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The Substances from which Mankind and Jinns were created

Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah said that Salsal means dry mud. The apparent meaning is similar to the Ayah:

﴿ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ كَٱلۡفَخَّارِ وَخَلَقَ ٱلۡجَآنَّ مِن مَّارِجٍ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬

(He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the potter's clay, And He created the Jinns from a smokeless flame of fire.) (55:14-15) It was also reported from Mujahid that,

﴿ صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬

(dried (sounding) clay) means "putrid'', but it is more appropriate to interpret an Ayah with another Ayah.

﴿ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬

(of altered mud) means the dried clay that comes from mud, which is soil. "Altered'' here means smooth.

﴿ وَٱلۡجَآنَّ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ مِن قَبۡلُ

(And the Jinn, We created earlier) means before creating humans.

﴿ مِن نَّارِ ٱلسَّمُومِ

(from the smokeless flame of fire.) Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the smokeless flame that kills.'' Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi said that Shu`bah narrated to them from Abu Ishaq, who said: "I visited `Umar Al-Asamm when he was sick, and he said: `Shall I not tell you a Hadith that I heard from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud He said: `This smokeless flame is one of the seventy parts of the smokeless fire from which the Jinn where created. Then he recited,

﴿ وَٱلۡجَآنَّ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ مِن قَبۡلُ مِن نَّارِ ٱلسَّمُومِ

(And the Jinn, We created earlier from the smokeless flame of fire).''' The following is found in the Sahih,

« خُلِقَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ نُورٍ، وَخُلِقَتِ الْجَانُّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ، وَخُلِقَ آدَمُ مِمَّا وُصِفَ لَكُم »

(The angels were created from light, the Jinn were created from a smokeless flame of fire, and Adam was created from that which has been described to you.) The Ayah is intended to point out the noble nature, good essence and pure origin of Adam.

﴿ وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ إِنِّى خَـٰلِقُۢ بَشَرً۬ا مِّن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬ فَإِذَا سَوَّيۡتُهُ ۥ وَنَفَخۡتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِى فَقَعُواْ لَهُ ۥ سَـٰجِدِينَ فَسَجَدَ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ ڪُلُّهُمۡ أَجۡمَعُونَ إِلَّآ إِبۡلِيسَ أَبَىٰٓ أَن يَكُونَ مَعَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدِينَ قَالَ يَـٰٓإِبۡلِيسُ مَا لَكَ أَلَّا تَكُونَ مَعَ ٱلسَّـٰجِدِينَ قَالَ لَمۡ أَكُن لِّأَسۡجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ خَلَقۡتَهُ ۥ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬

(28. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "I am going to create a man (Adam) from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. '') (29. "So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) of My spirit (the soul which I created for him,) then fall down, prostrating yourselves before him.'') (30. So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together.) (31. Except Iblis (Shaytan) - he refused to be among the prostrate.) (32. (Allah) said: "O Iblis! What is your reason for not being among the prostrate'' (33. Iblis said: "I am not one to prostrate myself to a human, whom You created from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud.'')

The creation of Adam, the Command to the Angels to prostrate to Him, and the Rebellion of Iblis

Allah informs us of how He mentioned Adam to His angels before He created him, and how He honored him by commanding the angels to prostrate to him. He mentions how His enemy Iblis, amidst all the angels, refused to prostrate to him out of envy, disbelief, stubbornness, arrogance, and false pride. This is why Iblis said:

﴿ لَمۡ أَكُن لِّأَسۡجُدَ لِبَشَرٍ خَلَقۡتَهُ ۥ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ۬ مَّسۡنُونٍ۬

(I am not one to prostrate myself to a human, whom You created from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud.) this is like when he said,

﴿ أَنَا۟ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡهُ خَلَقۡتَنِى مِن نَّارٍ۬ وَخَلَقۡتَهُ ۥ مِن طِينٍ۬

(I am better than him (Adam), You created me from Fire and him You created from clay.)(7:12) and

﴿ أَرَءَيۡتَكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى ڪَرَّمۡتَ عَلَىَّ

("Do you see this one whom You have honored above me...'') (17:62)

﴿ قَالَ فَٱخۡرُجۡ مِنۡہَا فَإِنَّكَ رَجِيمٌ۬ وَإِنَّ عَلَيۡكَ ٱللَّعۡنَةَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرۡنِىٓ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُنظَرِينَ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡوَقۡتِ ٱلۡمَعۡلُومِ

(34. (Allah) said: "Then leave, for verily, you are an outcast. '') (35. "And verily, the curse shall be upon you until the Day of Recompense.'') (36. (Iblis) said: "O my Lord! Then give me respite until the Day they (the dead) will be resurrected.'') (37. Allah said: "Then verily, you are of those reprieved,'') (38. "Until the Day of the time appointed.'')

The Expulsion of Iblis from Jannah, and His Reprieve until the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us how He issued an unconditional command to Iblis to leave the position he held among the highest of heights. He told him that he was an outcast, i.e., cursed, and that he would be followed by a curse that would hound him until the Day of Resurrection. It was reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "When Allah cursed Iblis, his image into something different from that of the angels, and he made a sound like a bell. Every bell that rings on this earth until the Day of Resurrection is part of that. This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim.

﴿ قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَآ أَغۡوَيۡتَنِى لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَأُغۡوِيَنَّہُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنۡهُمُ ٱلۡمُخۡلَصِينَ قَالَ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطٌ عَلَىَّ مُسۡتَقِيمٌ إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيۡسَ لَكَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ سُلۡطَـٰنٌ إِلَّا مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡغَاوِينَ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمَوۡعِدُهُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ لَهَا سَبۡعَةُ أَبۡوَٲبٍ۬ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ جُزۡءٌ۬ مَّقۡسُومٌ

(39. Iblis said: "O my Lord! Because You misled me, I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I shall mislead them all.'') (40. "Except Your chosen (guided) servants among them.'') (41. (Allah) said: "This is the way which will lead straight to Me.'') (42. "Certainly, you shall have no authority over My servants, except those of the astray who follow you.'') (43. And surely, Hell is the place promised for them all.) (44. It has seven gates, for each of those gates is a class assigned.)

The Threat of Iblis to tempt Mankind, and Allah's Promise of Hell for him

Allah informed about the rebellion and arrogance of Iblis, in that he said to the Lord:

﴿ بِمَآ أَغۡوَيۡتَنِى

(Because You misled me,) i.e., because You misled me and misguided me.

﴿ لَأُزَيِّنَنَّ لَهُمۡ

(I shall indeed adorn the path of error for them) meaning, for the progeny of Adam.

﴿ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(on the earth,) meaning - I will make sin dear to them, and will encourage, provoke and harass them to commit sin.

﴿ وَلَأُغۡوِيَنَّہُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ

(and I shall mislead them all.) meaning - just as You have misled me and have ordained that for me.

﴿ إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنۡهُمُ ٱلۡمُخۡلَصِينَ

(Except Your chosen, (guided) servants among them.) This is like the Ayah:

﴿ أَرَءَيۡتَكَ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى ڪَرَّمۡتَ عَلَىَّ لَٮِٕنۡ أَخَّرۡتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ لَأَحۡتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

("Do you see this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite until the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring, all but a few!'') (17:62).

﴿ قَالَ

((Allah) said), i.e., threatening and warning Iblis.

﴿ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطٌ عَلَىَّ مُسۡتَقِيمٌ

(This is the way which will lead straight to Me.) means, `all of you will return to Me, and I will reward or punish you according to your deeds: if they are good then I will reward you, and if they are bad then I will punish you.' This is like the Ayah:

﴿ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَبِٱلۡمِرۡصَادِ

(Verily, your Lord is ever watchful.) (89:14) and

﴿ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ قَصۡدُ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

(And it is up to Allah to show the right way.) (16:9)

﴿ إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيۡسَ لَكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ سُلۡطَـٰنٌ۬‌ۚ

(Certainly, you shall have no authority over My servants) meaning, `you will have no way to reach those for whom I have decreed guidance.'

﴿ إِلَّا مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡغَاوِينَ

(except those of the astray who follow you.) Ibn Jarir mentioned that Yazid bin Qusayt said: "The Prophets used to have Masjids outside their cities, and if a Prophet wanted to consult with his Lord about something, he would go out to his place of worship and pray as Allah decreed. Then he would ask Him about whatever was concerning him. Once while a Prophet was in his place of worship, the enemy of Allah - meaning Iblis - came and sat between him and the Qiblah (direction of prayer). The Prophet said, `I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shaytan.' ﴿The enemy of Allah said, `Do you know who you are seeking refuge from Here he is!' The Prophet said, `I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Shaytan', and he repeated that three times. Then the enemy of Allah said, `Tell me about anything in which you will be saved from me.' The Prophet twice said, `No, you tell me about something in which you can overpower the son of Adam' Each of them was insisting that the other answer first, then the Prophet said, Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيۡسَ لَكَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ سُلۡطَـٰنٌ إِلَّا مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ ٱلۡغَاوِينَ

(Certainly, you shall have no authority over My servants, except those of the astray who follow you.) The enemy of Allah said, `I heard this before you were even born.' The Prophet said, `And Allah says,

﴿ وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ نَزۡغٌ۬ فَٱسۡتَعِذۡ بِٱللَّهِ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

(And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearing, All-Knowing) (7: 200). By Allah, I never sense that you are near but I seek refuge with Allah from you.' The enemy of Allah said, `You have spoken the truth. In this way you will be saved from me.' The Prophet said, `Tell me in what ways you overpower the son of Adam.' He said, `I seize him at times of anger and times of desire.'

﴿ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمَوۡعِدُهُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ

(And surely, Hell is the place promised for them all.) meaning, Hell is the abode designated for all those who follow Iblis, as Allah says in the Qur'an:

﴿ وَمَن يَكۡفُرۡ بِهِۦ مِنَ ٱلۡأَحۡزَابِ فَٱلنَّارُ مَوۡعِدُهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(but those of the sects (Jews, Christians and all the other non-Muslim nations) that reject it (the Qur'an), the Fire will be their promised meeting place.)(11:17)

The Gates of Hell are Seven

Then Allah tells us that Hell has seven gates:

﴿ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ جُزۡءٌ۬ مَّقۡسُومٌ

(for each of those gates is a (special) class (of sinners) assigned.) means, for each gate a portion of the followers of Iblis have been decreed, and they will have no choice in the matter. May Allah save us from that. Each one will enter a gate according to his deeds, and will settle in a level of Hell according to his deeds. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Samurah bin Jundub reported from the Prophet about,

﴿ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ جُزۡءٌ۬ مَّقۡسُومٌ

(for each of those gates is a class assigned.) He said,

« إِنَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ مَنْ تَأْخُذُهُ النَّارُ إِلَى كَعْبَيْهِ، وَإِنَّ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ تَأْخُذُهُ النَّارُ إِلَى حُجْزَتِهِ، وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ تَأْخُذُهُ النَّارُ إِلَى تَرَاقِيه »

(Among the people of Hell are those whom the Fire will swallow up to the ankles, and those whom it will swallow up to the waist, and those whom it will swallow up to the collarbone.) The degree of which will depend upon their deeds. This is like the Ayah;

﴿ لِّكُلِّ بَابٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ جُزۡءٌ۬ مَّقۡسُومٌ

(for each of those gates is a class assigned.)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ وَعُيُونٍ ٱدۡخُلُوهَا بِسَلَـٰمٍ ءَامِنِينَ وَنَزَعۡنَا مَا فِى صُدُورِهِم مِّنۡ غِلٍّ إِخۡوَٲنًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ۬ مُّتَقَـٰبِلِينَ لَا يَمَسُّهُمۡ فِيهَا نَصَبٌ۬ وَمَا هُم مِّنۡہَا بِمُخۡرَجِينَ نَبِّئۡ عِبَادِىٓ أَنِّىٓ أَنَا ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ وَأَنَّ عَذَابِى هُوَ ٱلۡعَذَابُ ٱلۡأَلِيمُ

(45. Truly, those who have Taqwa, will dwell in Gardens and water springs.) (46. (It will be said to them): "Enter it in peace and security.'') (47. And We shall remove any deep feeling of bitterness from their breasts. (So they will be like) brothers facing each other on thrones.) (48. No sense of fatigue shall touch them, nor shall they be asked to leave it. (49. Declare to My servants that I am truly the Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) (50. And that My torment is indeed the most painful torment.)

Description of the People of Paradise

Since Allah mentioned the condition of the people of Hell, He followed that by mentioning the people of Paradise. He tells us that they will dwell in Gardens and water springs.

﴿ ٱدۡخُلُوهَا بِسَلَـٰمٍ

(Enter it in peace) meaning free of all problems.

﴿ ءَامِنِينَ

(and security.) meaning free from all fear and concern. They will not have any fear of expulsion, nor will they fear that their condition will be disrupted or end.

﴿ وَنَزَعۡنَا مَا فِى صُدُورِهِم مِّنۡ غِلٍّ إِخۡوَٲنًا عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍ۬ مُّتَقَـٰبِلِينَ

(And We shall remove any deep feeling of bitterness from their breasts. (So they will be like) brothers facing each other on thrones.) Al-Qasim narrated that Abu Umamah said: "The people of Paradise will enter Paradise with whatever enmity is left in their hearts from this world. Then, when they come together, Allah will remove whatever hatred the world has left in their hearts.'' Then he recited:

﴿ وَنَزَعۡنَا مَا فِى صُدُورِهِم مِّنۡ غِلٍّ

(And We shall remove any deep feeling of bitterness from their breasts.) This is how it was narrated in this report, but Al-Qasim bin `Abdur-Rahman is weak in his reports from Abu Umamah. However, this is in accord with the report in the Sahih where Qatadah says, "Abu Al-Mutawakkil An-Naji told us that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri told them that the Messenger of Allah said:

« يَخْلُصُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ مِنَ النَّارِ، فَيُحْبَسُونَ عَلَى قَنْطَرَةٍ بَيْنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ. فَيُقْتَصُّ لِبَعْضِهِمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ مَظَالِمُ كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا حَتَّى إِذَا هُذِّبُوا وَنُقُّوا، أُذِنَ لَهُمْ فِي دُخُولِ الْجَنَّة »

(The believers will be removed from the Fire, and they will be detained on a bridge between Paradise and Hell. Then judgment will be passed between them concerning any wrong they have committed in this world against one another, until they are cleansed and purified. Then permission will be given to them to enter Paradise.)''

﴿ لَا يَمَسُّهُمۡ فِيهَا نَصَبٌ۬

(No sense of fatigue shall touch them) meaning no harm or hardship, as was reported in the Sahihs:

« أَنَّ اللهَ أَمَرَنِي أَنْ أُبَشِّرَ خَدِيجَةَ بِبَيْتٍ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مِنْ قَصَبٍ لَا صَخَبَ فِيهِ وَلَا نَصَب »

(Allah commanded me to tell Khadijah the good news of a jeweled palace in Paradise in which there will be no toil and no fatigue.)

﴿ وَمَا هُم مِّنۡہَا بِمُخۡرَجِينَ

(nor shall they (ever) be asked to leave it.) As was reported in the Hadith:

« يُقَالُ: يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ إِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَصِحُّوا فَلَا تَمْرَضُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَعِيشُوا فَلَا تَمُوتُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تَشِبُّوا فَلَا تَهْرَمُوا أَبَدًا، وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ أَنْ تُقِيمُوا فَلَا تَظْعُنُوا أَبَدًا »

(It will be said, O dwellers of Paradise! You will be healthy and never fall sick; you will live and never die; you will be young and never grow old; you will stay here and never leave.) Allah says:

﴿ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا لَا يَبۡغُونَ عَنۡہَا حِوَلاً۬

(Wherein they shall dwell (forever). They will have no desire to be removed from it.) (18:108)

﴿ نَبِّئۡ عِبَادِىٓ أَنِّىٓ أَنَا ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ وَأَنَّ عَذَابِى هُوَ ٱلۡعَذَابُ ٱلۡأَلِيمُ

(Declare to My servants, that I am truly the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. And that My torment is indeed the most painful torment.) meaning, `O Muhammad, tell My servants that I am the source of mercy and I am the source of punishment.' Similar Ayat to this have already been quoted above, which indicate that we must always be in a state between hope (for Allah's mercy) and fear (of His punishment).

﴿ وَنَبِّئۡهُمۡ عَن ضَيۡفِ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ إِذۡ دَخَلُواْ عَلَيۡهِ فَقَالُواْ سَلَـٰمً۬ا قَالَ إِنَّا مِنكُمۡ وَجِلُونَ قَالُواْ لَا تَوۡجَلۡ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَـٰمٍ عَلِيمٍ۬ قَالَ أَبَشَّرۡتُمُونِى عَلَىٰٓ أَن مَّسَّنِىَ ٱلۡڪِبَرُ فَبِمَ تُبَشِّرُونَ قَالُواْ بَشَّرۡنَـٰكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ فَلَا تَكُن مِّنَ ٱلۡقَـٰنِطِينَ قَالَ وَمَن يَقۡنَطُ مِن رَّحۡمَةِ رَبِّهِۦۤ إِلَّا ٱلضَّآلُّونَ

(51. And tell them about the guests (i.e., the angels) of Ibrahim.) (52. When they entered upon him, and said: "Salaman (peace!).'' He said: "Indeed we are frightened of you.'') (53. They said: "Do not be afraid! We bring you the good news of a boy possessing much knowledge and wisdom.'') (54. He said: "Do you give me this good news while old age has overtaken me Of what then is your news about'') (55. They said: "We give you good news in truth. So do not be of those who despair.'') (56. He said: "And who despairs of the mercy of his Lord except those who are astray'')