;
Everything prostrates to Allah

Allah informs us about His might, majesty and pride, meaning that all things submit themselves to Him and every created being - animate and inanimate, as well as the responsible - humans and Jinns, and the angels - all humble themselves before Him. He tells us that everything that has a shadow leaning to the right and the left, i.e., in the morning and the evening, is by its shadow, prostrating to Allah. Mujahid said, "When the sun passes its zenith, everything prostrates to Allah, may He be glorified.'' This was also said by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others.

﴿ لِّلَّهِ وَهُمۡ

(while they are humble) means, they are in a state of humility. Mujahid also said: "The prostration of every thing is its shadow'', and he mentioned the mountains and said that their prostrations are their shadows. Abu Ghalib Ash-Shaybani said: "The waves of the sea are its prayers''. It is as if reason is attributed to these inanimate objects when they are described as prostrating, so Allah says:

﴿ وَلِلَّهِ يَسۡجُدُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مِن دَآبَّةٍ۬

(And to Allah prostrate all that are in the heavens and all that are in the earth, of the moving creatures) As Allah says:

﴿ وَلِلَّهِ يَسۡجُدُ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ طَوۡعً۬ا وَكَرۡهً۬ا وَظِلَـٰلُهُم بِٱلۡغُدُوِّ وَٱلۡأَصَالِ ۩

(And to Allah (alone) all who are in the heavens and the earth fall in prostration, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.) (13:15)

﴿ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ وَهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ

(and the angels, and they are not proud.) means, they prostrate to Allah and are not too proud to worship Him.

﴿ يَخَافُونَ رَبَّہُم مِّن فَوۡقِهِمۡ

(They fear their Lord above them) means, they prostrate out of fear of their Lord, may He be glorified.

﴿ وَيَفۡعَلُونَ مَا يُؤۡمَرُونَ ۩

(and they do what they are commanded.) meaning they continually obey Allah, doing what He tells them to do and avoiding that which He forbids.

﴿ وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓاْ إِلَـٰهَيۡنِ ٱثۡنَيۡنِ‌ۖ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـٰهٌ۬ وَٲحِدٌ۬‌ۖ فَإِيَّـٰىَ فَٱرۡهَبُونِ وَلَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَهُ ٱلدِّينُ وَاصِبًا‌ۚ أَفَغَيۡرَ ٱللَّهِ تَتَّقُونَ وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فَإِلَيۡهِ تَجۡـَٔرُونَ ثُمَّ إِذَا كَشَفَ ٱلضُّرَّ عَنكُمۡ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ۬ مِّنكُم بِرَبِّہِمۡ يُشۡرِكُونَ لِيَكۡفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمۡ‌ۚ فَتَمَتَّعُواْ‌ۖ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ

(51. And Allah said "Do not worship two gods. Indeed, He (Allah) is only One God. Then fear Me Alone.) (52. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth and the religion. Will you then fear any other than Allah) (53. And whatever of blessings and good things you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you, unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (54. Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! some of you associate others in worship with their Lord (Allah).) (55. So they are ungrateful for that which We have given them! Then enjoy yourselves but you will soon come to know.)

Allah Alone is Deserving of Worship

Allah tells us that there is no god but He, and that no one else should be worshipped except Him, alone, without partners, for He is the Sovereign, Creator, and Lord of all things.

﴿ وَلَهُ ٱلدِّينُ وَاصِبًا‌ۚ

(His is the religion Wasiba) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Maymun bin Mahran, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others said that this means forever. It was also reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "It means obligatory.'' Mujahid said: "It means purely for Him,'' i.e., worship is due to Him Alone, from whoever is in the heavens and on earth. As Allah says:

﴿ أَفَغَيۡرَ دِينِ ٱللَّهِ يَبۡغُونَ وَلَهُ ۥۤ أَسۡلَمَ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ طَوۡعً۬ا وَڪَرۡهً۬ا وَإِلَيۡهِ يُرۡجَعُونَ

(Do they seek other than the religion of Allah, while to Him submitted all creatures in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly. And to Him shall they all be returned.) (3:83) This is in accordance with the opinion of Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah, which is that this Ayah is merely stating the case. According to the opinion of Mujahid, it is by way of instruction, i.e., it is saying: You had better fear associating partners in worship with Me, and be sincere in your obedience to Me. As Allah says:

﴿ أَلَا لِلَّهِ ٱلدِّينُ ٱلۡخَالِصُ‌ۚ

(Surely, the pure religion (sincere devotion) is for Allah only.) (39:3) Then Allah tells us that He is the One Who has the power to benefit and harm, and that the provisions, blessings, good health and help, His servants enjoy are from His bounty and graciousness towards them.

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فَإِلَيۡهِ تَجۡـَٔرُونَ

(Then, when harm touches you, to Him you cry aloud for help.) meaning because you know that none has the power to remove that harm except for Him, so when you are harmed, you turn to ask Him for help and beg Him for aid. As Allah says:

﴿ وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ ضَلَّ مَن تَدۡعُونَ إِلَّآ إِيَّاهُ‌ۖ فَلَمَّا نَجَّٮٰكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡبَرِّ أَعۡرَضۡتُمۡ‌ۚ وَكَانَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ كَفُورًا

(And when harm touches you at sea, those that you call upon vanish, except for Him. But when He brings you safe to land, you turn away. And man is ever ungrateful.)(17:67) Here, Allah tells us:

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَا كَشَفَ ٱلضُّرَّ عَنكُمۡ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ۬ مِّنكُم بِرَبِّہِمۡ يُشۡرِكُونَ لِيَكۡفُرُواْ بِمَآ ءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُمۡ‌ۚ

(Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! some of you associate others in worship with their Lord (Allah). So they are ungrateful for that which We have given them!) (16:54-55) It was said that the Lam here (translated as "So'') is an indicator of sequence, or that it serves an explanatory function, meaning, `We decreed that they would conceal the truth and deny the blessings that Allah has bestowed upon them. He is the One Who bestows blessings and the One Who removes distress.' Then Allah threatens them, saying:

﴿ فَتَمَتَّعُواْ‌ۖ

(Then enjoy yourselves) meaning, do what you like and enjoy what you have for a little while.

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ

(but you will soon come to know.) meaning the consequences of that.

﴿ وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِمَا لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ نَصِيبً۬ا مِّمَّا رَزَقۡنَـٰهُمۡ‌ۗ تَٱللَّهِ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمۡ تَفۡتَرُونَ وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡبَنَـٰتِ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ‌ۙ وَلَهُم مَّا يَشۡتَہُونَ وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجۡهُهُ ۥ مُسۡوَدًّ۬ا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ۬ يَتَوَٲرَىٰ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ مِن سُوٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۚ أَيُمۡسِكُهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمۡ يَدُسُّهُ ۥ فِى ٱلتُّرَابِ‌ۗ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأَخِرَةِ مَثَلُ ٱلسَّوۡءِ‌ۖ وَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡمَثَلُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(56. And they assign a portion of that which We have provided them with, to what they have no knowledge of (false deities). By Allah, you shall certainly be questioned about (all) that you used to fabricate.) (57. And they assign daughters to Allah! Glorified (and Exalted) is He (above all that they associate with Him!). And for themselves (they assign) what they desire;) (58. And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inner grief!) (59. He hides himself from the people because of the evil of what he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth Certainly, evil is their decision.) (60. For those who do not believe in the Hereafter is an evil description, and for Allah is the highest description. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

Among the Behavior of the Idolators was vowing to Things that Allah had provided for Them to their gods

Allah tells us about some of the heinous deeds of those who used to perform baseless worship of other gods besides Him, such as idols and statues, with no grounds for doing so. They gave their idols a share of that which Allah had provided for them,

﴿ فَقَالُواْ هَـٰذَا لِلَّهِ بِزَعۡمِهِمۡ وَهَـٰذَا لِشُرَكَآٮِٕنَا‌ۖ فَمَا ڪَانَ لِشُرَڪَآٮِٕهِمۡ فَلَا يَصِلُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ وَمَا ڪَانَ لِلَّهِ فَهُوَ يَصِلُ إِلَىٰ شُرَڪَآٮِٕهِمۡ‌ۗ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡڪُمُونَ

(They say: "This is for Allah,'' according to their claim, "and this is for our partners.'' But the share of their "partners'' is not directed to Allah, while the share of Allah is directed to their "partners''! How evil is that with which they judge) (6:136) That is they assigned a share for their idols as well as Allah, but they gave preference to their gods over Him, so Allah swore by His Almighty Self to question them about these lies and fabrications. He will most certainly call them to account for it and give them the unrelenting punishment in the fire of Hell. So He says,

﴿ تَٱللَّهِ لَتُسۡـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمۡ تَفۡتَرُونَ

(By Allah, you shall certainly be questioned about (all) that you used to fabricate.) Then Allah tells us how they used to regard the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, as being female, and that they considered them to be Allah's daughters, and they worshipped them with Him. In all of the above, they made very serious errors. They attributed offspring to Him when He has no offspring, then they assigned Him the kind of offspring they regarded as inferior, namely daughters, which they did not even want for themselves, as He said:

﴿ أَلَكُمُ ٱلذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ ٱلۡأُنثَىٰ تِلۡكَ إِذً۬ا قِسۡمَةٌ۬ ضِيزَىٰٓ

(Are the males for you and the females for Him That is indeed an unfair division!) (53:21-22) And Allah says here:

﴿ وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ ٱلۡبَنَـٰتِ سُبۡحَـٰنَهُ ۥ‌ۙ

(And they assign daughters unto Allah! Glorified (and Exalted) is He.) meaning, above their claims and fabrications.

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّہُم مِّنۡ إِفۡكِهِمۡ لَيَقُولُونَ وَلَدَ ٱللَّهُ وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ أَصۡطَفَى ٱلۡبَنَاتِ عَلَى ٱلۡبَنِينَ مَا لَكُمۡ كَيۡفَ تَحۡكُمُونَ

(But no! It is from their falsehood that they say: "Allah has begotten.'' They are certainly liars! Has He (then) chosen daughters rather than sons What is the matter with you How do you decide) (37:151-154)

﴿ وَلَهُم مَّا يَشۡتَہُونَ

(And for themselves, what they desire;) meaning they choose the males for themselves, rejecting the daughters that they assign to Allah. Exalted be Allah far above what they say!

The Idolators' Abhorrence for Daughters
﴿ وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجۡهُهُ ۥ مُسۡوَدًّ۬ا

(And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark) meaning with distress and grief.

﴿ وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ۬

(and he is filled with inner grief!) meaning he is silent because of the intensity of the grief he feels.

﴿ يَتَوَٲرَىٰ مِنَ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ

(He hides himself from the people) meaning he does not want anyone to see him.

﴿ مِن سُوٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۚ أَيُمۡسِكُهُ ۥ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمۡ يَدُسُّهُ ۥ فِى ٱلتُّرَابِ‌ۗ

(because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth) meaning should he keep her, humiliating her, not letting her inherit from him and not taking care of her, preferring his male children over her

﴿ أَمۡ يَدُسُّهُ ۥ فِى ٱلتُّرَابِ‌ۗ

(or bury her in the earth) meaning bury her alive, as they used to do during the days of ignorance. How could they dislike something so intensely, yet attribute it to Allah

﴿ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ

(Certainly, evil is their decision.) meaning how evil are the words they say, the way they want to share things out and the things they attribute to Him. As Allah says:

﴿ وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ مَثَلاً۬ ظَلَّ وَجۡهُهُ ۥ مُسۡوَدًّ۬ا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ

(And if one of them is informed of the news of (the birth of a girl) that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious (Allah), his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!) (43:17). Here, Allah says:

﴿ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱلۡأَخِرَةِ مَثَلُ ٱلسَّوۡءِ‌ۖ

(For those who do not believe in the Hereafter there is an evil description,) meaning, only imperfection is to be attributed to

﴿ وَلِلَّهِ ٱلۡمَثَلُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ‌ۚ

(and for Allah is the highest description) meaning He is absolutely perfect in all ways and this absolute perfection is His Alone.

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

﴿ وَلَوۡ يُؤَاخِذُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّاسَ بِظُلۡمِهِم مَّا تَرَكَ عَلَيۡہَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ۬ وَلَـٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمۡ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى‌ۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَجَلُهُمۡ لَا يَسۡتَـٔۡخِرُونَ سَاعَةً۬‌ۖ وَلَا يَسۡتَقۡدِمُونَ وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكۡرَهُونَ وَتَصِفُ أَلۡسِنَتُهُمُ ٱلۡكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۖ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّارَ وَأَنَّہُم مُّفۡرَطُونَ

(61. And if Allah were to punish (all) mankind for their wrongdoing, He would not leave on it (the earth) a single moving creature, but He defers them to an appointed term; and when their term comes, they can neither delay nor advance it an hour (or a moment).) (62. They assign to Allah that which they dislike (for themselves), and their tongues assert the lie that the better things will be theirs. No doubt the Fire is for them, and they will be forsaken.)

Allah does not immediately punish for Disobedience

Allah tells us about His patience with His creatures, even though they do wrong. If He were to punish them for what they have done, there would be no living creature left on the face of the earth, i.e., He would have destroyed every animal on earth after destroying the sons of Adam. But the Lord - magnificent is His glory - is forbearing and He covers people's faults. He waits until the appointed time, i.e., He does not rush to punish them. If He did, then there would be no one left. Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Salamah said: "Abu Hurayrah heard a man saying, `The wrongdoer harms no one but himself.' He turned to him and said, `That is not true, by Allah! Even the buzzard dies in its nest because of the sins of the wrongdoer.'''

They attribute to Allah what They Themselves dislike
﴿ وَيَجۡعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكۡرَهُونَ

(They assign to Allah that which they dislike (for themselves),) meaning, daughters, and partners, who are merely His servants, yet none of them would like to have someone sharing in his wealth.

﴿ وَتَصِفُ أَلۡسِنَتُهُمُ ٱلۡكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۖ

(and their tongues assert the lie that the better things will be theirs.) This is a denunciation of their claims that better things will be theirs in this world, and in the Hereafter. Allah tells us about what some of them said, as in the Ayat:

﴿ وَلَٮِٕنۡ أَذَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِنَّا رَحۡمَةً۬ ثُمَّ نَزَعۡنَـٰهَا مِنۡهُ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَيَـُٔوسٌ۬ ڪَفُورٌ۬ وَلَٮِٕنۡ أَذَقۡنَـٰهُ نَعۡمَآءَ بَعۡدَ ضَرَّآءَ مَسَّتۡهُ لَيَقُولَنَّ ذَهَبَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتُ عَنِّىٓ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَفَرِحٌ۬ فَخُورٌ

(And if We give man a taste of mercy from Us, and then take it from him, verily! He is hopelessly, ungrateful. But if We let him taste of goodness after harm has touched him, he is sure to say: "Ills have departed from me.'' Surely, he is cheerful, and boastful (ungrateful to Allah).) (11:9-10)

﴿ وَلَٮِٕنۡ أَذَقۡنَـٰهُ رَحۡمَةً۬ مِّنَّا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ضَرَّآءَ مَسَّتۡهُ لَيَقُولَنَّ هَـٰذَا لِى وَمَآ أَظُنُّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ قَآٮِٕمَةً۬ وَلَٮِٕن رُّجِعۡتُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّىٓ إِنَّ لِى عِندَهُ ۥ لَلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ فَلَنُنَبِّئَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُم مِّنۡ عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ۬

(And if We give him a taste of mercy from Us, after some adversity has touched him, he is sure to say: "This is due to me; I do not think that the Hour will occur. But if I am brought back to my Lord, then, with Him, there will surely be the best for me.'' Then, We will certainly show the disbelievers what they have done, and We shall make them taste severe torment.) (41:50)

﴿ أَفَرَءَيۡتَ ٱلَّذِى ڪَفَرَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَقَالَ لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالاً۬ وَوَلَدًا

(Have you seen the one who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: "I shall certainly be given wealth and children (if I came back to life).'') (19:77) Allah tells us about one of the two men:

﴿ وَدَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ ۥ وَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ۬ لِّنَفۡسِهِۦ قَالَ مَآ أَظُنُّ أَن تَبِيدَ هَـٰذِهِۦۤ أَبَدً۬ا وَمَآ أَظُنُّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ قَآٮِٕمَةً۬ وَلَٮِٕن رُّدِدتُّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّى لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيۡرً۬ا مِّنۡهَا مُنقَلَبً۬ا

(He went into his garden while wronging himself. He said: "I do not think that this will ever perish. And I do not think that the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, (on the Day of Resurrection), then surely, I shall find better than this when I return to Him.'') (18:35-36) These people combined bad deeds with the false hopes of being rewarded with good for those bad deeds, which is impossible. Thus Allah refuted their false hopes, when He said:

﴿ لَا جَرَمَ

(No doubt), meaning, truly it is inevitable that

﴿ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّارَ

(for them is the Fire), meaning, on the Day of Resurrection.

﴿ وَأَنَّہُم مُّفۡرَطُونَ

(and they will be forsaken). Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and others said: "This means they will be forgotten and neglected there.'' This is like the Ayah:

﴿ فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ نَنسَٮٰهُمۡ ڪَمَا نَسُواْ لِقَآءَ يَوۡمِهِمۡ هَـٰذَا

(So today We forget them just as they forgot meeting on this day of theirs.) (7:51). It was also reported from Qatadah that,

﴿ مُّفۡرَطُونَ

(they will be forsaken) means `they are hastened into the Fire.' There is no contradiction between the two, because they will be hastened into the Fire on the Day of Resurrection, then they will be forgotten there, i.e., left to dwell there for eternity.

﴿ تَٱللَّهِ لَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمَمٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّہُمُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬ وَمَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى ٱخۡتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ‌ۙ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَٱللَّهُ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَأَحۡيَا بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَآ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ

(63. By Allah, We indeed sent (Messengers) to the nations before you, but Shaytan made their deeds seeming fair to them. So today he is their helper, and theirs will be a painful torment. ) (64. And We have not revealed the Book to you, except that you may clearly explain to them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.) (65. And Allah sends water down from the sky, then He revives the earth with it after its death. Surely that is a sign for people who listen.)