Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "This refers to a man who said something that he did not think would be offensive to his parents.'' According to another report: "He did not mean anything bad by that.'' So Allah said:
(Your Lord knows best what is in your souls. If you are righteous,)
(He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance.) Qatadah said: "To the obedient who pray.''
(He is Ever Most Forgiving to those who turn to Him in repentance.) Shu`bah narrated from Yahya bin Sa`id from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib; "This refers to those who commit sin then repent, and commit sin then repent.'' `Ata' bin Yasar, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Mujahid said: "They are the ones who return to goodness.'' Mujahid narrated from `Ubayd bin `Umayr, concerning this Ayah: "This is the one who, when he remembers his sin when he is alone, he seeks the forgiveness of Allah.'' Mujahid agreed with him on that. Ibn Jarir said: "The best view on this matter is of those who said that it refers to the one who repents after committing sin, who comes back from disobedience to obedience and who leaves that which Allah hates for that which He loves and is pleased with. '' What he said is correct, for Allah says,
(Verily, to Us will be their return) (88:25). And according to a Sahih Hadith, the Messenger of Allah would say when he returned from a journey,
(We have returned repenting, worshipping and praising our Lord.)
(26. And give to the kinsman his due, and to the Miskin (poor), and to the wayfarer. But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift.) (27. Verily, the spendthrifts are brothers of the Shayatin (devils), and the Shaytan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.) (28. And if you turn away from them and you are awaiting a mercy from your Lord for which you hope, then, speak unto them a soft, kind word.)
When Allah mentions honoring one's parents, He follows this with the command to treat one's relatives well and to maintain the ties of kinship. According to the Hadith:
(Your mother and your father, then your closest relatives and the next closest.) According to another Hadith:
(Whoever would like to see his provision expanded and his life extended, let him maintain his ties of kinship.)
(But spend not wastefully (your wealth) in the manner of a spendthrift.) When Allah commands spending, He forbids extravagance. Spending should be moderate, as stated in another Ayah:
(And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy). (25:67) Then He says, to discourage extravagance:
(Verily, the spendthrifts are brothers of the Shayatin,) They have this trait in common. Ibn Mas`ud said: "This refers spending extravagantly when it is not appropriate.'' Ibn `Abbas said likewise. Mujahid said: "If a man spends all his wealth on appropriate things, then he is not a spendthrift, but if he spends a little inappropriately, then he is a spendthrift.'' Qatadah said: "Extravagance means spending money on sin in disobeying Allah, and on wrongful and corrupt things.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said: "A man came from Banu Tamim to the Messenger of Allah and said: `O Messenger of Allah, I have a lot of wealth, I have a family, children, and the refinements of city life, so tell me how I should spend and what I should do.' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Pay the Zakah on your wealth if any is due, for it is purification that will make you pure, maintain your ties of kinship, pay attention to the rights of beggars, neighbors and the poor.) He said: `O Messenger of Allah, make it less for me.' He (recited):
(And give to the kinsman his due, and to the Miskin (poor) and to the wayfarer. But spend not wastefully in the manner of a spendthrift.) The man said, `That is enough for me, O Messenger of Allah. If I pay Zakah to your messenger, will I be absolved of that duty before Allah and His Messenger' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Yes, if you give it to my messenger, you will have fulfilled it, and you will have the reward for it, and the sin is on the one who changes it.)''
(Verily, the spendthrifts are brothers of the Shayatin,) meaning, they are their brothers in extravagance, foolishness, failing to obey Allah and committing sin. Allah said:
(and the Shaytan is ever ungrateful to his Lord.) meaning, he is an ingrate, because he denied the blessings of Allah and did not obey Him, turning instead to disobedience and rebellion.
(And if you turn away from them and you are awaiting a mercy from your Lord) `If your relatives and those to whom We have commanded you to give, ask you for something, and you do not have anything, and you turn away from them because you have nothing to give,
(then, speak unto them a soft, kind word.) meaning, with a promise. This was the opinion of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others.
(29. And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck, nor overextend it (like a spendthrift), so that you become blameworthy and in severe poverty.) (30. Truly, your Lord expands the provision for whom He wills and straitens (for whom He wills). Verily, He is Ever All-Knower, All-Seer of His servants.)
Allah enjoins moderation in living. He condemns miserliness and forbids extravagance.
(And let not your hand be tied (like a miser) to your neck,) this means, do not be miserly and stingy, never giving anything to anyone, as the Jews - may the curses of Allah be upon them - said, "Allah's Hand is tied up (i.e., He does not give and spend of His bounty)''. They attributed miserliness to Him, Exalted and Sanctified be the Most Generous Bestower!
(nor overextend it (like a spendthrift)) means, nor be extravagant in spending and giving more than you can afford, or paying more than you earn, lest you become blameworthy and find yourself in severe poverty. If you are a miser, people will blame you and condemn you, and no longer rely on you. When you spend more than you can afford, you will find yourself without anything to spend, so you will be worn out, like an animal that cannot walk, so it becomes weak and incapable. It is described as worn out, which is similar in meaning to exhausted. As Allah says:
(Then look again: "Can you see any rifts'' Then look again and yet again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out.) (67:3-4) meaning, unable to see any faults. Similarly, Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj, Ibn Zayd and others understood this Ayah as miserliness and extravagance. It was reported in the Two Sahihs from the Hadith of Abu Az-Zinad from Al-A`raj that Abu Hurayrah heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(The parable of the miser and the almsgiver is that of two persons wearing iron cloaks from their chests to their collar-bones. When the almsgiver gives in charity, the cloak becomes spacious until it covers his whole body to such an extent that it hides his fingertips and covers his tracks (obliterates his tracks - or, his sins will be forgiven). And when the miser wants to spend, it (the iron cloak) sticks and (its) every ring gets stuck to its place, and he tries to widen it, but it does not become wide.) This version was recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Zakah. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that Mu`awiyah bin Abi Muzarrid narrated from Sa`id bin Yasar that Abu Hurayrah said: "The Messenger of Allah said:
(There is no day when a person wakes up but two angels come down from heaven. One of them says, `O Allah, compensate the one who gives (in charity),' and the other one says, `O Allah, destroy the one who withholds.')'' Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:
(Wealth never decreases because of Sadaqah (charity). Allah never increases a servant who gives in charity except in honor, and whoever is humble for the sake of Allah, Allah will raise him in status.) According to a Hadith narrated by Abu Kathir from `Abdullah bin `Amr, who attributed it to the Prophet:
(Beware of stinginess for it destroyed the people who came before you. It commanded them to be miserly, so they were miserly; and it commanded them to cut the ties of kinship, so they cut them; and it commanded them to commit immoral actions, so they did so.)
(Truly, your Lord expands the provision for whom He wills and straitens (for whom He wills).) This Ayah is telling us that Allah is the One Who provides or withholds, the Bestower Who is running the affairs of His creation as He wills. He makes rich whomever He wills, and He makes poor whomever He wills, by the wisdom that is His. He said:
(Verily, He is Ever All-Knower, All-Seer of His servants.) meaning, He knows and sees who deserves to be rich and who deserves to be poor. In some cases, richness may be decreed so that a person gets carried away, leading to his own doom. In other cases, poverty may be a punishment. We seek refuge with Allah from both.
(31. And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We shall provide for them as well as for you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.)
This Ayah indicates that Allah is more compassionate towards His servants than a father to his child, because He forbids killing children just as He enjoins parents to take care of their children in matters of inheritance. The people of Jahiliyyah would not allow their daughters to inherit from them, and some would even kill their daughters lest they make them more poor. Allah forbade that and said:
(And kill not your children for fear of poverty.) meaning, lest they may make you poor in the future. This is why Allah mentions the children's provision first:
(We shall provide for them as well as for you.) In Surat Al-An`am, Allah says:
(kill not your children because of poverty.) (6:151)
(We provide sustenance for you and for them) (6:151) and,
(Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.) means, a major sin. In Two Sahihs it is recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said: "I said, `O Messenger of Allah, which sin is the worst' He said,
(To appoint rivals of Allah when He has created you.) I asked, `Then what' He said, (To kill your child lest he should eat with you.) I asked, `Then what' He said, (To commit adultery with your neighbor's wife.)''
(32. And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is Fahishah (immoral sin) and an evil way.)
Allah says, forbidding His servants to commit Zina or to approach it or to do anything that may lead to it:
(And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral sin)) meaning a major sin,
(and an evil way.) meaning, a terrible way to behave. Imam Ahmad recorded Abu Umamah saying that a young man came to the Prophet and said, "O Messenger of Allah! Give me permission to commit Zina (unlawful sex).'' The people surrounded him and rebuked him, saying, "Stop! Stop!'' But the Prophet said,
(Come close) The young man came to him, and he said,
(Sit down) so he sat down. The Prophet said,
(Would you like it (unlawful sex) for your mother) He said, "No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.'' The Prophet said,
(Neither do the people like it for their mothers.) The Prophet said,
(Would you like it for your daughter) He said, "No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.'' The Prophet said,
(Neither do the people like it for their daughters.) The Prophet said,
(Would you like it for your sister) He said, "No, by Allah, may I be ransomed for you.'' The Prophet said,
(Neither do the people like it for their sisters.) The Prophet said,
(Would you like it for your paternal aunt) He said, "No, by Allah, O Allah's Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.'' The Prophet said,
(Neither do the people like it for their paternal aunts.) The Prophet said,
(Would you like it for your maternal aunt) He said, "No, by Allah, O Allah's Messenger! may I be ransomed for you.'' The Prophet said,
(Neither do the people like it for their maternal aunts.) Then the Prophet put his hand on him and said,
(O Allah, forgive his sin, purify his heart and guard his chastity.) After that the young man never paid attention to anything of that nature.
(33. And do not kill anyone whose killing Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause. And whoever is killed wrongfully (not by mistake), We have given his heir the authority. But let him not exceed limits in the matter of taking life. Verily, he is helped.)
It was reported in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The blood of a Muslim who bears witness to La ilaha illallah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, is not permissible (to be shed) except in three cases: a soul for a soul (i.e., in the case of murder), an adulterer who is married, and a person who leaves his religion and deserts the Jama'ah.) The following is recorded in the books of the Sunan:
(If the world were to be destroyed, it would be of less importance to Allah than the killing of a Muslim.)
(And whoever is killed wrongfully, We have given his heir the authority.) The authority is over the killer. The heir has the choice; if he wishes, he may have him killed in retaliation, or he may forgive him in return for the payment of the Diyah (blood money), or he may forgive him with no payment, as is reported in the Sunnah. The great scholar and Imam Ibn `Abbas understood from the general meaning of this Ayah that Mu`awiyah should take power, because he was the heir of `Uthman, who had been killed wrongfully, may Allah be pleased with him, and Mu`awiyah did event- ually take power, as Ibn `Abbas said on the basis of this Ayah. This is one of the stranger of matters.
(But let him not exceed limits in the matter of taking life.) They said: this means the heir should not go to extremes in killing the killer, such as mutilating the body or taking revenge on persons other than the killer.
(Verily, he is helped.) means, the heir is helped against the killer by the Shari`ah and by divine decree.
(34. And come not near to the orphan's property except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength. And fulfill (every) covenant. Verily, the covenant will be questioned about.) (35. And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with a balance that is straight. That is good (advantageous) and better in the end.)
(And come not near to the orphan's property except to improve it, until he attains the age of full strength.) meaning, do not dispose of the orphan's wealth except in a proper manner.
(but consume it ﴿the orphan's property﴾ not wastefully and hastily fearing that they should grow up, and whoever (among guardians) is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his labor).) (4:6) In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to Abu Dharr:
(O Abu Dharr, I see that you are weak (in administering), and I like for you that which I like for myself. Do not let yourself be appointed as Amir over two people, and do not let yourself be appointed as guardian of an orphan's property.)
(And fulfill (every) covenant.) meaning, everything that you promise people, and the covenants that you agree to, because the person who makes a covenant or a promise will be asked about it:
(Verily, the covenant will be questioned about.)
(And give full measure when you measure.) meaning, do not try to make it weigh less nor wrong people with their belongings.
(and weigh with a balance) meaning scales,
(that is straight.) meaning that which is not distorted nor that which will cause confusion.
(that is good) for you, in your daily life and in your Hereafter. So Allah says:
(and better in the end.) meaning, with regard to your ultimate end in the Hereafter.
(That is good (advantageous) and better in the end.) Sa`id narrated that Qatadah said that this means "Better in reward and a better end. '' Ibn `Abbas used to say: "O people, you are entrusted with two things for which the people who came before you were destroyed - these weights and measures.''
(36. And follow not that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, the hearing, and the sight, and the heart of each of those ones will be questioned (by Allah).)
`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "This means) do not say (anything of which you have no knowledge).'' Al-`Awfi said: "Do not accuse anyone of that of which you have no knowledge.'' Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said: "It means bearing false witness.'' Qatadah said: "Do not say, `I have seen', when you did not see anything, or `I have heard', when you did not hear anything, or `I know', when you do not know, for Allah will ask you about all of that.'' In conclusion, what they said means that Allah forbids speaking without knowledge and only on the basis of suspicion, which is mere imagination and illusions. As Allah says:
(Avoid much suspicion; indeed some suspicions are sins.) (49:12) According to a Hadith:
(Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the falsest of speech.) The following Hadith is found in Sunan Abu Dawud:
(What an evil habit it is for a man to say, `They claimed...') According to another Hadith:
(The worst of lies is for a man to claim to have seen something that he has not seen.) In the Sahih it says:
(Whoever claims to have seen a dream (when he has not seen) will be told on the Day of Resurrection to make a knot between two barley grains, and he will not be able to do it.)
(each of those ones) means these faculties, hearing, sight and the heart,
(will be questioned.) means, the person will be asked about them on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be asked about him and what he did with them.
(37. And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height.) (38. All the bad aspects of these (the above mentioned things) are hateful to your Lord.)