;
There is no Similarity between Allah and False Deities in any Respect

Allah said,

﴿ أَفَمَنۡ هُوَ قَآٮِٕمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتۡ‌ۗ

(Is then He (Allah) Who takes charge of every person and knows all that he has earned) Allah is the guard and watcher over every living soul and knows what everyone does, whether good or evil, and nothing ever escapes His perfect observation. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَمَا تَكُونُ فِى شَأۡنٍ۬ وَمَا تَتۡلُواْ مِنۡهُ مِن قُرۡءَانٍ۬ وَلَا تَعۡمَلُونَ مِنۡ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا ڪُنَّا عَلَيۡكُمۡ شُہُودًا إِذۡ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ‌ۚ

(Neither you do any deed nor recite any portion of the Qur'an, nor you do any deed, but we are witness thereof, when you are doing it.) (10:61) and Allah said,

﴿ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعۡلَمُهَا

(Not a leaf falls, but He knows it.) (6:59)

﴿ وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِ رِزۡقُهَا وَيَعۡلَمُ مُسۡتَقَرَّهَا وَمُسۡتَوۡدَعَهَا‌ۚ كُلٌّ۬ فِى ڪِتَـٰبٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬

(And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposits. All is in a Clear Book.) (11:6),

﴿ سَوَآءٌ۬ مِّنكُم مَّنۡ أَسَرَّ ٱلۡقَوۡلَ وَمَن جَهَرَ بِهِۦ وَمَنۡ هُوَ مُسۡتَخۡفِۭ بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَسَارِبُۢ بِٱلنَّہَارِ

(It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly, whether he be hid by night or goes forth freely by day.) (13:10)

﴿ يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ وَأَخۡفَى

(He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) (20:7) and,

﴿ وَهُوَ مَعَكُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ۬

(And He is with you wherever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) (57:4) Is He Who is like this similar to the idols, that the polytheists worship, which can neither hear nor see nor do they have a mind nor able to bring good to themselves or to their worshippers nor prevent harm from themselves or their worshippers The answer to the question in the Ayah was omitted, because it is implied, for Allah said next,

﴿ وَجَعَلُواْ لِلَّهِ شُرَكَآءَ

(Yet, they ascribe partners to Allah.) which they worshipped besides Him, such as idols, rivals and false deities,

﴿ قُلۡ سَمُّوهُمۡ‌ۚ

(Say: "Name them!'') make them known to us and uncover them so that they are known, for surely, they do not exist at all! So Allah said,

﴿ أَمۡ تُنَبِّـُٔونَهُ ۥ بِمَا لَا يَعۡلَمُ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(Is it that you will inform Him of something He knows not in the earth) for had that thing existed in or on the earth, Allah would have known about it because nothing ever escapes His knowledge,

﴿ أَم بِظَـٰهِرٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡقَوۡلِ‌ۗ

(or is it (just) a show of words) or doubts expressed in words, according to Mujahid, while Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said, false words. Allah says, you (polytheists) worshipped the idols because you thought that they had power to bring benefit or harm, and this is why you called them gods,

﴿ إِنۡ هِىَ إِلَّآ أَسۡمَآءٌ۬ سَمَّيۡتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمۡ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بِہَا مِن سُلۡطَـٰنٍ‌ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهۡوَى ٱلۡأَنفُسُ‌ۖ وَلَقَدۡ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّہِمُ ٱلۡهُدَىٰٓ

(They are but names which you have named - you and your fathers - for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!) (53:23) Allah said next,

﴿ بَلۡ زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مَكۡرُهُمۡ

(Nay! To those who disbelieved, their plotting is made fair seeming,) or their words, according to Mujahid. This Ayah refers to the misguidance of the polytheists and their propagation night and day. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَقَيَّضۡنَا لَهُمۡ قُرَنَآءَ فَزَيَّنُواْ لَهُم

(And We have assigned for them (devils) intimate companions, who have made fair-seeming to them.) Allah said next,

﴿ وَصُدُّواْ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ‌ۗ

(and they have been hindered from the right path;) Some read with Fatha over the Sad (i.e. wa Saddu), which would mean, `and they hindered from the right path, feeling fond of the misguidance they are in, thinking that it is correct, they called to it and thus hindered the people from following the path of the Messengers.' Others read it with Damma over the Sad (i.e. wa Suddu), which would mean, `and they have been hindered from the right path,' explained it this way: because they thought that their way looked fair or correct, they were hindered by it from the right path, so Allah said,

﴿ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِنۡ هَادٍ۬

(and whom Allah sends astray, for him there is no guide.) Allah said in similar instances,

﴿ وَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ فِتۡنَتَهُ ۥ فَلَن تَمۡلِكَ لَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۚ

(And whomsoever Allah wants to suffer a trial, you can do nothing for him against Allah.) (5:41), and,

﴿ إِن تَحۡرِصۡ عَلَىٰ هُدَٮٰهُمۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى مَن يُضِلُّ‌ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(If you covet for their guidance, then verily, Allah guides not those whom He makes to go astray. And they will have no helpers.))16:37(

﴿ لَّهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ أَشَقُّ‌ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍ۬ مَّثَلُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ‌ۖ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ‌ۖ أُڪُلُهَا دَآٮِٕمٌ۬ وَظِلُّهَا‌ۚ تِلۡكَ عُقۡبَى ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَواْ‌ۖ وَّعُقۡبَى ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ ٱلنَّارُ

(34. For them is a torment in the life of this world, and certainly, harder is the torment of the Hereafter. And they have no defender (or protector) against Allah.) (35. The description of the Paradise which those who have Taqwa have been promised: Underneath it rivers flow, its provision is eternal and so is its shade; this is the end (final destination) of those who have Taqwa, and the end (final destination) of the disbelievers is Fire.)

Punishment of the Disbelievers and Reward of the Pious Believers

Here, Allah mentions the punishment of the disbelievers and the reward of the righteous believers, after describing the Kufr and Shirk that the disbelievers indulge in,

﴿ لَّهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ

(For them is a torment in the life of this world,) by the hands of the believers, killing and capturing them,

﴿ وَلَعَذَابُ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ

(and certainly, the torment of the Hereafter.) which will come after they suffer humiliation in this life,

﴿ أَشُقَّ

(is harder) many times harder. The Messenger of Allah said to those who agreed to Mula`anah,

« إِنَّ عَذَابَ الدُّنْيَا أَهْوَنُ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْآخِرَة »

(Surely, the torment of this life, is easier than the torment of the Hereafter.) Indeed, and just as the Messenger of Allah stated, the torment of this life ends but the torment of the Hereafter is everlasting in a Fire that is seventy times hot than our fire, where there are chains whose thickness and hardness are unimaginable. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ فَيَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ لَّا يُعَذِّبُ عَذَابَهُ ۥۤ أَحَدٌ۬ وَلَا يُوثِقُ وَثَاقَهُ ۥۤ أَحَدٌ۬

(So on that Day none will punish as He will punish. And none will bind as He will bind.) )89:25-26(, and,

﴿ بَلۡ كَذَّبُواْ بِٱلسَّاعَةِ‌ۖ وَأَعۡتَدۡنَا لِمَن ڪَذَّبَ بِٱلسَّاعَةِ سَعِيرًا إِذَا رَأَتۡهُم مِّن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬ سَمِعُواْ لَهَا تَغَيُّظً۬ا وَزَفِيرً۬ا وَإِذَآ أُلۡقُواْ مِنۡہَا مَكَانً۬ا ضَيِّقً۬ا مُّقَرَّنِينَ دَعَوۡاْ هُنَالِكَ ثُبُورً۬ا لَّا تَدۡعُواْ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ ثُبُورً۬ا وَٲحِدً۬ا وَٱدۡعُواْ ثُبُورً۬ا ڪَثِيرً۬ا قُلۡ أَذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ أَمۡ جَنَّةُ ٱلۡخُلۡدِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ‌ۚ كَانَتۡ لَهُمۡ جَزَآءً۬ وَمَصِيرً۬ا

(And for those who deny the Hour, We have prepared a flaming Fire. When it (Hell) sees them from a far place, they will hear its raging and its roaring. And when they shall be thrown into a narrow place thereof, chained together, they will exclaim therein for destruction. Exclaim not today for one destruction, but exclaim for many destructions. Say: "Is that (torment) better, or the Paradise of Eternity promised for those who have Taqwa'' It will be theirs as a reward and as a final destination.)(25:11-15) Similarly He said;

﴿ مَّثَلُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ‌ۖ

(The description of the Paradise which those who have Taqwa have been promised) meaning its description and qualities;

﴿ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ‌ۖ

(Underneath it rivers flow,) these rivers flow in the various parts and grades of Paradise and wherever its people wish they flow and gush forth for them. Allah also said,

﴿ مَّثَلُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ‌ۖ فِيہَآ أَنۡہَـٰرٌ۬ مِّن مَّآءٍ غَيۡرِ ءَاسِنٍ۬ وَأَنۡہَـٰرٌ۬ مِّن لَّبَنٍ۬ لَّمۡ يَتَغَيَّرۡ طَعۡمُهُ ۥ وَأَنۡہَـٰرٌ۬ مِّنۡ خَمۡرٍ۬ لَّذَّةٍ۬ لِّلشَّـٰرِبِينَ وَأَنۡہَـٰرٌ۬ مِّنۡ عَسَلٍ۬ مُّصَفًّ۬ى‌ۖ وَلَهُمۡ فِيہَا مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَٲتِ وَمَغۡفِرَةٌ۬

(The description of Paradise which those who have Taqwa have been promised (is that) in it are rivers of water the taste and smell of which are not changed, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink, and rivers of clarified honey, therein for them is every kind of fruit, and forgiveness.) )47:15( Allah said next,

﴿ أُڪُلُهَا دَآٮِٕمٌ۬ وَظِلُّهَا‌ۚ

(its provision is eternal and so is its shade) for Paradise has foods, fruits and drinks that never end or finish. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn `Abbas narrated in the Hadith about the Eclipse prayer that the Companions said, "O Allah's Messenger! While you were standing )in prayer(, we saw you reach for something with your hand and then you brought it back.'' The Messenger said,

« إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ الْجَنَّةَ أَوْ أُرِيتُ الْجَنَّةَ فَتَنَاوَلْتُ مِنْهَا عُنْقُودًا، وَلَوْ أَخَذْتُهُ لَأَكَلْتُمْ مِنْهُ مَا بَقِيَتِ الدُّنْيَا »

(I saw Paradise - or was shown Paradise - and reached for a cluster (of grapes or other fruit), and had I kept it, you would have eaten from it as long as this life remains.) Imam Muslim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« يَأْكُلُ أَهْلُ الْجَنَّةِ وَيَشْرَبُونَ، وَلَا يَتَمَخَّطُونَ وَلَا يَتَغَوَّطُونَ، وَلَا يَبُولُونَ، طَعَامُهُمْ جُشَاءٌ كَرِيحِ الْمِسْكِ، وَيُلْهَمُونَ التَّسْبِيحَ وَالتَّقْدِيسَ كَمَا يُلْهَمُونَ النَّفَس »

(The people of Paradise eat and drink, and they do not need to blow their noses, or answer the call of nature, or urinate, for they pass the food excrements in belches, which smell like musk. They will be inspired to praise and glorify (Allah) as spontaneously as they breathe.) Imams Ahmad and An-Nasa'i recorded that Thumamah bin `Uqbah said that he heard Zayd bin Arqam say, "A man from the People of the Scriptures came and said (to the Prophet), `O Abul-Qasim! You claim that the people of Paradise eat and drink' The Prophet said,

« نَعَمْ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ، إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ مِنْهُمْ لَيُعطَى قُوَّةَ مِائَةِ رَجُلٍ فِي الْأَكْلِ وَالشُّرْبِ وَالْجِمَاعِ وَالشَّهْوَة »

(Yes. By He in Whose Hand is Muhammad's life, a man among them will be given the strength of a hundred men in eating, drinking, sexual intercourse and appetite.) That man asked, `He who eats and drinks needs to relieve the call of nature, but Paradise is pure )from feces and urine(' The Prophet said,

« تَكُونُ حَاجَةُ أَحَدِهِمْ رَشْحًا يَفِيضُ مِنْ جُلُودِهِمْ كَرِيحِ الْمِسْكِ فَيَضْمُرُ بَطْنُه »

(One of them (residents of Paradise) relieves the call of nature through a sweat that emanates from the skin, with the scent of musk, and the stomach becomes empty again.) Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَفَـٰكِهَةٍ۬ كَثِيرَةٍ۬ لَّا مَقۡطُوعَةٍ۬ وَلَا مَمۡنُوعَةٍ۬

(And fruit in plenty, whose supply is not cut off nor are they out of reach.) )56:32-33(, and,

﴿ وَدَانِيَةً عَلَيۡہِمۡ ظِلَـٰلُهَا وَذُلِّلَتۡ قُطُوفُهَا تَذۡلِيلاً۬

(And the shade thereof is close upon them, and the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low within their reach.) (76:14) The shade of Paradise is everlasting and never shrinks, just as Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَآ أَبَدً۬ا‌ۖ لَّهُمۡ فِيہَآ أَزۡوَٲجٌ۬ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ۬‌ۖ وَنُدۡخِلُهُمۡ ظِلاًّ۬ ظَلِيلاً

(But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow, abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have pure mates, and We shall admit them to shades wide and ever deepening.) (4:57) Allah often mentions the description of Paradise and the description of the Fire together, to make Paradise appealing and warn against the Fire. This is why, after Allah mentioned the description of Paradise here, He next said,

﴿ تِلۡكَ عُقۡبَى ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَواْ‌ۖ وَّعُقۡبَى ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ ٱلنَّارُ

(this is the end (final destination) of those who have Taqwa, and the end (final destination) of the disbelievers is Fire.) Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ لَا يَسۡتَوِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ وَأَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۚ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآٮِٕزُونَ

(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) (59:20)

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ يَفۡرَحُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ مَن يُنكِرُ بَعۡضَهُ ۥ‌ۚ قُلۡ إِنَّمَآ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ وَلَآ أُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِلَيۡهِ أَدۡعُواْ وَإِلَيۡهِ مَـَٔابِ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ حُكۡمًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا‌ۚ وَلَٮِٕنِ ٱتَّبَعۡتَ أَهۡوَآءَهُم بَعۡدَمَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا وَاقٍ۬

(36. Those to whom We have given the Book, rejoice at what has been revealed unto you, but there are among the Ahzab (Confederates) those who reject a part thereof. Say: "I am commanded only to worship Allah and not to join partners with Him. To Him I call and to Him is my return.'') (37. And thus have We sent it (the Qur'an) down to be a judgment of authority in Arabic. Were you to follow their (vain) desires after the knowledge which has come to you, then you will not have any Wali (protector) or defender against Allah.)

The Truthful Ones from among the People of the Scriptures rejoice at what Allah has revealed to Muhammad

Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ

(Those to whom We have given the Book,) and they adhere by it,

﴿ يَفۡرَحُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ

(rejoice at what has been revealed unto you,) i.e. the Qur'an, because they have evidence in their Books affirming the truth of the Qur'an and conveying the good news of its imminent revelation, just as Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ يَتۡلُونَهُ ۥ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِۦۤ

(Those to whom We gave the Book recite it as it should be recited.) (2:121) Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِهِۦۤ أَوۡ لَا تُؤۡمِنُوٓاْ‌ۚ

(Say: "Believe in it (the Qur'an) or do not believe.'') (17:107), until,

﴿ إِن كَانَ وَعۡدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفۡعُولاً۬

(Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.) (17:109) meaning, Allah's promise to us in our Books to send Muhammad is true. It is certain and will surely come to pass and be fulfilled, so all praise to our Lord, how truthful is His promise, all the thanks are due to Him,

﴿ وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلۡأَذۡقَانِ يَبۡكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمۡ خُشُوعً۬ا ۩

(And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.) (17:109) Allah said next,

﴿ وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ مَن يُنكِرُ بَعۡضَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(but there are among the Ahzab (Confederates) those who reject a part thereof.) meaning, `There are those among the sects who disbelieve in some of what was revealed to you (O Muhammad).' Mujahid said that,

﴿ وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ

(but there are among the Ahzab (Confederates)), refers to Jews and Christians,

﴿ مَن يُنكِرُ بَعۡضَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(those who reject a part thereof), meaning, `They reject a part of the truth that came down to you - O Muhammad.' Similar was reported from Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Allah said in similar Ayat,

﴿ وَإِنَّ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ لَمَن يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ

(And there are, certainly, among the People of the Scripture, those who believe in Allah.)
(3:199) Allah said next,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَآ أُمِرۡتُ أَنۡ أَعۡبُدَ ٱللَّهَ وَلَآ أُشۡرِكَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۚ

(Say: "I am commanded only to worship Allah and not to join partners with Him...'') meaning, `I (Muhammad) was sent with the religion of worshipping Allah alone without partners, just as the Messengers before me,

﴿ إِلَيۡهِ أَدۡعُواْ

(To Him (alone) I call), I call the people to His path,

﴿ وَإِلَيۡهِ مَـَٔابِ

(and to Him is my return.) final destination and destiny.' Allah said,

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ حُكۡمًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا‌ۚ

(And thus have We sent it (the Qur'an) down to be a judgment of authority in Arabic.) Allah says, `Just as We sent Messengers before you and revealed to them Divine Books from heaven, We sent down to you the Qur'an, a judgment of authority in Arabic, as an honor for you, and We preferred you among all people with this clear, plain and unequivocal Book that,

﴿ لَّا يَأۡتِيهِ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُ مِنۢ بَيۡنِ يَدَيۡهِ وَلَا مِنۡ خَلۡفِهِۦ‌ۖ تَنزِيلٌ۬ مِّنۡ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍ۬

(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it: (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.)' (41:42) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَٮِٕنِ ٱتَّبَعۡتَ أَهۡوَآءَهُم

(Were you to follow their (vain) desires), means, their opinions,

﴿ بَعۡدَمَا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡعِلۡمِ

(after the knowledge which has come to you) from Allah, all praise to Him,

﴿ مَا لَكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا وَاقٍ۬

(then you will not have any Wali (protector) or defender against Allah.) This part of the Ayah warns people of knowledge against following the paths of misguidance after they had gained knowledge in (and abided by) the Prophetic Sunnah and the path of Muhammad, may Allah's best peace and blessings be on him.

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلاً۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ وَجَعَلۡنَا لَهُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا وَذُرِّيَّةً۬‌ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأۡتِىَ بِـَٔايَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ۬ ڪِتَابٌ۬ يَمۡحُواْ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ وَيُثۡبِتُ‌ۖ وَعِندَهُ ۥۤ أُمُّ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ

(38. And indeed We sent Messengers before you, and made for them wives and offspring. And it was not for a Messenger to bring a sign except by Allah's leave. (For) every matter there is a decree (from Allah).) (39. Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book.)

All Prophets and Messengers were Humans

Allah says, `Just as We have sent you O Muhammad, a Prophet and a human, We sent the Messengers before you from among mankind, that eat food, walk in the markets, and We gave them wives and offspring.' Allah said to the most honorable and Final Messenger,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّمَآ أَنَا۟ بَشَرٌ۬ مِّثۡلُكُمۡ يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ

(Say: "I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me.'') (18:110) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَمَّا أَنَا فَأَصُومُ وَأُفْطِرُ، وَأَقُومُ وَأَنَامُ، وَآكُلُ اللَّحْمَ، وَأَتَزَوَّجُ النِّسَاءَ، فَمَنْ رَغِبَ عَنْ سُنَّتِي فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي »

(As for me, I fast and break the fast, stand in prayer at night and sleep, eat meat and marry women; so whoever turns away from my Sunnah is not of mine.)

No Prophet can bring a Miracle except by Allah's Leave

Allah said,

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأۡتِىَ بِـَٔايَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ

(And it was not for a Messenger to bring a sign except by Allah's leave.) meaning, no Prophet could have brought a miracle to his people except by Allah's permission and will, for this matter is only decided by Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, not the Prophets; surely Allah does what He wills and decides what He wills.

﴿ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ۬ ڪِتَابٌ۬

((For) every matter there is a decree (from Allah).) for every term appointed, there is a record (or decree) that keeps it, and everything has a specific due measure with Allah,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَعۡلَمۡ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ فِى كِتَـٰبٍ‌ۚ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ۬

(Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth Verily, it is (all) in the Book. Verily, that is easy for Allah.) (22:70)

Meaning of Allah blotting out what He wills and confirming what He wills of the Book

Allah said,

﴿ يَمۡحُواْ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ

(Allah blots out what He wills) of the divinely revealed Books,

﴿ وَيُثۡبِتُ‌ۖ

(and confirms), until the Qur'an, revealed from Allah to His Messenger peace be upon him, abrogated them all. Mujahid commented;

﴿ يَمۡحُواْ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ وَيُثۡبِتُ‌ۖ

(Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills).) "Except life and death, misery and happiness )i.e., faith and disbelief(, for they do not change.'' Mansur said that he asked Mujahid, "Some of us say in their supplication, `O Allah! If my name is with those who are happy (believers), affirm my name among them, and if my name is among the miserable ones (disbelievers), remove it from among them and place it among the happy ones.'' Mujahid said. "This supplication is good.'' I met him a year or more later and repeated the same question to him and he recited these Ayat,

﴿ إِنَّآ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ فِى لَيۡلَةٍ۬ مُّبَـٰرَكَةٍ‌ۚ

(We sent it (this Qur'an) down on a blessed night.) Mujahid commented next, "During Laylatul-Qadr (Night of the Decrees), Allah decides what provisions and disasters will occur in the next year of. He then brings forward or back (or blots out) whatever He wills. As for the Book containing the records of the happy (believers) and the miserable (disbelievers), it does not change.'' Al-A`mash narrated that Abu Wa'il, Shaqiq bin Salamah said that he used to recite this supplication often, "O Allah, if You wrote us among the wretched ones, remove this status from us and write us among the blessed ones. If You wrote us among the blessed ones, please let us stay that way, for surely, You blot out and confirm what You will, and with You is the Mother of the Book.'' Ibn Jarir At-Tabari collected this. Similar statements were collected from `Umar bin Al-Khattab and `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, indicating that Allah blots out (or abrogates) and affirms what He wills in the Book of Records. What further supports this meaning is that Imam Ahmad recorded that Thawban said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيُحْرَمُ الرِّزْقَ بِالذَّنْبِ يُصِيبُهُ، وَلَا يَرُدُّ الْقَدَرَ إِلَّا الدُّعَاءُ، وَلَا يَزِيدُ فِي الْعُمْرِ إِلَّا الْبِر »

(A man might be deprived of a provision (that was written for him) because of a sin that he commits; only supplication changes Al-Qadar (Predestination); and only Birr (righteousness) can increase the life span.'') An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. There is also a Hadith recorded in the Sahih that affirms that maintaining the ties of the womb increases the life span. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

﴿ يَمۡحُواْ ٱللَّهُ مَا يَشَآءُ وَيُثۡبِتُ‌ۖ وَعِندَهُ ۥۤ أُمُّ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبِ

(Allah blots out what He wills and confirms (what He wills). And with Him is the Mother of the Book.) "A man might work in Allah's obedience for a while but he reverts to the disobedience of Him and then dies while misguided. This is what Allah blots out, while what He confirms is a man who works in His disobedience, but since goodness was destined for him, he dies after reverting to the obedience of Allah. This is what Allah confirms.'' It was also reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this Ayah is in the meaning of another Ayah,

﴿ فَيَغۡفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ

(Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is able to do all things.) (2:284)

﴿ وَإِن مَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعۡضَ ٱلَّذِى نَعِدُهُمۡ أَوۡ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ وَعَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡحِسَابُ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّا نَأۡتِى ٱلۡأَرۡضَ نَنقُصُہَا مِنۡ أَطۡرَافِهَا‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَحۡكُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكۡمِهِۦ‌ۚ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ ٱلۡحِسَابِ

(40. Whether We show you part of what We have promised them or cause you to die, your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning.) (41. See they not that We gradually reduce the land from its outlying borders. And Allah judges, there is none to put back His judgment, and He is swift at reckoning.)

Punishment is by Allah, and the Messenger's Job is only to convey the Message

Allah said to His Messenger,

﴿ وَإِن مَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ

`(Whether We show you) O Muhammad, part of the disgrace and humiliation We have promised your enemies in this life,

﴿ أَوۡ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ

(or cause you to die) before that,

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ

(your duty is only to convey We have only sent you to convey to them Allah's Message, and by doing so, you will have fulfilled the mission that was ordained on you,

﴿ وَعَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡحِسَابُ

(and on Us is the reckoning), their reckoning and recompense is on Us.' Allah said in similar Ayat,

﴿ فَذَكِّرۡ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُذَڪِّرٌ۬ لَّسۡتَ عَلَيۡهِم بِمُصَيۡطِرٍ إِلَّا مَن تَوَلَّىٰ وَكَفَرَ فَيُعَذِّبُهُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡعَذَابَ ٱلۡأَكۡبَرَ إِنَّ إِلَيۡنَآ إِيَابَہُمۡ ثُمَّ إِنَّ عَلَيۡنَا حِسَابَہُم

(So remind them - you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them - Save the one who turns away and disbelieves. Then Allah will punish him with the greatest punishment. Verily, to Us will be their return, Then verily, for Us will be their reckoning.) (88:21-26) Allah said next,

﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّا نَأۡتِى ٱلۡأَرۡضَ نَنقُصُہَا مِنۡ أَطۡرَافِهَا‌ۚ

(See they not that We gradually reduce the land from its outlying borders.) Ibn `Abbas commented, "See they not that We are granting land after land to Muhammad'' Al-Hasan and Ad-Dahhak commented that this Ayah refers to Muslims gaining the upper hand over idolaters, just as Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا مَا حَوۡلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ

(And indeed We have destroyed towns round about you.) (46:27)

﴿ وَقَدۡ مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡمَكۡرُ جَمِيعً۬ا‌ۖ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُ كُلُّ نَفۡسٍ۬‌ۗ وَسَيَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡكُفَّـٰرُ لِمَنۡ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ

(42. And verily, those before them did devise plots, but all planning is Allah's. He knows what every person earns, and the disbelievers will know who gets the good end (final destination).)