After Allah mentioned the rulings for fasting and Jihad, he explained the rituals by commanding the Muslims to complete Hajj and `Umrah, meaning, to finish the rituals of Hajj and `Umrah after one starts them. This is why Allah said afterwards:
(But if you are prevented) meaning, if your way to the House is obstructed, and you are prevented from finishing it. This is why the scholars agree that starting the acts of Hajj and `Umrah requires one to finish them. As for Makhul, he said, "Complete, means to start them from the Miqat (areas the Prophet designated to assume Ihram from).'' `Abdur-Razzaq said that Az-Zuhri said: "We were told that `Umar commented on:
(And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah.) "Complete Hajj and `Umrah means performing each of them separately, and to perform `Umrah outside of the months of Hajj, for Allah the Exalted says:
(The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months. )''
(And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah.) means, "Maintain the performance of Hajj and `Umrah.'' Ibn `Abbas was reported to have said, "Hajj is `Arafat, while `Umrah is Tawaf.'' Al-A`mash related that Ibrahim said that `Alqamah commented on Allah's statement:
(And complete Hajj and `Umrah for Allah.) "Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) recited it this way: `Complete Hajj and `Umrah to the House, so that one does not exceed the area of the House during the `Umrah'.'' Ibrahim then said, "I mentioned this statement to Sa`id bin Jubayr and he said; `Ibn `Abbas also said that.''' Sufyan reported that Ibrahim said that `Alqamah said (regarding the Ayah 2:196), "Perform the Hajj and `Umrah to the House.'' Ath-Thawri reported that Ibrahim read (the Ayah), "Perform the Hajj and `Umrah to the House.''
(But if you are prevented, sacrifice a Hady (animals for sacrifice) such as you can afford,) was revealed in the sixth year of Hijrah, the year of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah when the polytheists prevented Allah's Messenger from reaching the House. Allah revealed Surat Al-Fath (chapter 48 in the Qur'an) then, and allowed the Muslims to slaughter any Hady (animals for sacrifice) they had. They had seventy camels with them for that purpose. They were also permitted to shave their heads and end their Ihram. When the Prophet commanded them to shave their heads and end the state of Ihram, they did not obey him, as they were awaiting that order to be abrogated. When they saw that the Prophet went out after shaving his head, they imitated him. Some of them did not shave, but only shortened their hair. This is why the Prophet said:
(May Allah award His mercy to those who shaved.)
They said, "What about those who shortened the hair'' He said in the third time, "And to those who shortened.'' Every seven among them shared one camel for their sacrifice. They were one thousand and four hundred Companions and were camping in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, outside the Sacred Area. It was also reported that they were within the boundaries of the Sacred Area. Allah knows best.
Being prevented from the House (Hasr) includes more than just being sick, fearing an enemy or getting lost on the way to Makkah. Imam Ahmad reported that Al-Hajjaj bin `Amr Al-Ansari said that he heard Allah's Messenger saying:
(Whoever suffered a broken bone or a limb, will have ended his Ihram and has to perform Hajj again.) He said, "I mentioned that to Ibn `Abbas and Abu Hurayrah and they both said, `He (Al-Hajjaj) has said the truth'.'' This Hadith is also reported in the Four Collections. In the version of Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah, the Prophet said, "Whoever limped, had a broken bone or became ill...'' Ibn Abu Hatim also recorded it and said, "It was reported that Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn Az-Zubayr, `Alqamah, Sa`id bin Musayyib, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, Mujahid, An-Nakha`i, `Ata' and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that being prevented (Hasr) entails an enemy, an illness or a fracture.'' Ath-Thawri also said, "Being prevented entails everything that harms the person.''
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that `A'ishah said that Allah's Messenger went to Duba`ah bint Az-Zubayr bin `Abdul-Muttalib who said, "O Messenger of Allah! I intend to perform Hajj but I am ill.'' He said, "Perform Hajj and make the condition: `My place is where You prevent (or halt) me.'' Muslim recorded similarly from Ibn `Abbas. So saying such a condition for Hajj is allowed is based on this Hadith.
(...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford) includes a sheep also, as Imam Malik reported that `Ali bin Abu Talib used to say. Ibn `Abbas said, "The Hady includes eight types of animals: camels, cows, goats and sheep.'' `Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said about what Allah said:
(...sacrifice a Hady such as you can afford)
"As much as one could afford.'' Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, "If one can afford it, then camels, otherwise cows, or sheep.'' Hisham bin `Urwah quoted his father:
(...sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e., a sheep, a cow, or a camel) such as you can afford) `Depending on the price.'
The proof that sacrificing only a sheep is allowed in the case of being prevented from continuing the rites, is that Allah has required sacrificing whatever is available as a Hady, and the Hady is any type of cattle; be it camels, cows or sheep. This is the opinion of Ibn `Abbas the cousin of Allah's Messenger and the scholar of Tafsir. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that `A'ishah, the Mother of the believers, said, "The Prophet once offered some sheep as Hady.''
(...and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice.) is a continuation of His statement:
(And complete, the Hajj and `Umrah for Allah.) and is not dependent upon:
(But if you are prevented, then sacrifice a Hady) as Ibn Jarir has erroneously claimed. When the Prophet and his Companions were prevented from entering the Sacred House during the Al-Hudaybiyyah year by the polytheists from Quraysh, they shaved their heads and sacrificed their Hady outside the Haram (Sacred) area. In normal circumstances, and when one can safely reach the House, he is not allowed to shave his head until:
(.. .and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice.) and then he ends the rituals of Hajj or `Umrah, or both if he had assumed Ihram for both. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Hafsah said, "O Allah's Messenger! What is wrong with the people, they have finished their Ihram for `Umrah but you have not'' The Prophet said,
(I matted my hair and I have garlanded my Hady (animals for sacrifice), so I will not finish my Ihram till I offer the sacrifice.)
(And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment on his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah.)
Al-Bukhari reported that `Abdur-Rahman bin Asbahani said that he heard `Abdullah bin Ma`qil saying that he sat with Ka`b bin `Ujrah in the mosque of Kufah (in Iraq). He then asked him about the Fidyah of the fasting. Ka`b said, "This was revealed concerning my case especially, but it is also for you in general. I was carried to Allah's Messenger and the lice were falling in great numbers on my face. The Prophet said:
(I never thought that your ailment (or struggle) had reached to such an extent as I see. Can you afford a sheep (for sacrifice)' I replied in the negative.) He then said:
(Fast for three days or feed six poor persons, each with half a Sa` of food (1 Sa` = 3 kilograms approx.) and shave your head.)
So this is a general judgment derived from a specific case.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ka`b bin `Ujrah said, "Allah's Messenger came by while I was igniting the fire under a pot and while the lice were falling down my head or my eyelids. He said:
(Do these lice in your head bother you) I said, `Yes.' He said:
(Shave it, then fast three days, or feed six poor people, or sacrifice an animal.)
Ayyub (one of the narrators of the Hadith) commented, "I do not know which alternative was stated first.'' The wording of the Qur'an begins with the easiest then the more difficult options: "Pay a Fidyah of fasting (three days), feeding (six poor persons) or sacrificing (an animal).'' Meanwhile, the Prophet advised Ka`b with the more rewarding option first, that is, sacrificing a sheep, then feeding six poor persons, then fasting three days. Each Text is suitable in its place and context, all the thanks and praises are due to Allah.
(Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the `Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford,)
That is, when you are able to complete the rites, so whoever among you connects his `Umrah with Hajj having the same Ihram for both, or, first assuming Ihram for `Umrah, and then assuming Ihram for Hajj when finished the `Umrah, this is the more specific type of Tamattu` which is well-known among the discussion of the scholars whereas in general there are two types of Tamattu`, as the authentic Hadiths prove, since among the narrators are those who said, "Allah's Messenger performed Tamattu`, and others who said, "Qarin" but there is no difference between them over the Hady.
So Allah said,
(Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the `Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj (i.e., Hajj At-Tamattu` and Al-Qiran), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford,) means let him sacrifice whatever Hady is available to him, the least of which is a sheep. One is also allowed to sacrifice a cow because the Prophet slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives. Al-Awza`i reported that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger slaughtered cows on behalf of his wives when they were performing Tamattu`. This was reported by Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah.
This last Hadith proves that Tamattu` is legislated. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that `Imran bin Husayn said, "We performed Hajj At-Tamattu` in the lifetime of Allah's Messenger and then the Qur'an was revealed (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu`). Nothing was revealed to forbid it, nor did he (the Prophet) forbid it until he died. And somebody said what he wished (regarding Hajj At-Tamattu`) according to his own opinion.'' Al-Bukhari said that `Imran was talking about `Umar. It is reported in an authentic narration that `Umar used to discourage the people from performing Tamattu`. He used to say, "If we refer to Allah's Book, we should complete it,'' meaning:
(...whosoever performs the `Umrah (in the months of Hajj), before (performing) the Hajj, he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford,)
However `Umar did not say that Tamattu` is unlawful. He only prevented them so that the people would increase their trips to the House for Hajj (during the months of Hajj) and `Umrah (throughout the year), as he himself has stated.
(...but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all.)
This Ayah means: "Those who do not find a Hady, let them fast three days during the Hajj season.'' Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, "If one does not have a Hady, he should fast three days during Hajj, before `Arafah day. If the day of `Arafah was the third day, then his fast is complete. He should also fast seven days when he gets back home.'' Abu Ishaq reported from Wabarah from Ibn `Umar who said, "One fasts one day before the day of Tarwiyah, the day of Tarwiyah (eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah) and then `Arafah day (the ninth day of the month of Dhul-Hijjah).'' The same statement was reported by Ja`far bin Muhammad from his father from `Ali.
If one did not fast these three days or at least some of them before `Id day (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah), he is allowed to fast during the Tashriq days (11-12-13th day of Dhul-Hijjah). `A'ishah and Ibn `Umar said, "Fasting the days of Tashriq was only allowed for those who did not find the Hady,'' as Al-Bukhari has reported. Sufyan related that Ja`far bin Muhammad narrated that his father said that `Ali said, "Whoever did not fast the three days during the Hajj, should fast them during the days of Tashriq.'' This is also the position taken by `Ubayd bin `Umayr Al-Laythi, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, referring to the general meaning of Allah's statement:
(...fast three days during the Hajj...)
As for what Muslim reported that Qutaybah Al-Hudhali said that Allah's Messenger said:
(The days of Tashriq are days of eating and drinking and remembering Allah the Exalted.)
This narration is general in meaning while what `A'ishah and Ibn `Umar narrated is specific.
(...and seven days after his return.)
There are two opinions regarding the meaning of this Ayah. First, it means `when you return to the camping areas'. The second, upon going back home. `Abdur-Razzaq reported that Salim narrated that he heard Ibn `Umar saying:
"(...but if he cannot (afford it), he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return,) means when he goes back to his family. '' The same opinion was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, `Ata', `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Imam Az-Zuhri and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas.
Al-Bukhari reported that Salim bin `Abdullah narrated that Ibn `Umar said, "During the Farewell Hajj of Allah's Messenger , he performed Tamattu` with `Umrah and Hajj. He drove a Hady along with him from Dhul-Hulayfah. Allah's Messenger started by assuming Ihram for `Umrah, and then for Hajj. And the people, too, performed the `Umrah and Hajj along with the Prophet . Some of them brought the Hady and drove it along with them, while the others did not. So, when the Prophet arrived at Makkah, he said to the people:
(Whoever among you has driven the Hady, should not finish his Ihram till he completes his Hajj. And whoever among you has not (driven) the Hady with him, he should perform Tawaf of the Ka`bah and between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. Then, he should shave or cut his hair short and finish his Ihram, and should later assume Ihram for Hajj; ﴿but he must offer a Hady (sacrifice)﴾. And if anyone cannot afford a Hady, he should fast for three days during the Hajj and seven days when he returns home.)
He then mentioned the rest of the Hadith, which is reported in the Two Sahihs.
(...making ten days in all.) to emphasize the ruling we mentioned above. This method is common in the Arabic language, for they would say, `I have seen with my eyes, heard with my ears and written with my hand,' to emphasize such facts. Similarly, Allah said:
(...nor a bird that flies with its two wings) (6:38) and:
(...nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand) (29:48) and:
(And We appointed for Musa thirty nights and added (to the period) ten (more), and he completed the term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights.) (7:142)
It was also said that the meaning of "ten days in all'' emphasizes the order to fast for ten days, not less than that.
(This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).) This Ayah concerns the residents of the area of the Haram, for they do not perform Tamattu`. `Abdur-Razzaq reported that Tawus said, "Tamattu` is for the people, those whose families are not residing in the Haram area (Makkah), not for the residents of Makkah. Hence Allah's Statement:
(This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid Al-Haram (i.e., non-resident of Makkah).)
`Abdur-Razzaq then said, "I was also told that Ibn `Abbas said similar to Tawus.'' Allah said:
(...and fear Allah) meaning, in what He has commanded you and what He prohibited for you. He then said:
(...and know that Allah is severe in punishment) for those who defy His command and commit what He has prohibited.
(197. The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known months. So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, Allah knows it. And take provisions for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness). So fear Me, O men of understanding!)
(The Hajj is (in) the well-known months.)
This Ayah indicates that Ihram for Hajj only occurs during the months of Hajj. This was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Jabir, `Ata', Tawus and Mujahid. The proof for this is Allah's statement that Hajj occurs during known, specific months, which indicates that Hajj is not allowed before that, just as the prayer has a fixed time (before which one's prayer is not accepted).
Ash-Shafi`i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "No person should assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj, for Allah said:
(The Hajj is (in) the well-known months.)
Ibn Khuzaymah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "No Ihram for Hajj should be assumed, except during the months of Hajj, for among the Sunnah of Hajj is that one assume Ihram for it during the Hajj months. '' This is an authentic narration and the Companion's statement that such and such is among the Sunnah is considered as a Hadith of the Prophet, according to the majority of the scholars. This is especially the case when it is Ibn `Abbas who issued this statement, as he is the Tarjuman (translator, interpreter, explainer) of the Qur'an.
There is a Hadith about this subject too. Ibn Marduwyah related that Jabir narrated that the Prophet said:
(No one should assume Ihram for Hajj, but during the months of Hajj.)
The chain of narrators for this Hadith is reasonable. Ash-Shafi`i and Al-Bayhaqi recorded this Hadith from Ibn Jurayj who related that Abu Az-Zubayr said that he heard Jabir bin `Abdullah being asked, "Does one assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj'' He said, "No.'' This narration is more reliable than the narration that we mentioned from the Prophet . In short, this statement is the opinion of the Companion, supported by Ibn `Abbas' statement that it is a part of the Sunnah not to assume Ihram for Hajj before the months of the Hajj. Allah knows best.
(...the well-known months.)
Al-Bukhari said that Ibn `Umar said that these are Shawwal, Dhul-Qa`dah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. This narration for which Al-Bukhari did not mention the chain of narrators, was collected by a continuous chain of narrators that Ibn Jarir rendered authentic, leading to Ibn `Umar, who said:
(The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months.) "which are Shawwal, Dhul-Qa`dah and the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.'' Its chain is Sahih. Al-Hakim also recorded it in his Mustadrak, and he said, "It meets the criteria of the Two Shaykhs."
This statement is also reported from `Umar, `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, Ibn `Abbas, `Ata', Tawus, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Imam Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Makhul, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Muqatil bin Hayyan. This opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir who said, "It is a common practice to call two months and a part of the third month as `months'. This is similar to the Arab's saying, `I visited such and such person this year or this day.' He only visited him during a part of the year and a part of the day. Allah said:
(But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him.)
In this case, one will only be hastening for one and a half days.''
Allah then said:
(So whosoever intends (Farada) to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram),) meaning that one's assuming the Ihram requires a Hajj, for the person is required to complete the rituals of Hajj after assuming Ihram. Ibn Jarir said that Al-`Awfi said, "The scholars agree that (Farada) `intends' mentioned in the Ayah means it is a requirement and an obligation.'' `Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said:
(So whosoever intends to perform Hajj therein (by assuming Ihram),) refers to those who assume Ihram for Hajj and `Umrah''. `Ata' said, "'Intends', means, assumes the Ihram.'' Similar statements were attributed to Ibrahim, Ad-Dahhak and others.
(He should not have Rafath)
This Ayah means that those who assume the Ihram for Hajj or `Umrah are required to avoid the Rafath, meaning, sexual intercourse. Allah's statement here is similar to His statement:
(It is made lawful for you to have Rafath (sexual relations) with your wives on the night of the fast.) (2:187)
Whatever might lead to sexual intercourse, such as embracing, kissing and talking to women about similar subjects, is not allowed. Ibn Jarir reported that Nafi` narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "Rafath means sexual intercourse or mentioning this subject with the tongue, by either men or women.'' `Ata' bin Abu Rabah said that Rafath means sexual intercourse and foul speech. This is also the opinion of `Amr bin Dinar. `Ata' also said that they used to even prevent talking (or hinting) about this subject. Tawus said that Rafath includes one's saying, "When I end the Ihram I will have sex with you.'' This is also the same explanation offered by Abu Al-`Aliyah regarding Rafath. `Ali bin Abu Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "Rafath means having sex with the wife, kissing, fondling and saying foul words to her, and similar acts.'' Ibn `Abbas and Ibn `Umar said that Rafath means to have sex with women. This is also the opinion of Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Abu Al-`Aliyah who narrated it from `Ata' and Makhul, `Ata Al-Khurasani, `Ata' bin Yasar, `Atiyah, Ibrahim, Ar-Rabi`, Az-Zuhri, As-Suddi, Malik bin Anas, Muqatil bin Hayyan, `Abdul-Karim bin Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak, and others.
(...nor commit sin) Miqsam and several other scholars related that Ibn `Abbas said, "It is disobedience." This is also the opinion of `Ata,' Mujahid, Tawus, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Az-Zuhri, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, `Ata' bin Yasar, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Muqatil bin Hayyan.
Ibn Wahb reported that Nafi` narrated that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "Fusuq (or sin mentioned in the Ayah (2:197)) refers to committing what Allah has forbidden in the Sacred Area.''
Several others said that Fusuq means cursing others, they based this on the authentic Hadith:
(Cursing the Muslim is Fusuq, while fighting him is Kufr.)
`Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said Fusuq here means slaughtering animals for the idols, as Allah said:
(...or impious (Fisq) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah.) (6: 145)
Ad-Dahhak said that Fusuq is insulting one another with bad nicknames.
Those who said that the Fusuq means all types of disobedience are correct. Allah has also prohibited committing injustice during the months of Hajj in specific, although injustice is prohibited throughout the year. This is why Allah said:
(...of them four are sacred. That is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.) (9:36)
Allah said about the Sacred Area:
(...and whoever inclines to evil actions therein or to do wrong, him We shall cause to taste from a painful torment.) (22:25)
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah narrated that Allah's Messenger said:
(Whoever performed Hajj to this (Sacred) House and did not commit Rafath or Fusuq, will return sinless, just as the day his mother gave birth to him.)
(nor should there be Jidal during Hajj) meaning, disputes and arguments. Ibn Jarir related that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that what Allah said:
(...nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj.) means to argue with your companion (or fellow) until you make him angry. This is similar to the opinion that Miqsam and Ad-Dahhak related to Ibn `Abbas. This is also the same meaning reported from Abu Al-`Aliyah, `Ata', Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Jabir bin Zayd, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, Makhul, As-Suddi, Muqatil bin Hayyan, `Amr bin Dinar, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, `Ata bin Yasar, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri.
(And whatever good you do, Allah knows it.)
After Allah prohibited evil in deed and tongue, He encouraged righteous, good deeds, stating that He is knowledgeable of the good that they do, and He will reward them with the best awards on the Day of Resurrection.
Allah said next:
(And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).)
Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "The people of Yemen used to go to Hajj without taking enough supplies with them. They used to say, `We are those who have Tawakkul (reliance on Allah).' Allah revealed this Ayah:
(And take provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).)
Ibn Jarir and Ibn Marduwyah narrated that Ibn `Umar said, "When people assumed Ihram, they would throw away whatever provisions they had and would acquire other types of provisions. Allah revealed:
(And take a provisions (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).) Allah forbade them from this practice and required them to take flour and Sawiq (a type of food usually eaten with dates) with them.''
(...but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness).) When Allah required mankind to supply themselves with what sustains them for the journeys of this life, He directed them to the necessary provisions for the Hereafter: Taqwa. Allah said in another Ayah:
(...and as an adornment; and the raiment of Taqwa, that is better.) (7:26)
Allah mentioned the material covering and then He mentioned the spiritual covering, which includes humbleness, obedience and Taqwa. He also stated that the latter provision is better and more beneficial than the former.
(So fear Me, O men of understanding!) meaning: `Fear My torment, punishment, and affliction for those who defy Me and do not adhere to My commands, O people of reason and understanding.'
(198. There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading). Then when you leave `Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram. And remember Him (by invoking Allah for all good) as He has guided you, and verily you were before, of those who were astray).
Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "`Ukaz, Mijannah and Dhul-Majaz were trading posts during the time of Jahiliyyah. During that era, they did not like the idea of conducting business transactions during the Hajj season. Later, this Ayah was revealed:
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord.) during the Hajj season.''
Abu Dawud and others recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "They used to avoid conducting business transactions during the Hajj season, saying that these are the days of Dhikr. Allah revealed:
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading).)
This is also the explanation of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Mansur bin Al-Mu`tamir, Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others. Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Umaymah said that when Ibn `Umar was asked about conducting trade during the Hajj, he recited the Ayah:
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading). )
This Hadith is related to Ibn `Umar with a strong chain of narrators. This Hadith is also related to the Prophet , as Ahmad reported that Abu Umamah At-Taymi said, "I asked Ibn `Umar, `We buy (and sell during the Hajj), so do we still have a valid Hajj' He said, `Do you not perform Tawaf around the House, stand at `Arafat, throw the pebbles and shave your heads' I said, `Yes.' Ibn `Umar said, `A man came to the Prophet and asked him about what you asked me, and the Prophet did not answer him until Jibril came down with this Ayah:
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading).) The Prophet summoned the man and said: (You are pilgrims).'' Ibn Jarir narrated that Abu Salih said to `Umar, "`O Leader of the faithful! Did you conduct trade transactions during the Hajj'' He said, "Was their livelihood except during Hajj''
(Then when you leave `Arafat, remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram.)
`Arafat is the place where one stands during the Hajj and it is a pillar of the rituals of Hajj. Imam Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Ya`mar Ad-Diyli said that he heard Allah's Messenger saying:
(Hajj is `Arafat, (thrice). Hence, those who have stood at `Arafat before dawn will have performed (the rituals of the Hajj). The days of Mina are three, and there is no sin for those who move on after two days, or for those who stay.)
The time to stand on `Arafat starts from noon on the day of `Arafah until dawn the next day, which is the day of the Sacrifice (the tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah). The Prophet stood at `Arafat during the Farewell Hajj, after he had offered the Zuhr (noon) prayer, until sunset. He said, "Learn your rituals from me.'' In this Hadith (i. e., in the previous paragraph) he said, "Whoever stood at `Arafat before dawn, will have performed (the rituals of Hajj).'' `Urwah bin Mudarris bin Harithah bin Lam At-Ta'i said, "I came to Allah's Messenger at Al-Muzdalifah when it was time to pray. I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I came from the two mountains of Tayy', and my animal became tired and I became tired. I have not left any mountain, but stood on it. Do I have a valid Hajj' Allah's Messenger said:
(Whoever performed this prayer with us, stood with us until we moved forth, and had stood at `Arafat before that, day or night, will have performed the Hajj and completed its rituals).''
This Hadith was collected by Imam Ahmad and the compilers of the Sunan, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih. It was reported that the mount was called `Arafat because, as `Abdur-Razzaq reported that `Ali bin Abu Talib said, "Allah sent Jibril to Prophet Ibrahim and he performed Hajj for him (to teach him its rituals). When Ibrahim reached `Arafat he said, `I have `Araftu (I know this place).' He had come to that area before. Thereafter, it was called `Arafat.'' Ibn Al-Mubarak said that `Ata' said, "It was called `Arafat because Jibril used to teach Ibrahim the rituals of Hajj. Ibrahim would say, `I have `Araftu, I have `Araftu.' It was thereafter called `Arafat.'' Similar statements were attributed to Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar and Abu Mijlaz. Allah knows best.
`Arafat is also called Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, Al-Mash`ar Al-Aqsa and Ilal, while the mount that is in the middle of `Arafat is called Jabal Ar-Rahmah (Mount of Mercy).
Ibn Abu Hatim reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to stand at `Arafat. When the sun would be on top of the mountains, just as the turban is on top of a man's head, they would move on. Allah's Messenger delayed moving from `Arafat until sunset.'' Ibn Marduwyah related this Hadith and added, "He then stood at Al-Muzdalifah and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer at an early time. When the light of dawn broke, he moved on.'' This Hadith has a Hasan chain of narrators. The long Hadith that Jabir bin `Abdullah narrated, which Muslim collected, stated, "The Prophet kept standing there (meaning at `Arafat) until sunset, when the yellow light had somewhat gone and the disc of the sun had disappeared. Then, the Prophet made Usamah sit behind him, and in order to keep her under control, pulled the nose string of Al-Qaswa' so hard, that its head touched the saddle. He gestured with his right hand and said, "Proceed calmly people, calmly!" Whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he lightly loosened the nose string of his camel till she climbed up and this is how they reached Al-Muzdalifah. There, he led the Maghrib (Evening) and `Isha' (Night) prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamah (which announces the imminent start of the acts of the prayer) and did not glorify Allah in between them (i.e., he did not perform voluntary Rak`ah). Allah's Messenger then laid down till dawn and offered the Fajr (Dawn) prayer with Adhan and Iqamah, when the morning light was clear. He again mounted Al-Qaswa', and when he came to Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram, he faced towards Qiblah, supplicated to Allah, glorifying Him and saying, La ilaha illallah, and he continued standing until the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose.''
It is reported in the Two Sahihs that Usamah bin Zayd was asked, "How was the Prophet's pace when he moved'' He said, "Slow, unless he found space, then he would go a little faster.''
`Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn `Umar said that all of Al-Muzdalifah is Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram. It was reported that Ibn `Umar was asked about Allah's statement:
(...remember Allah (by glorifying His praises, i.e., prayers and invocations) at the Mash`ar-il-Haram.) He said, "It is the Mount and the surrounding area.'' It was reported that Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram is what is between the two Mounts (refer to the following Hadith), as Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Hasan and Qatadah have stated.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im narrated that the Prophet said:
(All of `Arafat is a place of standing, and keep away from `Uranah. All of Al-Muzdalifah is a place for standing, and keep away from the bottom of Muhassir. All of the areas of Makkah are a place for sacrifice, and all of the days of Tashriq are days of sacrifice.)
Allah then said:
(And remember Him (by invoking Allah for all good) as He has guided you.)
This Ayah reminds Muslims of Allah's bounty on them that He has directed and taught them the rituals of Hajj according to the guidance of Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil. This is why Allah said:
(...and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray.)
It was said that this Ayah refers to the condition before the guidance or the Qur'an or the Messenger , all of which are correct meanings.
(199. Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask Allah for His forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.
This Ayah contains Allah's order to those who stand at `Arafat to also move on to Al-Muzdalifah, so that they remember Allah at Al-Mash`ar Al-Haram. Allah commands the Muslim to stand with the rest of the pilgrims at `Arafat, unlike Quraysh who (before Islam) used to remain in the sanctuary, near Al-Muzdalifah, saying that they are the people of Allah's Town and the servants of His House. Al-Bukhari reported that `A'ishah said, "Quraysh and their allies, who used to be called Al-Hums, used to stay in Al-Muzdalifah while the rest of the Arabs would stand at `Arafat. When Islam came, Allah commanded His Prophet to stand at `Arafat and then proceed from there. Hence Allah's statement:
(...from the place whence all the people depart.)
This was also said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ata', Qatadah and As-Suddi and others. Ibn Jarir chose this opinion and said that there is Ijma` (a consensus among the scholars) for it.
Imam Ahmad reported that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "My camel was lost and I went out in search of it on the day of `Arafah, and I saw the Prophet standing in `Arafat. I said to myself, `By Allah he is from the Hums. What has brought him here''' This Hadith is also reported in the Sahihayn. Al-Bukhari reported that Ibn `Abbas said that `depart' mentioned in the Ayah refers to proceeding from Al-Muzdalifah to Mina to stone the pillars. Allah knows best.
(...and ask Allah for His forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.)
Allah frequently orders remembrance of Him after acts of worship are finished. Muslim reported that Allah's Messenger used to ask Allah for His forgiveness thrice after the prayer is finished. It is reported in the Two Sahihs that the Prophet encouraged Tasbih (saying Subhan Allah, i.e., Glorified is Allah), Tahmid (saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., praise be to Allah) and Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great) thirty-three times each (after prayer).
Ibn Marduwyah collected the Hadith that Al-Bukhari reported from Shaddad bin Aws, who stated that Allah's Messenger said:
(The master of supplication for forgiveness, is for the servant to say: `O Allah! You are my Lord, there is no deity worthy of worship except You. You have created me and I am Your servant. I am on Your covenant, as much as I can be, and awaiting Your promise. I seek refuge with You from the evil that I have committed. I admit Your favor on me and admit my faults. So forgive me, for none except You forgives the sins.' Whoever said these words at night and died that same night will enter Paradise. Whoever said it during the day and died will enter Paradise.)
Furthermore, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that Abu Bakr said, "O Messenger of Allah! Teach me an invocation so that I may invoke (Allah) with it in my prayer. He told me to say:
(Allahumma inni zalamtu nafsi zulman kathiran, wa la yaghfirudh-dhunuba illa Anta faghfirli maghfiratan min `indika, war-hamni innaka Antal-Ghafur-ur-Rahim (O Allah! I have done great injustice to myself and none except You forgives sins, so please forgive me and be merciful to me as You are the Forgiver, the Merciful).)
There are many other Hadiths on this subject.
(200. So when you have accomplished your Manasik, remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your bounties) in this world!'' and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.) (201. And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!'') (202. For them there will be allotted a share for what they have earned. And Allah is swift at reckoning.)