(So his fruits were encircled), meaning his wealth, or according to the other opinion, his crops. What is meant is that what this disbeliever was afraid of and what the believer had terrified him actually had happened. A storm struck his garden, a garden which he had erroneously thought would last forever, distracting him from thoughts of Allah, may He be glorified.
(And he began Yuqallibu his hands over what he had spent upon it,) Qatadah said: "He was clasping his hands together in a gesture of regret and grief for the wealth he had lost.''
(and he could only say: "Would that I had ascribed no partners to my Lord!" And he had no group of men) meaning a clan or children, as he had vainly boasted,
(to help him against Allah, nor could he defend himself. There, Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) Here there are differences in recitation. Some of the reciters pause at the word there,
(nor could he defend himself there. ), i.e., at that time, when Allah sends the punishment upon him, there will be no one to save him. Then they start the next phrase with Al-Walayah;
(Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) Some of them pause at the phrase
(nor could he defend himself) and start the next phrase;
(There, Al-Walayah will be for Allah, the True God.) There is a further difference in the recitation of the word Al-Walayah. Some read it as Al-Walayah, which gives the meaning that all allegiance will be to Allah, i.e., on that Day everyone, believer or disbeliever, will return to Allah, for allegiance and submission to Him when the punishment comes to pass. This is like the Ayah:
(So when they saw Our punishment, they said: "We believe in Allah Alone and reject (all) that we used to associate with Him as partners.'') (40:84) and Allah says concerning the Fir`awn;
(Till when drowning overtook him, he said: "I believe that none has the right to be worshipped but He in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims.'' Now! While you refused to believe before and you were one of the mischief-makers.) )10:90-91( Some others read it as Al-Wilayah, meaning that on that Day the rule will belong to Allah, the True God. Some read Haqqu (True) referring to Al-Wilayah, as in the Ayah;
(The sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty), belonging to the Most Gracious (Allah), and it will be a hard Day for the disbelievers) (25:26). Others it read Haqqi referring to Allah, may He be glorified, as in the Ayah:
(Then they are returned to Allah, their True Protector.) (6:62) So Allah says:
(He (Allah) is the best to reward and the best for the final end.) for deeds that were done for the sake of Allah, their reward is good and their consequences are all good.
(45. And mention the parable of the worldly life: it is like the water which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And Allah is able to do everything.) (46. Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world. But the good righteous deeds that last, are better with your Lord for reward and better for hope.)
(And mention) O Muhammad, to the people,
(the parable of the worldly life), its transient nature and how it will eventually cease and come to an end.
(it is like the water which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it,) It mingles with the seeds that are in the earth, so they grow and become good, producing bright, fresh flowers, then after that,
(it becomes dry and broken pieces,) withered up,
(which the winds scatter.) tossing them about right and left.
(And Allah is able to do everything) He has the power to do this and that. In the Qur'an Allah often gives parables like this of the life of this world, as He says in Surah Yunus,
(The parable of the worldly life is but that of water which We send down from the sky so by it arises the intermingled produce of the earth of which men and cattle eat...) (10:24) and in Surat Az-Zumar:
s(See you not that Allah sends down water from the sky, and causes it to penetrate the earth, then out from it comes crops of different colors.) (39:21) and in Surat Al-Hadid:
(Know that the life of this world is only play and amusement, pomp and mutual boasting among you, and rivalry in respect of wealth and children. (It is) like the parable of vegetation after rain, thereof the growth is pleasing to the tiller...) (57:20) and in the Sahih Hadith:
(This world is sweet and green.)
(Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world.) This is like the Ayah:
(Beautified for men is the love of things they covet; women, children, vaulted hoards of gold...) )3:14(. Allah says:
(Your wealth and your children are only a trial, whereas Allah! With Him is a great reward (Paradise).) (64:15) turning towards Allah and worshipping Him is better for you than keeping busy with them, and accumulating wealth for them and going to extremes in feeling pity and compassion for them. Allah says:
(But the good righteous deeds that last, are better with your Lord for reward and better for hope.) Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr and others among the Salaf said that the good righteous deeds that last are the five daily prayers. `Ata' bin Abi Rabah and Sa`id bin Jubayr narrated from Ibn `Abbas, "The good righteous deeds that last are `Subhan Allah (glory be to Allah)', `Al-Hamdu Lillah (praise be to Allah)', `La ilaha illallah (there is none worthy of worship except Allah)', and `Allahu Akbar (Allah is Most Great).'" The Commander of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan was questioned, "Which are the good righteous deeds that last'' He replied, "They are: `La ilaha illallah, Subhan Allah, Al-Hamdu Lillah, Allahu Akbar and La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah hil-`Aliyil-`Azim (there is no strength and no power except with Allah the Exalted, the Almighty).''' This was recorded by Imam Ahmad. Imam Ahmad also recorded from a freed slave of the Messenger of Allah that he said:
(Well done! Well done for five things! (How heavy they will weigh in the balance! "La ilaha illallah, Allahu Akbar, Subhan Allah, and Al-Hamdu Lillah,'' and a righteous son who dies and his parents seek the reward of Allah.) And he said: (Well done! Well done for five things! Whoever meets Allah believing in them, he will enter Paradise; if he believes in Allah, the Last Day, Paradise and Hell, resurrection after death, and the Reckoning).
(the good righteous deeds that last, ) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This is the celebration of the remembrance of Allah, saying `La ilaha illallah, Allahu Akbar, Subhan Allah, Al-Hamdu Lillah, Tabarak Allah, La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah, Astaghfirallah, Sallallahu `ala Rasul-Allah', and fasting, prayer, Hajj, Sadaqah (charity), freeing slaves, Jihad, maintaining ties of kinship, and all other good deeds. These are the righteous good deeds that last, which will remain in Paradise for those who do them for as long as heaven and earth remain.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas: "They are good words.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, "They are all righteous deeds.'' This was also the view chosen by Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him.
(47. And (remember) the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and We shall gather them so that We will leave not one of them behind. ) (48. And they will be set before your Lord, aligned. (He will say:) "Now indeed, you have come to Us as We created you the first time. Nay, but you thought that We had appointed no meeting for you (with Us).'') (49. And the Book will be produced, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein. They will say: "Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a large thing, but has recorded it with numbers!'' And they will find all that they did, present, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.)
Allah tells us of the terrors of the Day of Resurrection, and the awesome things that will come to pass, as He says elsewhere:
(On the Day when the heaven will shake with a dreadful shaking, And the mountains pass moving away.) (52:9-10) meaning, they will move from their places and will vanish. As Allah says:
(And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds.) (27:88)
(And the mountains will be like carded wool.) (101:5)
(And they ask you about the mountains, say: "My Lord will pulverize them scattering )their dust(. To leave them as a barren plain. You will not see in it crookedness or curve.) )20:105-107( Allah tells us that He will cause the mountains to vanish and be leveled, and the earth will be left as a smooth plain, a level surface with nothing crooked or curved therein, no valleys or mountains. So Allah says:
(and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, ) meaning clear and open, with no features that anyone may recognize and nothing for anyone to hide behind. All creatures will be visible to their Lord, and not one of them will be hidden from Him. Mujahid and Qatadah said,
(and you will see the earth as a leveled plain,) "No one will be hidden or absent.'' Qatadah said, "There will be no buildings and no trees.''
(and we shall gather them, so that We will not leave one of them behind.) means, `We shall gather them all, the first of them and the last of them, and We shall not leave anyone behind, young or old.' As Allah says:
(Say: "(yes) verily, those of old, and those of later times. All will surely be gathered together for an appointed meeting of a known Day.) (56:49, 50)
(That is a Day whereon mankind will be gathered together, and that is a Day when all will be present) )11:103).
(And they will be set before your Lord, aligned.) This may mean that all of creation will stand before Allah in one row, as Allah says:
(The Day that Ar-Ruh (Jibril) and the angels will stand aligned, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious (Allah) allows, and he will speak what is right) (78:38(; or it may mean that they will stand in rows, as Allah says:
(And your Lord comes with the angels in rows.) (89:22)
(Now indeed, you have come to Us as We created you the first time.) This is a rebuke to those who denied the Hereafter, a reprimand before all creation. This is why Allah says to them:
(Nay, but you thought that We had appointed no meeting for you (with Us).), meaning, you did not think that this would happen to you or that it would come to pass.
(And the Book will be produced,) the Book of deeds, which contains a record of everything, major or minor, significant or insignificant, great or small.
(and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein.) of their evil deeds and reprehensible actions.
(They will say, "Woe to us!'') expressing words of regret for having wasted their lives.
(What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a large thing, but has recorded it with numbers!) it has left no sin, major or minor, and no action, no matter how small, but it has recorded it with the utmost precision and accuracy.
(And they will find all that they did, present,) everything, both good and evil, as Allah says,
(On the Day when every person will be confronted with all the good he has done))3:30(. Allah says:
(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) )75:13( And Allah says:
(The Day when all the secrets will be exposed. ) )86:9) meaning, everything that is hidden in people's hearts will become known. Imam Ahmad recorded from Anas that the Prophet said,
(Every traitor will have a banner on the Day of Resurrection, by which he will be known.) It was also narrated in the Two Sahihs, where one narration says,
(On the Day of Resurrection, for every traitor a banner will be erected by his backside, and it will be said, "This is the betrayer of so-and-so the son of so-and-so.'')
(and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) means, He will judge between His creatures for all of their deeds, and He will not treat any of His creatures with injustice. He will overlook and forgive and have mercy, and He will punish whomever He wills by His power, wisdom and justice. He will fill Hell with the disbelievers and those who have been disobedient. Then He will rescue the disobedient, and leave the disbelievers there for eternity. He is the Judge Who never wrongs or oppresses. Allah says:
(Surely, Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good, He doubles it.) (4:40)
(And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything.) Until His saying;
(to take account) (21:47) And there are many similar Ayat. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Muhammad bin `Aqil heard Jabir bin `Abdullah say, "I was told about a Hadith which a man heard from the Prophet , so I bought a camel and put my saddle on it, then I traveled on it for a month until I came to Ash-Sham, where `Abdullah bin Unays was. I said to the doorkeeper, `Tell him that Jabir is at the door.' He said, `Jabir bin `Abdullah' I said, `Yes.' So he came out, still putting his garment on, and embraced me, and I embraced him, and said: `I heard a Hadith narrated by you, that you heard from the Messenger of Allah about reciprocal punishments. I was afraid that you or I would die before I could hear it.' He said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(Allah will gather the people -- or His servants -- on the Day of Resurrection, naked, uncircumcised and Buhman.) I asked, `What is Buhman' He said,
(They will have nothing with them. Then a voice will call out to them that will be heard by those far away just as easily as it will be heard by those near: "I am the Sovereign, I am the Judge. None of the people of Hell should enter Hell if he is owed something by one of the people of Paradise, until I have settled the matter, and none of the people of Paradise should enter Paradise if he is owed something by one of the people of Hell, until I settle the matter -- even if it is only the case of a slap.'') We said, `How will that be, when we have come before Allah barefooted, naked, uncircumcised and having nothing with us' He said,
(By )merit for( good deeds, and )recompense) for evil deeds.) Shu`bah narrated from Al-`Awwam bin Muzahim from Abu `Uthman from `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The animal who lost a horn will settle the score with the one that has horns on the Day of Resurrection.) It was recorded by `Abdullah the son of Imam Ahmad, and there are corroborating narrations through other routes.
(50. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves unto Adam.'' So they prostrated themselves, except Iblis. He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord. Will you then take him and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.)
Allah points out to the Children of Adam the enmity of Iblis towards them and their father before them, and rebukes those who follow him and go against their Creator and Master. It is He who created them from nothing and sustains and nourishes them by His kindness, yet they still took Iblis as their friend and declared their enmity towards Allah. So Allah says:
(And (remember) when We said to the angels), meaning all the angels, as was mentioned in the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah.
(Prostrate yourselves unto Adam) a prostration of respect and honour, as Allah says:
(And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels, "I am going to create a human (Adam) from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him the soul which I created for him, then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him.) (15:28-29)
(So they prostrated themselves except Iblis. He was one of the Jinn;) meaning, his original nature betrayed him. He had been created from smokeless fire, whereas the angels had been created from light, as is stated in Sahih Muslim where it is reported that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The angels were created from light, Iblis was created from smokeless fire, and Adam was created from that which has been described to you.) When matters are crucial, every vessel leaks that which it contains and is betrayed by its true nature. Iblis used to do what the angels did and resembled them in their devotion and worship, so he was included when they were addressed, but he disobeyed and went against what he was told to do. So Allah points out here that he was one of the Jinn, i.e., he was created from fire, as He says elsewhere:
(I am better than he. You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.) (38:76) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "Iblis was not one of the angels, not even for a second. He was the origin of the Jinn just as Adam, upon him be peace, was the origin of mankind.'' This was narrated by Ibn Jarir with a Sahih chain.
(he disobeyed the command of his Lord. ) meaning by stepping beyond the bounds of obedience to Allah. Fisq (disobeying) implies going out or stepping beyond. When the date emerges from its flower, the verb used in Arabic is Fasaqat; the same verb is used to describe a mouse coming out of its hole when it comes out to do damage. Then Allah says, rebuking those who follow and obey Iblis:
(Will you then take him and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me) meaning, instead of Me. This is why Allah says:
(What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.) This is like the Ayah in Surah Ya Sin where, after mentioning the Resurrection and its terrors, and the ultimate end of the blessed and the doomed, Allah then says:
((It will be said): "And O you the criminals! Get you apart this Day (from the believers).) until;
(Did you not then understand))36:59-62(
(51. They did not witness the creation of the heavens and the earth nor their own creation, nor did I take those who mislead as `Adudan.)
Allah says: `These whom you take as helpers instead of Me are creatures just like you. They do not possess anything and did not witness the creation of heaven and earth, because they did not exist at that time.' Allah says, `I am the One Who independently and exclusively creates and controls all things, and I have no partner, associate or advisor in that.' As Allah says:
(Say: "Call upon those you claim besides Allah, they possess not even a speck of dust in the heavens or on the earth, nor have they any share in either, nor is there for Him any assistant among them. Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) )34:22-23) Similarly Allah says here:
(nor did I take those who mislead as `Adudan.) Malik said: "Assistants.''
(52. And (remember) the Day He will say: "Call those (so-called) partners of Mine whom you claimed.'' Then they will cry unto them, but they will not answer them, and We shall put Mawbiq between them.) (53. And the criminals shall see the Fire and apprehend that they are to fall therein. And they will find no way of escape from it.)