;
The Disbelievers plot, but the Believers gain the Good End

Allah says,

﴿ وَقَدۡ مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ

(And verily, those before them did devise plots,) against their Messengers, they wanted to expel them from their land, but Allah devised plots against the disbelievers and gave the good end to those who fear Him. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَإِذۡ يَمۡكُرُ بِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِيُثۡبِتُوكَ أَوۡ يَقۡتُلُوكَ أَوۡ يُخۡرِجُوكَ‌ۚ وَيَمۡكُرُونَ وَيَمۡكُرُ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ وَٱللَّهُ خَيۡرُ ٱلۡمَـٰڪِرِينَ

(And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out; they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the Best of those who plot.) (8:30), and,

﴿ وَمَكَرُواْ مَڪۡرً۬ا وَمَكَرۡنَا مَڪۡرً۬ا وَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡعُرُونَ فَٱنظُرۡ كَيۡفَ ڪَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ مَكۡرِهِمۡ أَنَّا دَمَّرۡنَـٰهُمۡ وَقَوۡمَهُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ

(So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not. Then see how was the end of their plot! Verily, We destroyed them and their nation, all together.) (27:50, 51) Allah said next,

﴿ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَكۡسِبُ كُلُّ نَفۡسٍ۬‌ۗ

(He knows what every person earns,) meaning, He alone knows all secrets and concealed thoughts and will reckon each person according to his work,)

﴿ وَسَيَعۡلَمُ ٱلۡكُفَّـٰرُ

and the Kafir (disbeliever) will know

﴿ ٱلۡكُفَّـٰرُ

or the Kuffar (disbelievers) according to another way of reciting,

﴿ لِمَنۡ عُقۡبَى ٱلدَّارِ

(who gets the good end.) who will earn the ultimate and final victory, they or the followers of the Messengers. Indeed, the followers of the Messengers will earn the good end in this life and the Hereafter, all thanks and praise is due to Allah.

﴿ وَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لَسۡتَ مُرۡسَلاً۬‌ۚ قُلۡ ڪَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدَۢا بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَڪُمۡ وَمَنۡ عِندَهُ ۥ عِلۡمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ

(43. And those who disbelieved, say: "You are not a Messenger.'' Say: "Sufficient as a witness between me and you is Allah and those too who have knowledge of the Scripture.'')

Allah and those who have Knowledge of the Scripture are Sufficient as Witness to the Message of the Prophet

Allah says, the disbelievers reject you and say,

﴿ لَسۡتَ مُرۡسَلاً۬‌ۚ

(You are not a Messenger.) from Allah,

﴿ قُلۡ ڪَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدَۢا بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَڪُمۡ

(Say: "Sufficient as a witness between me and you is Allah...'') meaning, say, `Allah is sufficient for me and He is the witness over me and you. He is witness that I (Muhammad) have conveyed the Message from Him and over you, O rejecters, to the falsehood that you invent.' Allah said,

﴿ وَمَنۡ عِندَهُ ۥ عِلۡمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ

(and those too who have knowledge of the Scripture.) This refers to `Abdullah bin Salam, according to Mujahid. However, this opinion is not plausible, since this Ayah was revealed in Makkah and `Abdullah bin Salam embraced Islam soon after the Prophet emigrated to Al-Madinah. A more suitable explanation is that narrated by Al-`Awfi from Ibn `Abbas that this Ayah refers to Jews and Christians. Qatadah said that among them are, `Abdullah bin Salam, Salman (Al-Farisi) and Tamim Ad-Dari. The correct view is that this Ayah,

﴿ وَمَنۡ عِندَهُ ۥ

(and those too who have. ..), refers to the scholars of the People of the Scriptures who find the description of Muhammad in their Books and the good news of his advent that were conveyed to them by their Prophets. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَرَحۡمَتِى وَسِعَتۡ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ فَسَأَكۡتُبُہَا لِلَّذِينَ يَتَّقُونَ وَيُؤۡتُونَ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ ٱلرَّسُولَ ٱلنَّبِىَّ ٱلۡأُمِّىَّ ٱلَّذِى يَجِدُونَهُ ۥ مَكۡتُوبًا عِندَهُمۡ فِى ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةِ وَٱلۡإِنجِيلِ

(And My mercy embraces all things. That (mercy) I shall ordain for those who have Taqwa, and give Zakah; and those who believe in Our Ayat; Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write whom they find written with them in the Tawrah and the Injil.) (7:156-157) and,

﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُمۡ ءَايَةً أَن يَعۡلَمَهُ ۥ عُلَمَـٰٓؤُاْ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ

(It is not a sign to them that the learned scholars of the Children of Israel knew it (as true)))26:197) There are similar Ayat that affirm that the scholars of the Children of Israel know this fact from their divinely revealed Books. This is the end of Surat Ar-Ra`d, and all praise is due to Allah and all favors are from Him.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ الٓر‌ۚ ڪِتَـٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ إِلَيۡكَ لِتُخۡرِجَ ٱلنَّاسَ مِنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ بِإِذۡنِ رَبِّهِمۡ إِلَىٰ صِرَٲطِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ وَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ مِنۡ عَذَابٍ۬ شَدِيدٍ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسۡتَحِبُّونَ ٱلۡحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنۡيَا عَلَى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَيَبۡغُونَہَا عِوَجًا‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى ضَلَـٰلِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬

(1. Alif-Lam-Ra. (This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light by their Lord's leave to the path of the Almighty, the Praised.) (2. Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth! And woe unto the disbelievers from a severe torment.) (3. Those who prefer the life of this world to the Hereafter, and hinder (men) from the path of Allah and seek crookedness therein - they are far astray.)

Describing the Qur'an and warning Those Who defy it

Previously we discussed the meaning of the separate letters that appear in the beginnings of some Surahs.

﴿ كِتَـٰبٌ أَنزَلۡنَـٰهُ إِلَيۡكَ

((This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you...) Allah says, `This is a Book that We have revealed to you, O Muhammad. This `Book', is the Glorious Qur'an, the most honored Book, that Allah sent down from heaven to the most honored Messenger of Allah sent to all the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike,

﴿ لِتُخۡرِجَ ٱلنَّاسَ مِنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ

(in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light) We sent you, O Muhammad, with this Book in order that you might lead mankind away from misguidance and crookedness to guidance and the right way,'

﴿ ٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يُخۡرِجُهُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَوۡلِيَآؤُهُمُ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتُ يُخۡرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ ٱلنُّورِ إِلَى ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ‌ۗ

(Allah is the Wali (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Awliya (supporters and helpers) are Taghut (false deities), they bring them out from light into darkness.) (2:257), and,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ عَلَىٰ عَبۡدِهِۦۤ ءَايَـٰتِۭ بَيِّنَـٰتٍ۬ لِّيُخۡرِجَكُم مِّنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ‌ۚ

(It is He Who sends down manifest Ayat to His servant that He may bring you out from darkness into light.) (57:9) Allah said next,

﴿ بِإِذۡنِ رَبِّهِمۡ

(by their Lord's leave), He guides those whom He destined to be guided by the hand of His Messenger , whom He sent to guide them by His command,

﴿ إِلَىٰ صِرَٲطِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ

(to the path of the All-Mighty,) Who can never be resisted or overpowered. Rather, Allah is Irresistible above everything and everyone else,

﴿ ٱلۡحَمِيدِ

(the Praised.) Who is glorified and praised in all His actions, statements, legislation, commandments and prohibitions and Who only says the truth in the information He conveys. Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ

(Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth!), is similar to,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَيۡڪُمۡ جَمِيعًا ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ

(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah - to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth.) (7:158) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَوَيۡلٌ۬ لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ مِنۡ عَذَابٍ۬ شَدِيدٍ

(And woe unto the disbelievers from a severe torment.) means, `woe to them on the Day of Judgment because they defied you, O Muhammad, and rejected you.' Allah described the disbelievers as preferring the life of the present world to the Hereafter, coveting the former life and working hard for its sake. They have forgotten the Hereafter and abandoned it behind their backs,

﴿ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ

(and hinder (men) from the path of Allah), from following the Messengers,

﴿ وَيَبۡغُونَہَا عِوَجًا‌ۚ

(and seek crookedness therein) they seek to make Allah's path crooked, even though it is straight itself and does not deviate on account of those who defy or betray it. When the disbelievers do this, they become engulfed in ignorance and misguidance far away from truth, and therefore, there is no hope that they will gain guidance and correctness while on this state.

﴿ وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوۡمِهِۦ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمۡ‌ۖ فَيُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهۡدِى مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(4. And We sent not a Messenger except with the language of his people, in order that he might make (the Message) clear for them. Then Allah misleads whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

Every Prophet was sent with the Language of His People; Guidance or Misguidance follows the Explanation

Allah is Kind and Compassionate with His creation, sending Messengers to them from among them and speaking their language, so that they are able to understand the Message that the Messengers were sent with. Allah said next,

﴿ فَيُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهۡدِى مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۚ

(Then Allah misleads whom He wills and guides whom He wills.) after the proof and evidence have been established for the people, Allah misguides whom He wills from the path of guidance and guides whom He wills to the truth,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ

(And He is the All-Mighty,) whatever He wills occurs and whatever He does not will never occurs,

﴿ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(the All-Wise.) in His decisions, misleading those who deserve to be misled and guiding those who deserve guidance. This is from Allah's wisdom with His creation, every Prophet He sent to a people spoke their language and everyone of these Prophets were only sent to their people. Muhammad bin `Abdullah, Allah's Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him, was sent to all people. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أُعْطِيتُ خَمْسًا لَمْ يُعْطَهُنَّ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ قَبْلِي: نُصِرْتُ بِالرُّعْبِ مَسِيرَةَ شَهْرٍ، وَجُعِلَتِ لِيَ الْأَرْضُ مَسْجِدًا وَطَهُورًا، وَأُحِلَّتْ لِيَ الْغَنَائِمُ وَلَمْ تُحَلَّ لِأَحَدٍ قَبْلِي، وَأُعْطِيتُ الشَّفَاعَةَ، وَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ يُبْعَثُ إِلَى قَوْمِهِ خَاصَّةً وَبُعِثْتُ إِلَى النَّاسِ عَامَّة »

(I have been given five things which were not given to Anyone else before me. Allah made me victorious by awe, (by His frightening my enemies) for a distance of one month's journey. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for worship and a purifier. The war booty has been made lawful for me and it was not lawful for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of Intercession (on the Day of Resurrection). Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation only, but I have been sent to all mankind.) Allah said,

﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَيۡڪُمۡ جَمِيعًا

(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah...) (7:158)

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ أَنۡ أَخۡرِجۡ قَوۡمَكَ مِنَ ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتِ إِلَى ٱلنُّورِ وَذَڪِّرۡهُم بِأَيَّٮٰمِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ۬ شَكُورٍ۬

(5. And indeed We sent Musa with Our Ayat (saying): "Bring out your people from darkness into light, and remind them of the annals (or days) of Allah. Truly, therein are Ayat for every patient, thankful (person).'')