (2. Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an in order that you may understand.) (3. We relate unto you the best of stories through Our revelations unto you, of this Qur'an. And before this, you were among those who knew nothing about it.)

Qualities of the Qur'an

In the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah we talked about the separate letters, Allah said,

﴿ تِلۡكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ

(These are the verses of the Book) in reference to the Clear Qur'an that is plain and apparent, and explains, clarifies and makes known the unclear matters. Allah said next,

﴿ إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ قُرۡءَٲنًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تَعۡقِلُونَ

(Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an in order that you may understand.) The Arabic language is the most eloquent, plain, deep and expressive of the meanings that might arise in one's mind. Therefore, the most honorable Book, was revealed in the most honorable language, to the most honorable Prophet and Messenger, delivered by the most honorable angel, in the most honorable land on earth, and its revelation started during the most honorable month of the year, Ramadan. Therefore, the Qur'an is perfect in every respect. So Allah said,

﴿ نَحۡنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ أَحۡسَنَ ٱلۡقَصَصِ بِمَآ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ

(We relate unto you the best of stories through Our revelations unto you, of this Qur'an.)

Reason behind revealing Ayah (12:3)

On the reason behind revealing Ayah (12:3), Ibn Jarir At-Tabari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, "They said, `O, Allah's Messenger! Why not narrate to us stories' Later on, this Ayah was revealed,

﴿ نَحۡنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيۡكَ أَحۡسَنَ ٱلۡقَصَصِ

(We relate unto you the best of stories...)'' There is a Hadith that is relevant upon mentioning this honorable Ayah, which praises the Qur'an and demonstrates that it is sufficient from needing all books besides it. Imam Ahmad recorded a narration from Jabir bin `Abdullah that `Umar bin Al-Khattab came to the Prophet with a book that he took from some of the People of the Book. `Umar began reading it to the Prophet who became angry. He said,

« أَمُتَهَوِّكُونَ فِيهَا يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ؟ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَقَدْ جِئْتُكُمْ بِهَا بَيْضَاءَ نَقِيَّةً، لَا تَسْأَلُوهُمْ عَنْ شَيْءٍ فَيُخْبِرُوكُمْ بِحَقَ فَتُكَذِّبُونَهُ، أَوْ بِبَاطِلٍ فَتُصَدِّقُونَهُ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ، لَوْ أَنَّ مُوسَى كَانَ حَيًّا مَا وَسِعَهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يَتَّبِعَنِي »

(Are you uncertain about it Ibn Al-Khattab By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! I have come to you with it white and pure. Do not ask them about anything, for they might tell you something true and you reject it, or they might tell you something false and you believe it. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If Musa were living, he would have no choice but to follow me.) Imam Ahmad also recorded a narration from `Abdullah bin Thabit who said, "`Umar came to Allah's Messenger and said; `O Messenger of Allah! I passed by a brother of mine from ﴿the tribe of Qurayzah, so he wrote some comprehensive statements from the Tawrah for me, should I read them to you' The face of Allah's Messenger changed (with anger). So I said to him, `Don't you see the face of Allah's Messenger'' `Umar said, `We are pleased with Allah as our Lord, Islam as our religion, and Muhammad as our Messenger.' So the anger of the Prophet subsided, and he said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، لَوْ أَصْبَحَ فِيكُمْ مُوسَى ثُمَّ اتَّبَعْتُمُوهُ وَتَرَكْتُمُونِي لَضَلَلْتُمْ، إِنَّكُمْ حَظِّي مِنَ الْأُمَمِ، وَأَنَا حَظُّكُمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّين »

(By the One in Whose Hand is Muhammad's soul, if Musa appeared among you and you were to follow him, abandoning me, then you would have strayed. Indeed you are my share of the nations, and I am your share of the Prophets.)''

﴿ إِذۡ قَالَ يُوسُفُ لِأَبِيهِ يَـٰٓأَبَتِ إِنِّى رَأَيۡتُ أَحَدَ عَشَرَ كَوۡكَبً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ رَأَيۡتُہُمۡ لِى سَـٰجِدِينَ

(4. (Remember) when Yusuf said to his father: "O my father! Verily, I saw (in a dream) eleven stars and the sun and the moon - I saw them prostrating themselves to me.'')