After Allah mentions the extended time and respite that is allowed to those who are in misguidance, increasing them in misguidance, He informs of the increase in guidance of those who are rightly guided. Similarly He says,
(And whenever there comes down a Surah, some of them say: "Which of you has had his faith increased by it'') (9:124) And the following Ayah also shows this. Concerning Allah's statement,
(And the righteous good deeds that last) Its explanation has already preceded in Surat Al-Kahf, along with a lengthy discussion concerning it and the related Hadiths.
((they) are better with your Lord for reward.) meaning the recompense and reward.
(and better for resort.) meaning in the final outcome, the result for its doer.
(77. Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: "I shall certainly be given wealth and children ﴿if I live again﴾.'') (78. Has he known the Unseen or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious) (79. Nay, We shall record what he says, and We shall increase his torment;) (80. And We shall inherit from him all that he speaks of, and he shall come to Us alone.)
Imam Ahmad reported from Khabbab bin Al-Aratt that he said, "I was a blacksmith and Al-'As bin Wa'il owed me a debt. So I went to him to collect my debt from him. He said to me, `No, by Allah, I will not pay my debt to you until you disbelieve in Muhammad.' I replied to him, `No, by Allah, I will not disbelieve in Muhammad until you die and are resurrected again.' He then said to me, `Verily, if I die and am resurrected, and you come to me, I will also have abundance of wealth and children and I will repay you then.' Then, Allah revealed these Ayat,
(Have you seen him who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: "I shall certainly be given wealth and children.'') until,
(and he shall come to Us alone.) This was also recorded by the two compilers of the Sahihs and other collections as well. In the wording of Al-Bukhari it states that Khabbab said, "I used to be a blacksmith in Makkah and I made a sword for Al-'As bin Wa'il. So I went to him to collect my pay from him...'' then he mentioned the rest of the Hadith and he said,
(or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious) "This means an agreement. '' Concerning Allah's statement,
(Has he known the Unseen) This is a rejection of the person who says,
(I shall certainly be given wealth and children.) Meaning, on the Day of Resurrection. In other words, "Does he know what he will have in the Hereafter, to such an extent that he can swear to it''
(or has he taken a covenant from the Most Gracious) Or has he received a promise from Allah that he will be given these things It has already been stated that in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is mentioned that covenant means an agreement. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Nay,) This is a participle that opposes what came before it and gives emphasis to what follows it.
(We shall record what he says,) what he is seeking, and his idea that he has given himself about what he hopes for, and his disbelief in Allah the Most Great.
(We shall increase his torment.) This is referring to what will happen in the abode of the Hereafter, because of his saying his disbelief in Allah in this life.
(And We shall inherit from him all that he speaks of,) His wealth and children. It means, "We will take all of this from him, in opposition to his claim that he will be given more wealth and children in the Hereafter than he had in this life.'' To the contrary, in the Hereafter that which he had in this life will be taken from him. This is why Allah says,
(And he shall come to Us alone.) without wealth or children.
(81. And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory.) (82. Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and will become their adversaries.) (83. See you not that We have sent the Shayatin against the disbelievers to push them to do evil.) (84. So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number.)
Allah, the Exalted, informs about the disbelievers who associate partners with their Lord, that they have taken gods besides Allah, so that these gods may be a source of honor and might for them. They think that these gods give them power and make them victorious. Then, Allah mentions that the matter is not as they claim, and it will not be as they hope. He says,
(Nay, but they will deny their worship of them,) on the Day of Judgment.
(and will become their adversaries.) This means that they will be foes in a state other than what they think about these gods. This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And who is more astray than one who calls upon, besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls to them And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.) (46:5-6) As-Suddi said,
(Nay, but they will deny their worship of them,) "This means their worshipping of the idols. '' Allah said,
(and will become their adversaries) contrary to what they hoped for from these gods. As-Suddi said,
(and will become their adversaries.) "They will be in severe opposition and argument.'' Ad-Dahhak said,
(and will become their adversaries.) "This means enemies.''
Concerning Allah's statement,
(See you not that We have sent the Shayatin against the disbelievers to push them to do evil.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, "They will lead them astray with temptation.'' Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said, "They will incite them against Muhammad and his Companions.'' Qatadah said, "They will harass them and disturb them until they disobey Allah.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, "This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And whosoever turns away blindly from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him a Shaytan to be a companion for him.)'' (43:36) Concerning Allah's statement,
(So make no haste against them; We only count out to them a (limited) number.) This means, "Do not be hasty with the punishment that is going to befall them, O Muhammad.''
(We only count out to them a number.) This means, "We are only delaying them for a fixed appointment whose time is numbered. They are destined for that and there is no escaping the torment of Allah and His exemplary punishment.'' Allah says,
(And consider not that Allah is unaware of that which the wrongdoers do.) (14:42) And He says,
(So give a respite to the disbelievers; deal gently with them for a while.) (86:17) And Allah says,
(We postpone the punishment only so that they may increase in sinfulness.) (3:178)
(We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) (31:24)
(Say: "Enjoy! But certainly, your destination is the (Hell) Fire.'') (14:30) As-Suddi said,
(We only count out to them a (limited) number.) means years, months, days and hours.''
(85. The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious (Allah), like a delegation.) (86. And We shall drive the criminals to Hell, in a thirsty state.) (87. None shall have the power of intercession, but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious (Allah).)
Allah, the Exalted, informs about His righteous friends, who feared Him in the life of this world. They followed His Messengers and believed in what the Messengers told them. They obeyed them in what they commanded them and abstained from that which they prohibited. Allah explains that He will gather these people on the Day of Resurrection like a delegation that has come to Him. A Wafd (delegation) is a group that arrives while riding and from it comes the word Wufud (arriving). They will come riding upon noble steeds of light from the riding animals of the Hereafter. They will arrive before the Best Receiver of delegations at the abode of His honor and pleasure. In reference to the criminals, who denied the Messengers and opposed them, they will be driven violently to the Hellfire. Allah says,
(In a thirsty state.) This means parched and thirsting for drink. This was stated by `Ata', Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and many others. Here it will be said,
(Which of the two groups is best in Maqam (position) and the finest Nadiyyan (meeting place).) (19:73) Ibn Abi Hatim reported from `Amr bin Qays Al-Mula'i, who reported from Ibn Marzuq that he said,
(The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.) "When the believer comes forth from his grave, he will meet the most handsome form he has ever seen and it will have the nicest fragrance. He will say, `Who are you' The being will reply, `You do not know me' The believer will say, `No, but Allah has made you sweet smelling with a handsome face.' The being will say, `I am your righteous deeds. This is how you use to beautify and apply fragrance to your deeds in the worldly life. I was riding upon you in the entire length of your worldly life, so will you not ride upon me now' So the believer will therefore mount the creature. This is the meaning of Allah's statement,
(The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.)'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(The Day We shall gather those with Taqwa unto the Most Gracious, like a delegation.) "Riding.'' His saying,
(And We shall drive the criminals to Hell, in a thirsty state.) This means parched and thirsty.
(None shall have the power of intercession,) There will be no one who can intercede for them like the believers who intercede for each other. Allah says about them,
(Now we have no intercessors, nor a close friend.) (26:100-101) Allah said,
(but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious.) This is a separate exclusion, which means, "But those who have taken a covenant with the Most Beneficent.'' This covenant is the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and upholding of its rights and implications. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(but such a one as has received permission (or promise) from the Most Gracious.) "The promise is the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, that the person accepts that all power and strength belong to Allah and he only places his hope with Allah alone.''
(88. And they say: "The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son.'') (89. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a thing Idda.) (90. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda.) (91. That they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.) (92. But it is not suitable for the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.) (93. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious as a slave.) (94. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting.) (95. And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.)