;
The refusal of the Idolators to believe because the Messenger was a Human - and its refutation
﴿ وَمَا مَنَعَ ٱلنَّاسَ

(And nothing prevented men) means, most of them,

﴿ أَن يُؤۡمِنُوٓاْ

(from believing) and following the Messengers, except the fact that they found it strange that human beings would be sent as Messengers, as Allah says:

﴿ أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنۡ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰ رَجُلٍ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ أَنۡ أَنذِرِ ٱلنَّاسَ وَبَشِّرِ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَنَّ لَهُمۡ قَدَمَ صِدۡقٍ عِندَ رَبِّہِمۡ‌ۗ

(Is it a wonder for mankind that We have sent Our revelation to a man from among themselves (saying): "Warn mankind, and give good news to those who believe that they shall have with their Lord the rewards of their good deeds'') (10:2) And Allah says:

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُ ۥ كَانَت تَّأۡتِيہِمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَقَالُوٓاْ أَبَشَرٌ۬ يَہۡدُونَنَا

(That was because there came to them their Messengers with clear proofs, but they said: "Shall mere men guide us'') (64:6) Fira`wn and his people said:

﴿ أَنُؤۡمِنُ لِبَشَرَيۡنِ مِثۡلِنَا وَقَوۡمُهُمَا لَنَا عَـٰبِدُونَ

(They said: "Shall we believe in two men like ourselves, and their people are obedient to us with humility!'') (23: 47) Similarly, the nations said to their Messengers:

﴿ إِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلَّا بَشَرٌ۬ مِّثۡلُنَا تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَصُدُّونَا عَمَّا كَانَ يَعۡبُدُ ءَابَآؤُنَا فَأۡتُونَا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬

("You are no more than human beings like us! You wish to turn us away from what our fathers used to worship. Then bring us a clear authority'') (14:10) And there are many other similar Ayat. Then Allah says, pointing out His kindness and mercy towards His servants, that He sends to them Messengers of their own kind so that they will understand what he says and will be able to speak to him directly. If He sent to mankind a Messenger from among the angels, they would not be able to deal with him face to face and learn from him, as Allah says:

﴿ لَقَدۡ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذۡ بَعَثَ فِيہِمۡ رَسُولاً۬ مِّنۡ أَنفُسِهِمۡ

(Indeed, Allah conferred a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a Messenger from among themselves) (3:164)

﴿ لَقَدۡ جَآءَڪُمۡ رَسُولٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَنفُسِڪُمۡ

(Verily, there has come unto you a Messenger from among yourselves) (10:128)

﴿ كَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَا فِيڪُمۡ رَسُولاً۬ مِّنڪُمۡ يَتۡلُواْ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيڪُمۡ وَيُعَلِّمُڪُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحِڪۡمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمۡ تَكُونُواْ تَعۡلَمُونَ فَٱذۡكُرُونِىٓ أَذۡكُرۡكُمۡ وَٱشۡڪُرُواْ لِى وَلَا تَكۡفُرُونِ

(Similarly, We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, reciting to you Our verses (the Qur'an) and purifying you, and teaching you the Book and the Hikmah, and teaching you that which you used not to know. Therefore remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me and never be ungrateful to Me.) (2:151-152) Allah says here:

﴿ قُل لَّوۡ كَانَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ مَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةٌ۬ يَمۡشُونَ مُطۡمَٮِٕنِّينَ

(Say: "If there were on the earth, angels walking about in peace and security,) meaning, just as you do,

﴿ لَنَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡهِم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَلَڪً۬ا رَّسُولاً۬

(We should certainly have sent down for them from the heaven an angel as a Messenger). meaning, `one of their own kind. But as you are human, We have sent to you Messengers from yourselves, as a kindness and a mercy.'

﴿ قُلۡ ڪَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَہِيدَۢا بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَڪُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِۦ خَبِيرَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا

(96. Say: "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you. Verily, He is Ever the All-Knower, the All-Seer of His servants.'') Allah tells His Prophet how to prove that what he has brought is true, saying to him to tell them: "He (Allah) is a witness over me and over you. He knows what I have brought to you. If I were lying to you, He would take revenge on me in the severest manner,'' as Allah says:

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيۡنَا بَعۡضَ ٱلۡأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذۡنَا مِنۡهُ بِٱلۡيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعۡنَا مِنۡهُ ٱلۡوَتِينَ

(And if he had forged a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by his right hand, And then We certainly would have cut off his life artery.) (69:44-46) Allah said;

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِۦ خَبِيرَۢا بَصِيرً۬ا

(Verily, He is Ever the All-Knower, the All-Seer of His servants.) meaning, He knows best who among them deserves blessings, good treatment and guidance, and who deserves to be doomed and led astray. He says:

﴿ وَمَن يَہۡدِ ٱللَّهُ فَهُوَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِ‌ۖ وَمَن يُضۡلِلۡ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِهِۦ‌ۖ وَنَحۡشُرُهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ عُمۡيً۬ا وَبُكۡمً۬ا وَصُمًّ۬ا‌ۖ مَّأۡوَٮٰهُمۡ جَهَنَّمُ‌ۖ ڪُلَّمَا خَبَتۡ زِدۡنَـٰهُمۡ سَعِيرً۬ا

(97. And he whom Allah guides, he is led aright; and whomever He leaves astray can never find helpers other than Him, and We shall gather them together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf; their abode will be Hell; whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire.)

Guidance and Misguidance are in the Hands of Allah

Allah tells us how He deals with His creation and how His rulings are carried out. He tells us that there is none who can put back His judgment, for whomever He guides cannot be led astray,

﴿ وَمَن يُضۡلِلۡ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِهِۦ‌ۖ

(and whomever He leaves astray can never find helpers other than Him)to guide him. As Allah says:

﴿ مَن يَہۡدِ ٱللَّهُ فَهُوَ ٱلۡمُهۡتَدِ‌ۖ وَمَن يُضۡلِلۡ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ ۥ وَلِيًّ۬ا مُّرۡشِدً۬ا

(He whom Allah guides, he is the rightly-guided; but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) to lead him) (18:17)

The Punishment of the People of Misguidance
﴿ وَنَحۡشُرُهُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ

(and We shall gather them together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces,) Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas bin Malik that the Prophet was asked, "O Messenger of Allah, how will the people be gathered on their faces'' He said,

« الَّذِي أَمْشَاهُمْ عَلَى أَرْجُلِهِمْ قَادِرٌ عَلَى أَنْ يُمْشِيَهُمْ عَلَى وُجُوهِهِم »

(The One Who made them walk on their feet is able to make them walk on their faces.) It was also reported (by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) in the Two Sahihs.

﴿ عُمۡيً۬ا

(blind) means, unable to see.

﴿ وَبُكۡمً۬ا

(dumb) means, unable to speak.

﴿ وَصُمًّ۬ا‌ۖ

(deaf) means, unable to hear. They will be in this state as a punishment for the way they were in this world, blind, dumb and deaf to the truth. This will be their recompense when they are gathered on the Day of Resurrection, at the time when they need these faculties most of all.

﴿ مَّأۡوَٮٰهُمۡ

(their abode) means, their destination.

﴿ جَهَنَّمُ‌ۖ ڪُلَّمَا خَبَتۡ

(will be Hell; whenever it abates,) Ibn `Abbas said, "(This means) calms down,'' Mujahid said, (It means) is extinguished,''

﴿ زِدۡنَـٰهُمۡ سَعِيرً۬ا

(We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire.) meaning, increasing its flames and heat and coals, as Allah says:

﴿ فَذُوقُواْ فَلَن نَّزِيدَكُمۡ إِلَّا عَذَابًا

(So taste you (the results of your evil actions). No increase shall We give you, except in torment.) (78:30)

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ جَزَآؤُهُم بِأَنَّهُمۡ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَقَالُوٓاْ أَءِذَا كُنَّا عِظَـٰمً۬ا وَرُفَـٰتًا أَءِنَّا لَمَبۡعُوثُونَ خَلۡقً۬ا جَدِيدًا
﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ قَادِرٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَخۡلُقَ مِثۡلَهُمۡ وَجَعَلَ لَهُمۡ أَجَلاً۬ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ فَأَبَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ إِلَّا كُفُورً۬ا

(98. That is their recompense, because they denied Our Ayat and said: "When we are bones and fragments, shall we really be raised up as a new creation'') (99. See they not that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create the like of them. And He has decreed for them an appointed term, whereof there is no doubt. But the wrongdoers refuse but disbelief.)

Allah says: `This punishment, being resurrected blind, dumb and deaf, is what they deserve, because they disbelieved,
﴿ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا

(Our Ayat), i.e., Our proof and evidence, and did not think that the resurrection could ever happen.'

﴿ وَقَالُوٓاْ أَءِذَا كُنَّا عِظَـٰمً۬ا وَرُفَـٰتًا

(and said: "When we are bones and fragments...'') meaning, when we have disintegrated and our bodies have rotted away,

﴿ أَءِنَّا لَمَبۡعُوثُونَ خَلۡقً۬ا جَدِيدًا

(shall we really be raised up as a new creation) meaning, after we have disintegrated and disappeared and been absorbed into the earth, will we come back a second time Allah established proof against them and told them that He is able to do that, for He created the heavens and the earth, so raising them up again is easier for Him than that, as He says:

﴿ لَخَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَڪۡبَرُ مِنۡ خَلۡقِ ٱلنَّاسِ

(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind;) (40:57)

﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَلَمۡ يَعۡىَ بِخَلۡقِهِنَّ بِقَـٰدِرٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يُحۡـِۧىَ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ‌ۚ

(Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is able to give life to the dead) (46: 33)

﴿ أَوَلَيۡسَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِقَـٰدِرٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَخۡلُقَ مِثۡلَهُم‌ۚ بَلَىٰ وَهُوَ ٱلۡخَلَّـٰقُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ إِنَّمَآ أَمۡرُهُ ۥۤ إِذَآ أَرَادَ شَيۡـًٔا أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ ۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

(Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth, able to create the like of them Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator. Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!'' and it is!) (36:81-82) And Allah says here:

﴿ أَوَلَمۡ يَرَوۡاْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ قَادِرٌ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَخۡلُقَ مِثۡلَهُمۡ

(See they not that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, is able to create the like of them.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, He will recreate and restore their bodies, as He created them in the first place.

﴿ وَجَعَلَ لَهُمۡ أَجَلاً۬ لَّا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ

(And He has decreed for them an appointed term, whereof there is no doubt.) means, He has set a time for them to be re-created and brought forth from their graves, an appointed time which must surely come to pass. As Allah says:

﴿ وَمَا نُؤَخِّرُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا لِأَجَلٍ۬ مَّعۡدُودٍ۬

(And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed.) (11:104)

﴿ فَأَبَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ

(But the wrongdoers refuse) -- after the proof has been established against them,

﴿ إِلَّا كُفُورً۬ا

((and accept nothing) but disbelief.) means, they persist in their falsehood and misguidance.

﴿ قُل لَّوۡ أَنتُمۡ تَمۡلِكُونَ خَزَآٮِٕنَ رَحۡمَةِ رَبِّىٓ إِذً۬ا لَّأَمۡسَكۡتُمۡ خَشۡيَةَ ٱلۡإِنفَاقِ‌ۚ وَكَانَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ قَتُورً۬ا

(100. Say: "If you possessed the treasure of the mercy of my Lord, then you would surely hold back for fear of spending, and man is ever miserly!'')

Holding back is Part of Man's Nature

Allah says to His Messenger : "Tell them, O Muhammad, even if you had authority over the treasures of Allah, you would refrain from spending for fear of exhausting it.'' Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah said, "This means for fear of poverty,'' lest it run out, despite the fact that it can never be exhausted or come to an end. This is because it is part of your nature. So Allah says:

﴿ وَكَانَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ قَتُورً۬ا

(and man is ever miserly.) Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah said: "(This means) stingy and holding back.'' Allah says:

﴿ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ نَصِيبٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡمُلۡكِ فَإِذً۬ا لَّا يُؤۡتُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

(Or have they a share in the dominion Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqira.) (4:53), meaning that even if they had a share in the authority of Allah, they would not have given anything to anyone, not even the amount of a Naqira (speck on the back of a date stone). Allah describes man as he really is, except for those whom Allah helps and guides. Miserliness, discontent and impatience are human characteristics, as Allah says:

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا إِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ جَزُوعً۬ا وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلۡخَيۡرُ مَنُوعًا إِلَّا ٱلۡمُصَلِّينَ

(Verily, man was created very impatient; irritable when evil touches him; and stingy when good touches him. Except those who are devoted to Salah (prayers). ) (70:19-22). And there are many other such references in the Qur'an. This is an indication of the generosity and kindness of Allah. In the Two Sahihs it says:

« يَدُ اللهِ مَلْأَى لَا يَغِيضُهَا نَفَقَةٌ سَحَّاءُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ، أَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا أَنْفَقَ مُنْذُ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ، فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَغِضْ مَا فِي يَمِينِه »

(Allah's Hand is full and never decreases because of His giving night and day. Do you not see how much He has given since He created the heavens and the earth, yet that which is in His right hand never decreases.)

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسۡعَ ءَايَـٰتِۭ بَيِّنَـٰتٍ۬‌ۖ فَسۡـَٔلۡ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ إِذۡ جَآءَهُمۡ فَقَالَ لَهُ ۥ فِرۡعَوۡنُ إِنِّى لَأَظُنُّكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ مَسۡحُورً۬ا قَالَ لَقَدۡ عَلِمۡتَ مَآ أَنزَلَ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ إِلَّا رَبُّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ بَصَآٮِٕرَ وَإِنِّى لَأَظُنُّكَ يَـٰفِرۡعَوۡنُ مَثۡبُورً۬ا فَأَرَادَ أَن يَسۡتَفِزَّهُم مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَأَغۡرَقۡنَـٰهُ وَمَن مَّعَهُ ۥ جَمِيعً۬ا وَقُلۡنَا مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ لِبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱسۡكُنُواْ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ فَإِذَا جَآءَ وَعۡدُ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ جِئۡنَا بِكُمۡ لَفِيفً۬ا

(101. And indeed We gave Musa nine clear signs. Ask then the Children of Israel, when he came to them, then Fir`awn said to him: "O Musa! I think you are indeed bewitched.'') (102. He said: "Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth. And I think you are indeed, O Fir`awn, doomed to destruction!'') (103. So he resolved to turn them out of the land. But We drowned him and all who were with him.) (104. And We said to the Children of Israel after him: "Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as mixed crowd.'')