Allah is saying to His Prophet: Since We have given you the Grand Qur'an, then do not look at this world and its attractions, or the transient delights that we have given to its people in order to test them. Do not envy what they have in this world, and do not upset yourself with regret for their rejection of you and their opposition to your religion.
(And lower your wings to the believers who follow you) (26:215) meaning - be gentle with them, like the Ayah,
(Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger from among yourselves. It grieves him that you should receive any injury or difficulty. He is anxious for you, for the believers - he is full of pity, kind and merciful)(9:128). There were some differences among the scholars over the meaning of "seven of the Mathani''. Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and others said that they are the seven long (Surahs), meaning Al-Baqarah, Al- `Imran, An-Nisa', Al-Ma'idah, Al-An`am, Al-A`raf and Yunus. There are texts to this effect reported from Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Sa`id said: "In them, Allah explains the obligations, the Hudud (legal limits), stories and rulings.'' Ibn `Abbas said, "He explains the parables, stories and lessons.'' The second opinion is that they (the seven of the Mathani) are Al-Fatihah, which is composed of seven Ayat. This was reported from `Ali, `Umar, Ibn Mas`ud and Ibn `Abbas. Ibn `Abbas said: "The Bismillah, is completing seven Ayah, which Allah has given exclusively to you (Muslims).'' This is also the opinion of Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, `Abdullah bin `Umayr, Ibn Abi Mulaykah, Shahr bin Hawshab, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Mujahid. Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded two Hadiths on this topic. (The first) was recorded from Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu`alla, who said: "The Prophet passed by me while I was praying. He called out for me but I did not come until I finished my prayer. Then I came to him, and He asked,
(What stopped you from coming to me) I said, `I was praying'. He said,
(Did not Allah say)
(O you who believe! Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His) Messenger when he calls you...) (8:24)
(Shall I not teach you the most magnificent Surah before I leave the Masjid) Then the Prophet went to leave the Masjid, and I reminded him, so he said,
("Al-Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil-'Alamin (All praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists))(1:2).
(This is the seven of the Mathani and the Qur'an which I have been given.)'' (The second Hadith) was reported from Abu Hurayrah who said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Umm Al-Qur'an (the Mother or the Essence of the Qur'an,) is the seven Mathani, and the Grand Qur'an.) This means that Al-Fatihah is the seven Mathani and the Grand Qur'an, but this does not contradict the statement that the seven Mathani are the seven long Surahs, because they also share these attributes, as does the whole Qur'an. As Allah says,
(Allah has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur'an), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-recited) (39:23). So it is oft-recited in one way, and its parts resemble one another in another way, and this is also the Grand Qur'an.
(Look not with your eyes ambitiously at what We have given to certain classes of them) (20: 131) meaning, be content with the Grand Qur'an that Allah has given to you, and do not long for the luxuries and transient delights that they have.
(Look not with your eyes ambitiously) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "He ﴿in this Ayah﴾ forbade a man to wish for what his companion has.''
(at what We have given to certain classes of them,) Mujahid said: "This refers to the rich.''
(89. And say (O Muhammad): "I am indeed a plain warner.'') (90. As We have sent down on the Muqtasimin (conspiring confederates),) (91. Who have made the Qur'an into parts.) (92. So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account.) (93. For all that they used to do.)
Allah commanded His Prophet to tell the people:
(I am indeed a plain warner) coming to warn the people of a severe punishment that they will suffer if they reject him, as happened to those nations before them who disbelieved in their Messengers, upon whom Allah sent His punishment and vengeance. In the two Sahihs it is reported from Abu Musa that the Prophet said:
(The parable of myself and that with which Allah has sent me is that of a man who came to his people and said, `O people! I have seen the (invading) army with my own eyes, and I am a naked warner, so escape, escape!' Some of his people obeyed him and set out at nightfall, setting off at a slow pace and managing to escape. Others did not believe him and stayed where they were until the next morning when the (invading) army overtook them and destroyed them, wiping them out. This is the parable of the one who obeys me and follows what I have brought, and the example of the one who disobeys me and rejects the truth that I have brought.)
(the Muqtasimin) refers to those who had made a pact to oppose, deny, and insult the Prophets. Similarly, Allah tells us about the people of Salih:
(They said, "Swear to one another (Taqasamu) by Allah that we shall make a secret night attack on him and his household'') (27:49) i.e., they plotted to kill him at night. Mujahid said "Taqasamu means they swore an oath.''
(And they swear by Allah with their strongest oaths, that Allah will not raise up one who dies)(16:38).
((It will be said): "Did you not before swear that you would not leave (the world for the Hereafter)) (14:44)
(Are they those, of whom you swore that Allah would never show them mercy)(7:49) It is as if they took an oath for every single thing that they denied in this world, so they are called the Muqtasimin.
(Who have made the Qur'an into parts.) meaning, they have split up the Books that were revealed to them, believing in parts of them and rejecting parts of them. Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(Who have made the Qur'an into parts.) "They are the People of the Book, who divided the Book into parts, believing in some of it, and rejecting some of it.'' Some have said that Al-Mutaqasimin refers to the Quraysh, that the Qur'an means this Qur'an (as opposed to the Scriptures of the People of the Book), and that "made it into parts'' referred to what `Ata' said that some of them said that he (the Prophet ) was a sorcerer, some said he was crazy, or a soothsayer. These various allegations were the parts. This opinion was also reported from Ad-Dahhak and others. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Ibn `Abbas that Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah - holding a noble position among the people - rallied a group of Quraysh behind him when Al-Mawsim (the time for pilgrims to meet in Makkah for Hajj) had come. He said to them, "O people of Quraysh! The time of Al-Mawsim has come, and delegations of Arabs will come to you during this time. They will have heard some things about this companion of yours (meaning the Prophet), so agree on one opinion, let there be no contradicting or denials of each other's sayings''. They said, "And you, O Abu `Abd Shams, give us an opinion and we will say that.'' He said, "No, you make the suggestions and I will listen.'' They said, "We say he is a soothsayer.'' He said, "He is not a soothsayer.'' They said, "We say he is crazy.'' He said, "He is not crazy.'' They said, "We say he is a poet.'' He said, "He is not a poet.'' They said, "We say he is a sorcerer.'' He said, "He is not a sorcerer.'' They said, "So what should we say'' He said, "By Allah, what he says is as palatable (to the average person) as something sweet, so you cannot say anything against it without it being obviously false. Therefore the most appropriate thing you can say is that he is a sorcerer.'' So they left having agreed upon that, and Allah revealed concerning them:
(Who have made the Qur'an into parts.) meaning, of different types, and
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do) Those were the group who said that about the Messenger of Allah.''
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) Abu Ja`far reported from Ar-Rabi` that Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "All the people will be asked about two things on the Day of Resurrection: what they used to worship, and what their response was to the Messengers.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) then he said:
(So on that Day no question will be asked of man or Jinn as to his sin) (55:39). He said, "They will not be asked, `Did you do such and such' Because Allah knows better than they do about that. But He will say, `Why did you do such and such'''
(94. Therefore openly proclaim what you have been commanded, and turn away from the idolaters.) (95. Truly, We will suffice you against the mockers,) (96. Who make another god along with Allah; but they will come to know.) (97. Indeed, We know that your breast becomes tight because of what they say. ) (98. So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).) (99. And worship your Lord until the certainty (i.e. death) comes to you.)
Allah commanded His Messenger to convey what He sent him with, to proclaim and spread the Message, which means confronting the idolaters with it. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,
(Therefore openly proclaim that what you have been commanded,) means, "Go ahead with it.'' According to another report it means, (افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ) "Therefore proclaim that which you commanded.'' Mujahid said, "It is reciting the Qur'an aloud during prayer.'' Abu `Ubaydah reported that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Prophet was still practicing and preaching Islam secretly until this Ayah was revealed:
(Therefore openly proclaim that which you are commanded) then he and his Companions came out into the open.''
(and turn away from idolaters. Truly, We will suffice you against the mockers.) meaning - convey that which has been revealed to you by your Lord, and do not pay attention to the idolaters who want to turn you away from the signs of Allah.
(They wish that you should compromise for them, so that they would compromise for you) (68:9). Do not fear them because Allah will suffice you against them, and He will protect you from them. This is like the Ayah:
(O Messenger! Proclaim that which has been revealed to you from your Lord. And if you do not do it, then you have not conveyed His Message. Allah will protect you from mankind.) ﴿5:67﴾ Muhammad bin Ishaq said: "The great ones of the mockers were five people, who were elders and noblemen among their people. From Bani Asad bin `Abd Al-`Uzza bin Qusayy there was Al-Aswad bin Al-Muttalib Abu Zam`ah. According to what I heard, the Messenger of Allah had supplicated against him because of the pain and mockery he had suffered at his hands. He had said,
(O Allah, make him blind and take (the life of) his son.) From Bani Zahrah there was Al-Aswad bin `Abd Yaghuth bin Wahb bin `Abd Manaf bin Zahrah. From Bani Makhzum there was Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah bin `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Makhzum. From Bani Sahm bin `Amr bin Husays bin Ka`b bin Lu'ayy there was Al-`As bin Wa'il bin Hisham bin Sa`id bin Sa`d. From Khuza`ah there was Al-Harith bin At-Talatilah bin `Amr bin Al-Harith bin `Abd `Amr bin Malkan. When their evil went to extremes and their mockery of the Messenger of Allah went too far, Allah revealed:
(Therefore openly proclaim that which you are commanded, and turn away from the idolaters. Truly, We will suffice you against the mockers, who make another god along with Allah; but they will come to know.) Ibn Ishaq said: Yazid bin Ruman told me that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr or one of the other scholars said that Jibril came to the Messenger of Allah when he was performing Tawaf around the House (the Ka`bah). He stood and the Messenger of Allah stood next to him. Al-Aswad Ibn Al-Mutalib passed by, and he threw a green leaf in his face, and he became blind. Al-Aswad bin `Abd Yaghuth passed by, and he pointed to his stomach, which swelled up and he died (of dropsy). Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah passed by, and he pointed at a wound on lower of his ankle, which he got two years earlier when He once was trailing his garment and he passed by a man who was feathering his arrows. One of the arrows got caught in his garment and scratched his foot. It was an insignificant wound, but now it opened again and he died of it. Al-`As bin Wa'il passed by, and he pointed to the instep of his foot. He (Al-`As) set off on his donkey, heading for At-Ta'if. He rested by a thorny tree, a thorn pierced his foot and he died from it. Al-Harith bin At-Talatilah passed by and he pointed at his head. It filled with pus and killed him.''
(Who make another god along with Allah; but they will come to know.) This is a strong warning and grave threat against those who have other deities along with Allah.
(Indeed, We know that your breast becomes tight because of what they say. So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him).) meaning `We know, O Muhammad, that you are distressed by their insults towards you, but do not let that weaken your resolve or cause you to give up conveying the Message of Allah. Put your trust in Him, for He will suffice you and will support you against them. Keep yourself busy with remembering Allah, praising Him, glorifying Him, and worshipping Him (which means Salah, or prayer)' Hence Allah says:
(So glorify the praises of your Lord and be of those who prostrate themselves (to Him)) Imam Ahmad reported from Nu`aym bin Hammar that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(Allah said, "O son of Adam! It is not too difficult for you to perform four Rak'at at the beginning of the day, (and if you do them,) I will take care of you until the end of it.'')
(And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you) (15: 99). Al-Bukhari said: "Salim said, `(This means) death.''' This Salim is Salim bin `Abdullah bin `Umar. Ibn Jarir also recorded from Salim bin `Abdullah,
(And worship your Lord until the Yaqin comes to you.) He said, "Death.'' It is reported in the Sahih from Umm Al-`Ala'- one of the women of the Ansar - that when the Messenger of Allah entered upon `Uthman bin Maz`un after he had died, Umm Al-`Ala' said, "May the mercy of Allah be upon you, Abu As-Sa`ib. My testimony over you is that Allah has honored you.'' The Messenger of Allah said,
(How do you know that Allah has honored him) I said, "May my father and mother be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah! If not him, then who else'' He said,
(As far as he is concerned, the death has come to him, and I hope for good for him.) This is evidence that the meaning of this Ayah,
(And worship your Lord until the certainty comes to you.) is that acts of worship, such as prayer and the like, are obligatory on man so long as his mind is sound, so he should pray according to his best ability. It was reported in Sahih Al-Bukhari from `Imran bin Husayn that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Pray standing, and if you cannot, then sitting, and if you cannot, then on your side.) From this we may understand that it is a mistake to interpret Yaqin (the certainty) as Ma`rifah ("spiritual knowing'') as some of the Sufis do. According to them, when one of them attains the level of Ma`rifah, they consider him to be free of these obligations. This is disbelief, misguidance and ignorance. The Prophets - peace be upon them - and their companions, were the most knowledgeable of people about Allah, about His rights, His attributes, and the glorification that He deserves. But at the same time, they were the people who worshipped Him the most, continuing in good deeds until the time they died. Therefore, what is meant by Yaqin here is death, as we have stated above. To Allah be praise and thanks. Praise be to Allah for His guidance. It is to Him that we turn for help and it is in Him that we put our trust. He is the One Whom we ask to help us to reach the best of circumstances, for He is the Most Generous and Kind. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hijr. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it. Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.)
Allah is informing about the approach of the Hour in the past tense (in Arabic) in order to confirm that it will undoubtedly come to pass. This is like the following Ayat, in which the verbs appear in the past tense in Arabic:
(Mankind's reckoning has drawn near them, while they turn away in heedlessness.)(21:1)
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft.) (54:1)
(so do not seek to hasten it.) means, what was far is now near, so do not try to rush it. As Allah said,
(And they ask you to hasten the torment (for them), and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them. And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they are unaware! They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily! Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers) (29:53-54). Ibn Abi Hatim reported from `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Messenger of Allah said:
(When the Hour approaches, a black cloud resembling a shield will emerge upon from the west. It will continue rising in the sky, then a voice will call out, `O mankind!' The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that' Some will say, `yes', but others will doubt it. Then a second call will come, `O mankind!' The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that' And they will say, `Yes.' Then a third call will come, `O mankind!' The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it.') The Messenger of Allah said:
(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, two men will spread out a cloth, but will never refold it; a man will prepare his trough, but will never water his animals from it; and a man will milk his camel, but will never drink the milk.'' Then he said, "The people will be distracted.'') Then Allah tells us that He is free from their allegations of partners to their worship of idols, and making equals for Him. Glorified and exalted be He far above that. These are the people who deny the Hour, so He says:
(Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.)
(2. He sends down the angels with the Ruh (revelation) of His command to those servants of His whom He wills (saying): "Warn mankind that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.'')
(He sends down the angels with the Ruh) refers to the revelation. This is like the Ayat:
(And thus We have sent to you a Ruh (revelation) by Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is the faith. But We have made it a light by which We guide whomever We will among Our servants.) (43:52)
(to those servants of His whom He wills) meaning the Prophets, as Allah says:
(Allah best knows where to place His Message.) (6:124)
(Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men.) (22:75)
(He sends the Ruh (revelation) by His command to whoever among His servants He wills to, that he may warn of the Day of Meeting. The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing about them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day: It is Allah's, the One, the Irresistible!) (40:15-16)
((saying): "Warn...'') meaning that they should alert them.
(that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.) means, `fear My punishment, if you go against My commands and worship anything other than Me.'
(3. He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. High is He, Exalted above all that they associate as partners with Him.) (4. He has created man from a Nutfah, then behold, this same (man) becomes an open opponent.)
Allah tells us about His creation of the upper realm, which is the heavens, and the lower realm, which is the earth, and everything in them. They have been created for a true purpose, not in vain, so that
(He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).)(53:31) Then He declares Himself to be above the Shirk of those who worship others besides Him. He is independent of His creation, alone with no partner or associate. For this reason He deserves to be worshipped Alone, without partners. Then He mentions how man has been created from a Nutfah, i.e., something that is insignificant, weak and has no value - but when man becomes independent and is able to fend for himself - then he begins to dispute with his Lord, may He be exalted, and disbelieves in Him and fights His Messengers. But man was created to be a servant, not an opponent, as Allah says:
(And it is He Who has created man from water, and gave him descendants, and made Him kindred by marriage, and your Lord is capable (of all things). And they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them; and the disbeliever is ever a helper (of Shaytan) against his Lord) (25: 54-55). And;
(Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet, behold he stands as an open opponent. And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust'' Say: "He will give life to them Who created them the first time! And He is the knower of every creature!'') (36:77-79). Imam Ahmad and Ibn Majah reported that Busr bin Jahhash said: "The Messenger of Allah spat in his palm, then he said,
(Allah, may He be exalted, says: "O son of Adam, how could you be more powerful than I when I have created you from something like this, and when I have fashioned you perfectly and made you complete, you walk wearing your two garments and the earth makes a sound (beneath your feet). You collect money but do not give anything to anyone, then when the soul of a dying person reaches the throat, you say, `I want to give in charity', but it is too late for charity.'')
(5. And the cattle, He has created them for you; in them there is warmth (warm clothing), and numerous benefits, and you eat from them.) (6. And there is beauty in them for you, when you bring them home in the evening, and as you lead them forth to pasture (in the morning).) (7. And they carry your loads to a land that you could not reach yourselves except with great trouble. Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.)