(So he resolved to turn them out of the land.) means, he wanted to expel them and drive them out.
(But We drowned him and all who were with him. And We said to the Children of Israel after him: "Dwell in the land...'') This is good news for Muhammad, a foretelling of the conquest of Makkah, even though this Surah was revealed in Makkah before the Hijrah. Similarly, the people of Makkah wanted to expel the Prophet from the city, as Allah says in two Ayat:
(And verily, they were about to frighten you so much as to drive you out from the land...) (17:76-77) Hence Allah caused His Messenger to inherit Makkah, so he entered it by force, according to the better-known of the two opinions, and he defeated its people then out of kindness and generosity, he let them go, just as Allah caused the Children of Israel, who had been oppressed, to inherit the land, east and west, and to inherit the land of Fir`awn's people, with its farmland, crops and treasures. As Allah said,
(thus We caused the Children of Israel to inherit them. ) (26:59). Here Allah says:
(And We said to the Children of Israel after him: "Dwell in the land, then, when the final and the last promise comes near, We shall bring you altogether as mixed crowd.'') meaning, all of you, you and your ene mies. Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said, "It means all together.''
(105. And with truth We have sent it down, and with truth it has descended. And We have sent you as nothing but a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) (106. And a Qur'an which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals. And We have revealed it by stages.)
Allah tells us that His Book, the Glorious Qur'an, has been sent with truth, i.e., it contains the truth, as Allah says:
(But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you; He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness) (4:166) meaning, it contains the knowledge which Allah wanted to teach to you, with His rulings, commands and prohibitions.
(and with truth it has descended.) means, "It has been sent down to you, O Muhammad, preserved and protected, not contaminated or mixed with anything else, with nothing added or taken away. It has come to you with the truth, brought down by one mighty in power, trustworthy and strong, one who is obeyed by the higher group (angels).'
(And We have sent you) O Muhammad
(as nothing but a bearer of glad tidings and a warner). A bearer of glad tidings for the believers who obey you and a warner to the disbelievers who disobey you.
(And (it is) a Qur'an which We have divided), The word translated here as "We have divided'' may be read in two ways. If it is read as "Faraqnahu'', with no Shaddah, the meaning is: `We have made it depart from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz to Bayt Al-`Izzah in the lowest heaven, then it was revealed in stages to the Messenger of Allah, according to events, over a period of twenty-three years.' This was narrated by `Ikrimah from Ibn `Abbas. It was also narrated that Ibn `Abbas read it as "Farraqnahu'', with a Shaddah, meaning, `We revealed it Ayah by Ayah, and have explained it and made it clear.' Hence Allah says:
(in order that you might recite it to men), meaning, convey it to the people and recite it to them,
(at intervals.) meaning slowly.
(And We have revealed it by stages.) means, little by little.
(107. Say: "Believe in it or do not believe (in it). Verily, those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their chins (faces) in humble prostration.'') (108. And they say: "Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.'') (109. And they fall down on their chins (faces) weeping and it increases their humility.)
Allah says to His Prophet Muhammad:
(Say) O Muhammad to these disbelievers concerning what you have brought to them of this Glorious Qur'an:
("Believe in it (the Qur'an) or do not believe (in it).) meaning, it is all the same whether you believe in it or not, for it is true in and of itself. It was revealed by Allah, Who mentioned it previously in the Books that He revealed to other Messengers. Hence He says:
(Verily, those who were given knowledge before it,) meaning righteous people among the People of the Book, who adhered to their Books and appreciated them without distorting them.
(when it is recited to them,) means, when this Qur'an is recited to them,
(fall down on their chins (faces) in humble prostration. ) means, to Allah, in gratitude for the blessing He has bestowed on them by considering them fit to live until they met this Messenger to whom this Book was revealed. Hence they say:
(Glory be to our Lord!), meaning, they extol and glorify their Lord for His perfect power and for not delaying the fulfillment of the promise which He made through His earlier Prophets, that He would send Muhammad. Hence they said:
(Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.)
(And they fall down on their chins (faces) weeping) means, in submission to Allah, may He be glorified, and in expression of their belief and faith in His Book and His Messenger.
(and it increases their humility.) means, it increases them in faith and submission. As Allah says:
(While as for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance and bestows on them their Taqwa.) (47:17).
(And they fall down) is a description rather than an action (i.e., this is a further description of their humility as referred to in Ayah 107; it does not imply that they prostrate twice).
(110. Say: "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names. And offer your Salah (prayer) neither aloud nor in a low voice, but follow a way between.) (111. And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son, and Who has no partner in (His) dominion, nor is He low to have a supporter. And magnify Him with all magnificence.'')
(Say) O Muhammad, to these idolaters who deny that Allah possesses the attribute of mercy and refuse to call Him Ar-Rahman,
("Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names.) meaning, there is no difference between calling on Him as Allah or calling on Him as Ar-Rahman, because He has the Most Beautiful Names, as He says:
(He is Allah, beside Whom none has the right to be worshipped but He the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) (59:22) Until His saying;
(To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him.) (59:24) Makhul reported that one of the idolaters heard the Prophet saying when he was prostrating: "O Most Gracious, O Most Merciful.'' The idolater said, he claims to pray to One, but he is praying to two! Then Allah revealed this Ayah. This was also narrated from Ibn `Abbas, and by Ibn Jarir.
(And offer your Salah neither aloud) Imam Ahmad reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "This Ayah was revealed when the Messenger of Allah was preaching underground in Makkah.''
(And offer your Salah neither aloud nor in a low voice,) Ibn `Abbas said: "When he prayed with his Companions, he would recite Qur'an loudly, and when the idolaters heard that, they insulted the Qur'an, and the One Who had revealed it and the one who had brought it. So Allah said to His Prophet:
(And offer your Salah (prayer) neither aloud) means, do not recite it aloud, lest the idolaters hear you and insult the Qur'an,
(nor in a low voice,) means, nor recite it so quietly that your companions cannot hear the Qur'an and learn it from you.
(but follow a way between.)'' This was also reported in the Two Sahihs. Ad-Dahhak also narrated something similar from Ibn `Abbas, and added: "When he migrated to Al-Madinah, this no longer applied, and he recited as he wished.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Ibn `Abbas said, "When the Messenger of Allah recited Qur'an quietly while he was praying, the (idolaters) would disperse and refuse to listen to him; if one of them wanted to hear some of what he was reciting in his prayer, he would try to listen without anyone seeing him, because he was afraid of them. If he realized that anybody knew he was listening, he would go away lest they harm him, so he would stop listening. If the Prophet lowered his voice, those who wanted to listen to his recitation could not hear anything, so Allah revealed,
(And offer your Salah neither aloud) meaning, do not recite aloud, lest those who want to listen disperse for fear of attracting unwelcome attention,
(nor in a low voice,) but do not make your voice so soft that the one who is trying to listen without being seen cannot hear anything at all. Perhaps he will pay attention to some of what he hears and benefit from it.
(but follow a way between. )'' This was the view of `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Qatadah that this Ayah was revealed concerning recitation in prayer. It was narrated from Ibn Mas`ud: "Do not make it so soft that no one can hear it except yourself.''
(And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son...'') because Allah has stated that the Most Beautiful Names belong to Him, and has declared Himself to be above having any faults or defects.
(And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son, and Who has no partner in (His) dominion...'') indeed, He is Allah, (the) One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who begets not, nor was He begotten, and there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.
(nor He is low to have a supporter.) means, He is not so humble or weak that He needs to have a helper or supporter or adviser, rather He Alone, with no partner or associate, may He be exalted, is the Creator of all things and is the One Who is running and controlling them by His will, with no partner or associate.
(nor He is low to have a supporter).) Mujahid said: He does not form an alliance with anyone, nor does He seek the support or help of anyone.
(And magnify Him with all magnificence.) means, glorify and extol Him far above whatever the transgressors and aggressors say. Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Qurazi used to say about this Ayah,
(And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son...'') that the Jews and Christians said that Allah has taken a son; the Arabs said, "At Your service, You have no partner except the partner You have, and You possess him and whatever he owns;'' and the Sabians and Magians said, "If it were not for the supporters of Allah, He would be weak.'' Then Allah revealed this Ayah:
(And say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has not begotten a son, and Who has no partner in (His) dominion, nor is He low to have a supporter. And magnify Him with all magnificence.'') End of Tafsir Surah Subhan (Surat Al-Isra'). And to Allah be the praise and blessings.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Bara' said: "A man recited Al-Kahf and there was an animal in the house which began acting in a nervous manner. He looked, and saw a fog or cloud overhead. He mentioned this to the Prophet , who said:
(Keep on reciting so and so, for this is the tranquility which descends when one reads Qur'an or because of reading Qur'an;) This was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. This man who recited it was Usayd bin Al-Hudayr, as we have previously mentioned in our Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Ad-Darda' that the Prophet said:
(Whoever memorizes ten Ayat from the beginning of Surat Al-Kahf will be protected from the Dajjal.) This was also recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i and At-Tirmidhi. According to the version recorded by At-Tirmidhi,
(Whoever memorizes three Ayat from the beginning of Al-Kahf.) He said, it is "Hasan Sahih. '' In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded from Abu Sa`id that the Prophet said:
(Whoever recites Surat Al-Kahf on Friday, it will illuminate him with light from one Friday to the next.) Then he said: "This Hadith has a Sahih chain, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi also recorded it in his Sunan from Al-Hakim, then he narrated with his own chain that the Prophet said:
(Whoever recites Surat Al-Kahf as it was revealed, it will be a light for him on the Day of Resurrection.)
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. All praise is due to Allah, Who has sent down to His servant the Book, and has not placed therein any crookedness.) (2. (He has made it) straight to give warning of a severe punishment from Him, and to give good news to the believers, who do righteous deeds, that they shall have a fair reward.) (3. They shall abide therein forever.) (4. And to warn those who say, "Allah has begotten a child.'') (5. No knowledge have they of such a thing, nor had their fathers. Mighty is the word that comes out of their mouths. They utter nothing but a lie.)