;
The Disbelievers' Refrain from Faith means that They were simply awaiting Punishment

Threatening the idolaters for their persistence in falsehood and their conceited delusions about this world, Allah says: Are these people waiting only for the angels to come and take their souls Qatadah said:

﴿ أَوۡ يَأۡتِىَ أَمۡرُ رَبِّكَ‌ۚ

(Or there comes the command of your Lord) means the Day of Resurrection and the terror that they will go through.''

﴿ كَذَٲلِكَ فَعَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ‌ۚ

(Thus did those before them.) means, thus did their predecessors and those who were like them among the idolaters persist in their Shirk, until they tasted the wrath of Allah and experienced the punishment and torment that they suffered.

﴿ وَمَا ظَلَمَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ

(And Allah did not wrong them.) because by sending His Messengers and revealing His Books He gave them enough warning and clearly demonstrated His proofs to them.

﴿ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓاْ أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ

(but they were wronging themselves.) meaning, by opposing the Messengers and denying what they brought. For this reason Allah's punishment tormented them.

﴿ وَحَاقَ بِهِم

(they were surrounded) meaning, they were overwhelmed by the painful torment.

﴿ مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِۦ يَسۡتَہۡزِءُونَ

(by that which they used to mock.) meaning, they used to make fun of the Messengers when they warned them Allah's punishment, and for this it will be said to them on the Day of Resurrection:

﴿ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلنَّارُ ٱلَّتِى كُنتُم بِہَا تُكَذِّبُونَ

(This is the Fire which you used to belie.) (52:14).

﴿ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشۡرَكُواْ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا عَبَدۡنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬ نَّحۡنُ وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ كَذَٲلِكَ فَعَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ‌ۚ فَهَلۡ عَلَى ٱلرُّسُلِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ وَلَقَدۡ بَعَثۡنَا فِى ڪُلِّ أُمَّةٍ۬ رَّسُولاً أَنِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۖ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ هَدَى ٱللَّهُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ حَقَّتۡ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۚ فَسِيرُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنظُرُواْ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ إِن تَحۡرِصۡ عَلَىٰ هُدَٮٰهُمۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى مَن يُضِلُّ‌ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(35. And those who worshipped others with Allah said: "If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped any but Him nor would we have forbidden anything without (a command from) Him.'' Those before them did the same. Then! Are the Messengers charged with anything but to clearly convey the Message) (36. And We have indeed sent a Messenger to every Ummah (community, nation) (saying): "Worship Allah (Alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities). '' Then among them were some whom Allah guided, and among them were some who deserved to be left to stray. So travel through the land and see the end of those who denied (the truth).) (37. (Even) if you desire that they be guided, then verily, Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray, and they will have no helpers.)

The Idolators Argument that their Shirk was Divinely decreed, and the Refutation of this Claim

Allah tells us about the idolaters delusion over their Shirk, and the excuse they claimed for it based on the idea that it is ordained by divine decree. He says:

﴿ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا عَبَدۡنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬ نَّحۡنُ وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمۡنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ

((They say:) "If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped any but Him, nor would we have forbidden anything without (a command from) Him.'') They had superstitious customs dealing with certain animals, e.g. the Bahirah the Sa'ibah and the Wasilah and other things that they had invented and innovated by themselves, with no revealed authority. The essence of what they said was: "If Allah hated what we did, He would have stopped by punishing us, and He would not have enabled us to do it.'' Rejecting their confusing ideas, Allah says:

﴿ فَهَلۡ عَلَى ٱلرُّسُلِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ

(Are the Messengers charged with anything but to clearly convey the Message) meaning, the matter is not as you claim. It is not the case that Allah did not rebuke your behavior; rather, He did rebuke you, and in the strongest possible terms, and He emphatically forbade you from such behavior. To every nation - that is, to every generation, to every community of people - He sent a Messenger. All of the Messengers called their people to worship Allah (Alone) as well as forbidding them from worshipping anything or anybody except for Him.

﴿ أَنِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۖ

(Worship Allah (Alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities).) Allah continued sending Messengers to mankind with this Message, from the first incidence of Shirk that appeared among the Children of Adam, in the people to whom Nuh was sent - the first Messenger sent by Allah to the people of this earth - until He sent the final Messenger, Muhammad, whose call was addressed to both men and Jinn, in the east and in the west. All of the Messengers brought the same Message, as Allah says:

﴿ وَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِىٓ إِلَيۡهِ أَنَّهُ ۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱعۡبُدُونِ

(And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah), so worship Me (alone and none else).'') (21:25)

﴿ وَسۡـَٔلۡ مَنۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَآ أَجَعَلۡنَا مِن دُونِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ءَالِهَةً۬ يُعۡبَدُونَ

(And ask (O Muhammad) those Messengers of Ours whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appointed to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious (Allah)'') (43:45) And in this Ayah, Allah says:

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ بَعَثۡنَا فِى ڪُلِّ أُمَّةٍ۬ رَّسُولاً أَنِ ٱعۡبُدُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجۡتَنِبُواْ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ‌ۖ

(And We have indeed sent a Messenger to every Ummah (community, nation) (saying): "Worship Allah (alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities).'') So how could any of the idolaters say,

﴿ لَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا عَبَدۡنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬

(If Allah had so willed, we would not have worshipped any but Him,) The legislative will of Allah is clear and cannot be taken as an excuse by them, because He had forbidden them to do that upon the tongue of His Messengers, but by His universal will ﴿i.e., by which He allows things to occur even though they do not please Him He allowed them to do that as it was decreed for them. So there is no argument in that for them. Allah created Hell and its people both the Shayatin (devils) and disbelievers, but He does not like His servants to disbelieve. And this point constitutes the strongest proof and the most unquestionable wisdom. Then Allah informs us that He rebuked them with punishment in this world, after the Messengers issued their warning, thus He says:

﴿ فَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ هَدَى ٱللَّهُ وَمِنۡهُم مَّنۡ حَقَّتۡ عَلَيۡهِ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ‌ۚ فَسِيرُواْ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنظُرُواْ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلۡمُكَذِّبِينَ

(Then among them were some whom Allah guided, and among them were some who deserved to be left to stray. So travel through the land and see the end of those who denied (the truth).) This means: ask about what happened to those who went against the Messengers and rejected the truth, see how:

﴿ دَمَّرَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡہِمۡ‌ۖ وَلِلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ أَمۡثَـٰلُهَا

(Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.) (47:10) and,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ كَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ فَكَيۡفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ

(And indeed those before them belied (the Messengers of Allah), so then how terrible was My denial (punishment)) (67:18) Then Allah told His Messenger that His eagerness to guide them will be of no benefit to them if Allah wills that they should be misguided, as He says:

﴿ وَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ فِتۡنَتَهُ ۥ فَلَن تَمۡلِكَ لَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۚ

(And for whoever Allah wills to try with error, you can do nothing for him against Allah) (5:41). Nuh said to his people:

﴿ وَلَا يَنفَعُكُمۡ نُصۡحِىٓ إِنۡ أَرَدتُّ أَنۡ أَنصَحَ لَكُمۡ إِن كَانَ ٱللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يُغۡوِيَكُمۡ‌ۚ

("And my advice will not profit you, even if I wish to give you good counsel, if Allah's will is to keep you astray.'')(11:34). In this Ayah, Allah says:

﴿ إِن تَحۡرِصۡ عَلَىٰ هُدَٮٰهُمۡ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى مَن يُضِلُّ‌ۖ

((Even) if you desire that they be guided, then verily, Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray,) As Allah says:

﴿ مَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَا هَادِىَ لَهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَيَذَرُهُمۡ فِى طُغۡيَـٰنِہِمۡ يَعۡمَهُونَ

(Whomsoever Allah allows to stray, then there is no guide for him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions.) (7:186)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ حَقَّتۡ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ڪَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَلَوۡ جَآءَتۡہُمۡ ڪُلُّ ءَايَةٍ حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُاْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ ٱلۡأَلِيمَ

(Truly! Those deserving the Word (wrath) of your Lord will not believe, even if every sign should come to them - until they see the painful torment) (10:96-97).

﴿ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ

(then verily, Allah) meaning, this is the way in which Allah does things. If He wills a thing, then it happens, and if He does not will a thing, then it does not happen. For this reason Allah says:

﴿ لَا يَہۡدِى مَن يُضِلُّ‌ۖ

(Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray,) meaning the one whom He has caused to go astray, so who can guide him apart from Allah No one.

﴿ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(And they will have no helpers.) means, they will have no one to save them from the punishment of Allah,

﴿ أَلَا لَهُ ٱلۡخَلۡقُ وَٱلۡأَمۡرُ‌ۗ تَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) (7:54).

﴿ وَأَقۡسَمُواْ بِٱللَّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَـٰنِهِمۡ‌ۙ لَا يَبۡعَثُ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَمُوتُ‌ۚ بَلَىٰ وَعۡدًا عَلَيۡهِ حَقًّ۬ا وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى يَخۡتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّہُمۡ كَانُواْ ڪَـٰذِبِينَ إِنَّمَا قَوۡلُنَا لِشَىۡءٍ إِذَآ أَرَدۡنَـٰهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ ۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

(38. And they swear by Allah with their strongest oaths, that Allah will not raise up one who dies. Yes, (He will raise them up), a promise (binding) upon Him in truth, but most of mankind know not.) (39. In order that He may make clear to them what they differed over, and so that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars.) (40. Verily, Our Word to a thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: "Be!'' - and it is.)

The Resurrection after Death is true, there is Wisdom behind it, and it is easy for Allah

Allah tells us that the idolaters swore by Allah their strongest oaths, meaning that they made oaths swore fervently that Allah would not resurrect the one who died. They considered that to be improbable, and did not believe the Messengers when they told them about that, swearing that it could not happen. Allah said, refuting them:

﴿ بَلَىٰ

(Yes), meaning it will indeed happen,

﴿ وَعۡدًا عَلَيۡهِ حَقًّ۬ا

(a promise (binding) upon Him in truth,) - meaning it is inevitable,

﴿ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ

(but most of mankind know not.) means, because of their ignorance they oppose the Messengers and fall into disbelief. Then Allah mentions His wisdom and the reason why He will resurrect mankind physically on the Day of Calling (between the people of Fire and of Paradise). He says,

﴿ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ

(In order that He may make clear to them) means, to mankind,

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يَخۡتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ

(what they differed over,) means, every dispute.

﴿ لِيَجۡزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسَـٰٓـُٔواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيَجۡزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَحۡسَنُواْ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَى

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).) (53:31)

﴿ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓاْ أَنَّہُمۡ كَانُواْ ڪَـٰذِبِينَ

(and so that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars.) meaning that they lied in their oaths and their swearing that Allah would not resurrect those who die. Thus they will be pushed down by force to the Fire with horrible force on the Day of Resurrection, and the guards of Hell will say to them:

﴿ هَـٰذِهِ ٱلنَّارُ ٱلَّتِى كُنتُم بِہَا تُكَذِّبُونَ أَفَسِحۡرٌ هَـٰذَآ أَمۡ أَنتُمۡ لَا تُبۡصِرُونَ ٱصۡلَوۡهَا فَٱصۡبِرُوٓاْ أَوۡ لَا تَصۡبِرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيۡكُمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّمَا تُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ

(This is the Fire which you used to belie. Is this magic or do you not see Taste its heat, and whether you are tolerant of it or intolerant of it - it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you have done.) (52:14-16). Then Allah tells us about His ability to do whatever He wills, and that nothing is impossible for Him on earth or in heaven. When He wants a thing, all He has to do is say to it "Be!'' and it is. The Resurrection is one such thing, when He wants it to happen, all He will have to do is issue the command once, and it will happen as He wills, as He says:

﴿ وَمَآ أَمۡرُنَآ إِلَّا وَٲحِدَةٌ۬ كَلَمۡحِۭ بِٱلۡبَصَرِ

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye) (54:50) and,

﴿ مَّا خَلۡقُكُمۡ وَلَا بَعۡثُكُمۡ إِلَّا ڪَنَفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ‌ۗ

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as (the creation and resurrection of) a single person. ) (31:28) And in this Ayah, Allah says:

﴿ إِنَّمَا قَوۡلُنَا لِشَىۡءٍ إِذَآ أَرَدۡنَـٰهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُ ۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

(Verily, Our Word to a thing when We intend it, is only that We say to it: "Be!'' - and it is.) meaning, We issue the command once, and then it happens. Allah does not need to repeat or confirm whatever He commands, because there is nothing that can stop Him or oppose Him. He is the One, the Compelling, the Almighty, whose power, might and dominion have subjected all things. None has the right to be worshipped except Him, and there is no Lord other than Him.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُواْ فِى ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا ظُلِمُواْ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمۡ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةً۬‌ۖ وَلَأَجۡرُ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ أَكۡبَرُ‌ۚ لَوۡ كَانُواْ يَعۡلَمُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُواْ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ يَتَوَڪَّلُونَ

(41. And as for those who emigrated for the cause of Allah, after they had been wronged, We will certainly give them good residence in this world, but indeed the reward of the Hereafter will be greater; if they but knew!) (42. (They are) those who remained patient, and put their trust in their Lord.)