When Allah mentions the state of those who are doomed, He follows that by mentioning the blessed who believed in Allah and believed what His Messengers brought, those who did the righteous deeds that they commanded them to do. They will have Jannatu `Adn. `Adn means lasting.
(wherein rivers flow beneath them,) means, from beneath its rooms and dwellings. Fir`awn said:
(and these rivers flowing beneath me...) (43:51)
(they will be adorned) means, with jewelry.
(with bracelets of gold,) Allah says elsewhere:
(and pearls and their garments therein will be of silk) (22:23). This is explained in more detail here, where Allah says:
(and they will wear green garments of Sundus and Istabraq.) Sundus refers to a fine garment, like a shirt and the like, and Istabraq is thick and shiny velvet.
(They will be Muttaki'in therein on Ara'ik.) The word Muttaki'in implies lying down, or it was said that it means sitting with one's legs crossed, which is closer to the meaning here. In a Sahih Hadith, the Prophet said:
(As for me, I do not eat sitting with legs crossed (Muttaki'an)). Ara'ik is the plural of Arikah, which is a bed under a canopy. And Allah knows best.
(How good is the reward, and what an excellent place of rest (Murtafaq)!) means, how blessed is Paradise as a reward for their good deeds. And what an excellent Murtafaq means, and how good a place to dwell and rest and stay. Previously, Allah had said of Hell,
(Terrible is the drink, and an evil place of rest (Murtafaq)!) (18:29). In a similar way, He contrasts the two (Paradise and Hell) in Surat Al-Furqan, where He says:
(Evil indeed it (Hell) is as an abode, and as a place to rest in.) (25:66). Then He mentions the qualities of the believers, then says:
(Those will be rewarded with the highest place because of their patience. Therein they shall be met with greetings and the word of peace and respect. Abiding therein excellent it is as an abode, and as a place to rest in.) (25:75-76)
(32. And put forward to them the example of two men: unto one of them We had given two gardens of grapes, and We had surrounded both with date palms; and had put between them green crops (cultivated fields).) (33. Each of those two gardens brought forth its produce, and failed not in the least therein, and We caused a river to gush forth in the midst of both.) (34. And he had Thamar, and he said to his companion in the course of discussion: "I am greater than you in wealth and have a mightier entourage.'') (35. And he went into his garden while having been unjust to himself. He said: "I do not think that this will ever perish.'') (36. "And I do not think the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, I surely, shall find better than this when I return to Him.'')
After mentioning the idolaters who were too arrogant to sit with the poor and weak among Muslims, showing off before them with their wealth and noble lineage, Allah then gives a parable for them of two men, one of whom Allah gave two gardens of grapes, surrounded with palm trees and cultivated with crops throughout. All of the trees and plants were abundantly fruitful, providing readily accessible, good quality produce. Allah says:
(Each of those two gardens brought forth its produce,) meaning, produced its fruits,
(and failed not in the least therein,) meaning, nothing at all was diminishing.
(and We caused a river to gush forth in the midst of both.) means, rivers were flowing through them here and there.
(And he had Thamar,) It was said that what was meant here was wealth, and it was said that what was meant were fruits, which is the more apparent meaning here. This is also supported by the alternative recitation, Thumr, which is the plural of Thamrah (fruit) just as Khushb is the plural of Khashab (wood). Others recite it as Thamar.
(and he said) the owner of the two gardens
(to his companion in the course of discussion) means, while he was disputing with him and boasting to him and showing off,
(I am greater than you in wealth and have a mightier entourage.) meaning, `I have more servants, attendants and children.' Qatadah said, "This, by Allah, is the wish of the immoral to have a lot of wealth and a large entourage.
(And he went into his garden having been unjust to himself.) meaning, in his disbelief, rebellion, arrogance and denial of the Hereafter.
(He said: "I do not think this will ever perish.'') Thus he was allowing himself to be deceived because of the plants, fruits and trees that he saw, and the rivers flowing through the different parts of his gardens. He thought that it could never come to an end or cease or be destroyed. This was because of his lack of understanding and the weakness of his faith in Allah, and because he was enamored with this world and its adornments, and because he disbelieved in the Hereafter. So he said:
("And I do not think the Hour will ever come...'') meaning, will ever happen
(and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, I surely shall find better than this when I return to Him.) meaning, `if there is a Hereafter and a return to Allah, then I will have a better share than this with my Lord, for if it were not that I am dear to Him, He would not have given me all this.' As Allah says elsewhere:
(But if I am brought back to my Lord, surely there will be for me the best with Him.) )41:50(
(Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: "I shall certainly be given wealth and children (if I will be alive again).'')(19:77) He took it for granted that Allah would give him this, without any sound evidence for that. The reason why this Ayah was revealed was because of Al-`As bin Wa'il, as we will explain in the appropriate place, if Allah wills. In Allah we put our trust.
(37. His companion said to him during his discussion: "Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out of dust, then out of Nutfah, then fashioned you into a man'') (38. "But as for my part, (I believe) that He is Allah, my Lord, and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord.'') (39. "It was better for you to say, when you entered your garden: `That which Allah wills! There is no power but with Allah!' If you see me less than you in wealth, and children,'') (40. "It may be that my Lord will give me something better than your garden, and will send on it Husban from the sky, then it will be as a barren slippery earth.'') (41. "Or the water thereof becomes Ghawran so that you will never be able to seek it.'')
Allah tells us how the rich man's believing companion replied to him, warning and rebuking him for his disbelief in Allah and allowing himself to be deceived.
(Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you out of dust...) This is a denunciation, pointing out the seriousness of his rejection of his Lord Who created and formed man out of dust -- that is, referring to Adam -- then made his offspring from despised liquid, as Allah says:
(How can you disbelieve in Allah Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life) (2:28) meaning, how can you reject your Lord and His clear signs to you, which every one recognizes in himself, for there is no one among His creatures who does not know that he was nothing, then he came to be, and his existence is not due to himself or any other creature. He knows that his existence is due to his Creator, beside Whom there is no other god, the Creator of all things. So the believer said:
(But as for my part, (I believe) that He is Allah, my Lord,) meaning, `I do not say what you say; rather I acknowledge the Oneness and Lordship of Allah,'
(and none shall I associate as partner with my Lord. ) meaning, He is Allah, the One Who is to be worshipped Alone, with no partner or associate. Then he said:
(It was better for you to say, when you entered your garden, `That which Allah wills! There is no power but with Allah!' If you see me less than you in wealth, and children.) Here he was urging and encouraging him to say that, as if he was saying, "When you entered your garden and looked at it and liked it, why wouldn’t you praise Allah for the blessings He gave you and the wealth and children that He has given to you and not to others Why did you not say `That which Allah wills! There is no power but with Allah!''' One of the Salaf said, "Whoever is delighted with something in his circumstances or his wealth or his children, let him say, `That which Allah wills! There is no power but with Allah!''' This is based on this Ayah. It was reported in the Sahih from Abu Musa that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Shall I not tell you about some of the treasure of Paradise La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (There is no power or might but with Allah).)
(It may be that my Lord will give me something better than your garden,) in the Hereafter
(and will send on it) on your garden in this world, which you think will never come to an end or cease to be,
(Husban from the sky,) Ibn `Abbas, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said -- and Malik narrated that Az-Zuhri said -- a punishment from heaven. The apparent meaning is that it is a mighty rain which would disrupt his garden and uproot its plants and trees. As he said:
(then it will be as a barren slippery earth.) meaning, smooth mud in which one cannot get a foothold. Ibn `Abbas said, "Like land without vegetation, where nothing grows.''
(Or the water thereof becomes Ghawran) means, it disappears into the earth, which is the opposite of flowing water that seeks the surface of the earth. So Gha'ir is to go lower. as Allah says:
(Say: "Tell me! If your water were Ghawran, who then can supply you with flowing water'') )67: 30( meaning, water that flows in all directions. And here Allah says:
(Or the water thereof (of the gardens) becomes deep-sunken (underground) so that you will never be able to seek it.) Ghawr is from the same root as Gha'ir and has a similar meaning, but is more intensive.
(42. So his fruits were encircled (with ruin). And began Yuqallibu his hands over what he had spent upon it, while it was all destroyed on its trellises, and he could only say: "Would that I had ascribed no partners to my Lord!") (43. And he had no group of men to help him against Allah, nor could he defend (or save) himself.) (44. There (on the Day of Resurrection), Al-Walayah will be for Allah (Alone), the True God. He (Allah) is the best for reward and the best for the final end.)
(So his fruits were encircled), meaning his wealth, or according to the other opinion, his crops. What is meant is that what this disbeliever was afraid of and what the believer had terrified him actually had happened. A storm struck his garden, a garden which he had erroneously thought would last forever, distracting him from thoughts of Allah, may He be glorified.
(And he began Yuqallibu his hands over what he had spent upon it,) Qatadah said: "He was clasping his hands together in a gesture of regret and grief for the wealth he had lost.''
(and he could only say: "Would that I had ascribed no partners to my Lord!" And he had no group of men) meaning a clan or children, as he had vainly boasted,
(to help him against Allah, nor could he defend himself. There, Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) Here there are differences in recitation. Some of the reciters pause at the word there,
(nor could he defend himself there. ), i.e., at that time, when Allah sends the punishment upon him, there will be no one to save him. Then they start the next phrase with Al-Walayah;
(Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) Some of them pause at the phrase
(nor could he defend himself) and start the next phrase;
(There, Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) There is a further difference in the recitation of the word Al-Walayah. Some read it as Al-Walayah, which gives the meaning that all allegiance will be to Allah, i.e., on that Day everyone, believer or disbeliever, will return to Allah, for allegiance and submission to Him when the punishment comes to pass. This is like the Ayah:
(So when they saw Our punishment, they said: "We believe in Allah Alone and reject (all) that we used to associate with Him as partners.'') (40:84) and Allah says concerning the Fir`awn;
(Till when drowning overtook him, he said: "I believe that none has the right to be worshipped but He in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims.'' Now! While you refused to believe before and you were one of the mischief-makers.) )10:90-91( Some others read it as Al-Wilayah, meaning that on that Day the rule will belong to Allah, the True God. Some read Haqqu (True) referring to Al-Wilayah, as in the Ayah;
(The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty), belonging to the Most Gracious (Allah), and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers) (25:26). Others it read Haqqi referring to Allah, may He be glorified, as in the Ayah:
(Then they are returned to Allah, their True Protector.) (6:62) So Allah says:
(He (Allah) is the best to reward and the best for the final end.) for deeds that were done for the sake of Allah, their reward is good and their consequences are all good.
(45. And mention the parable of the worldly life: it is like the water which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And Allah is able to do everything.) (46. Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world. But the good righteous deeds that last, are better with your Lord for reward and better for hope.)