Allah tells us about the reward of those who migrated for His sake, seeking His pleasure, those who left their homeland behind, brothers and friends, hoping for the reward of Allah. This may have been revealed concerning those who migrated to Ethiopia, those whose persecution at the hands of their own people in Makkah was so extreme that they left them and went to Ethiopia so that they would be able to worship their Lord. Among the most prominent of these migrants were `Uthman bin `Affan and his wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah , Ja`far bin Abi Talib, the cousin of the Messenger , and Abu Salamah bin `Abdul-Asad, among a group of almost eighty sincere and faithful men and women, may Allah be pleased with them. Allah promised them a great reward in this world and the next. Allah said:
(We will certainly give them good residence in this world,) Ibn `Abbas, Ash-Sha`bi and Qatadah said: (this means) "Al-Madinah.'' It was also said that it meant "good provision''. This was the opinion of Mujahid. There is no contradiction between these two opinions, for they left their homes and wealth, but Allah compensated them with something better in this world. Whoever gives up something for the sake of Allah, Allah compensates him with something that is better for him than that, and this is what happened. He gave them power throughout the land and caused them to rule over the people, so they became governors and rulers, and each of them became a leader of the pious. Allah tells us that His reward for the Muhajirin in the Hereafter is greater than that which He gave them in this world, as He says:
(but indeed the reward of the Hereafter will be greater) meaning, greater than that which We have given you in this world.
(if they but knew!) means, if those who stayed behind and did not migrate with them only knew what Allah prepared for those who obeyed Him and followed His Messenger. Then Allah describes them as:
(those who remained patient, and put their trust in their Lord.) (16:42), meaning, they bore their people's persecution with patience, putting their trust in Allah Who made their end good in this world and the Hereafter.
(43. And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad) any but men, whom We sent revelation. So ask Ahl Adh-Dhikr, if you know not.) (44. With clear signs and Books (We sent the Messengers). And We have also revealed the Dhikr to you so that you may clearly explain to men what was revealed to them, and that perhaps they may reflect.)
Ad-Dahhak said, reporting from Ibn `Abbas: "When Allah sent Muhammad as a Messenger, the Arabs, or some of them, denied him and said, `Allah is too great to send a human being as a Messenger.' Then Allah revealed:
(Is it a wonder to people that We have sent Our Inspiration to a man from among themselves (saying): "Warn mankind...'') and He said,
(And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad) any but men, whom We sent Revelation. So ask Ahl Adh-Dhikr, if you know not.). meaning, (ask) the people of the previous Books, were the Messengers that were sent to them humans or angels If they were angels, then you have the right to find this strange, but if they were human, then you have no grounds to deny that Muhammad is a Messenger. Allah says:
(And We sent not before you (as Messengers) any but men to whom We revealed, from among the people of townships.) (12:109) and not from among the people of heaven as you say.'' It was reported by Mujahid from Ibn `Abbas that what is meant by Ahl Adh-Dhikr is the People of the Book. This is as Allah says:
(Say: "Glorified be my Lord! Am I anything but a man, sent as a Messenger'' And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: "Has Allah sent a man as (His) Messenger'') (17:93-94)
(And We never sent before you (O Muhammad) any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets.) (25:20)
(And We did not create them (the Messengers, with) bodies that did not eat food, nor were they immortals.)(21:8)
(Say (O Muhammad): "I am not a new thing among the Messengers. '') (46:9),
(Say (O Muhammad): "I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me.'') (18:110) Then Allah informs those who doubt that a Messenger can be a human to ask those who have knowledge of the previous Scriptures about the Prophets who came before: were their Prophets humans or angels Then Allah mentions that He has sent them,
(with clear signs), meaning proof and evidence, and
(and Books (Zubur)), meaning Scriptures. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others said: Zubur is the plural of Zabur, and the Arabs say, Zaburtul-Kitab meaning, "I wrote the book.'' Allah says:
(And everything they have done is noted in (their) Records (of deeds) (Zubur)) (54:52)
(And indeed We have written in Az-Zabur after the Dhikr that My righteous servant shall inherit the land (i.e. the land of Paradise).) (21:105) Then Allah says:
(And We have also revealed the Dhikr to you), meaning the Qur'an,
(so that you may clearly explain to men what was revealed to them,) meaning, sent down from their Lord, because you know the meaning of what Allah has revealed to you, and because of your understanding and adherence to it, and because We know that you are the best of creation and the leader of the Children of Adam. So that you may explain in detail what has been mentioned in brief, and explain what is not clear.
(so that perhaps they may reflect.) meaning, they should examine themselves and be guided by it, so that they may attain the victory of salvation in this world and the next.
(45. Do then those who devise evil plots feel secure that Allah will not cause them to sink into the earth, or that torment will not seize them from where they do not perceive it) (46. Or that He may punish them in the midst of their going to and fro (in their livelihood), so that there be no escape for them (from Allah's punishment)) (47. Or that He may punish them where they fear it most Indeed, Your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.)
Allah informs us about His patience, and how He delays the punishment for the sinners who do evil things and call others to do likewise, plotting to call others to do evil - even though He is able to make the earth swallow them or to bring His wrath upon them.
(from where they do not perceive it), meaning in such a way that they do not know where it comes from. As Allah says:
(Do you feel secure that He Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause you to sink into the earth, when it quakes Or do you feel secure that He Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not send a storm of stones upon you Then you shall know how My warning really is.) (67:16-17).
(Or that He may punish them in the midst of their going to and fro) meaning, when they are busy with their daily business, travel, and other distracting activities. Qatadah and As-Suddi said:
(Their going to and fro) means their journeys.'' As Allah says:
(Did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our punishment by night while they were asleep Or, did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our punishment in the forenoon while they were playing) (7:97-98)
(so that there be no escape for them (from Allah's punishment)) meaning, it is not impossible for Allah, no matter what their situation.
(Or that He may punish them where they fear it most) meaning, or Allah will take from them what they most fear, which is even more frightening, because when the thing you most fear to happen does happen, this is even worse. Hence Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,
(Or that He may punish them where they fear it most) means that Allah is saying: If I wish, I can take him after the death of his companion and after he has become frightened of that.' This was also reported from Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others. Then Allah says:
(Indeed your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.) meaning, because He does not hasten to punish, as was reported in the Two Sahihs:
(No one is more patient in the case of hearing offensive speech than Allah, for they attribute to Him a son, while He (alone) is giving them provision and good health.) And it is also recorded in Two Sahihs,
(Allah will let the wrongdoer continue until, when He begins to punish him, He will never let him go.) Then the Messenger of Allah recited:
(Such is the punishment of your Lord when He seizes the (population of) towns while they are doing wrong. Indeed, His punishment is painful, (and) severe) (11:102) And Allah says:
(And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing. Then I punished it. And to Me is the (final) return (of all).) (22:48)
(48. Have they not observed things that Allah has created: (how) their shadows shift from right to left, prostrating to Allah while they are humble) (49. And to Allah prostrate all that are in the heavens and all that are in the earth, the moving creatures and the angels, and they are not proud (i.e. they worship their Lord (Allah) with humility.) (50. They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded.)
Allah informs us about His might, majesty and pride, meaning that all things submit themselves to Him and every created being - animate and inanimate, as well as the responsible - humans and Jinns, and the angels - all humble themselves before Him. He tells us that everything that has a shadow leaning to the right and the left, i.e., in the morning and the evening, is by its shadow, prostrating to Allah. Mujahid said, "When the sun passes its zenith, everything prostrates to Allah, may He be glorified.'' This was also said by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others.
(while they are humble) means, they are in a state of humility. Mujahid also said: "The prostration of every thing is its shadow'', and he mentioned the mountains and said that their prostrations are their shadows. Abu Ghalib Ash-Shaybani said: "The waves of the sea are its prayers''. It is as if reason is attributed to these inanimate objects when they are described as prostrating, so Allah says:
(And to Allah prostrate all that are in the heavens and all that are in the earth, of the moving creatures) As Allah says:
(And to Allah (alone) all who are in the heavens and the earth fall in prostration, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.) (13:15)
(and the angels, and they are not proud.) means, they prostrate to Allah and are not too proud to worship Him.
(They fear their Lord above them) means, they prostrate out of fear of their Lord, may He be glorified.
(and they do what they are commanded.) meaning they continually obey Allah, doing what He tells them to do and avoiding that which He forbids.
(51. And Allah said "Do not worship two gods. Indeed, He (Allah) is only One God. Then fear Me Alone.) (52. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth and the religion. Will you then fear any other than Allah) (53. And whatever of blessings and good things you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you, unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (54. Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! some of you associate others in worship with their Lord (Allah).) (55. So they are ungrateful for that which We have given them! Then enjoy yourselves but you will soon come to know.)