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The Stern Rejection of attributing a Son to Allah

After Allah affirms in this noble Surah that `Isa was a worshipper and servant of Allah and He mentioned his birth from Maryam without a father, He then begins refuting those who claim that He has a son. Holy is He and far Exalted is He above such description. Allah says,

﴿ وَقَالُواْ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وَلَدً۬ا لَّقَدۡ جِئۡتُمۡ

(And they say: "The Most Gracious has begotten a son.'' Indeed you have brought forth) This means, "In this statement of yours.''

﴿ شَيۡـًٔا إِدًّ۬ا

(a thing Idda.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Malik all said, "Terrible.'' It has been said that it is pronounced Iddan, Addan, and Addan with elongation on the first vowel. All three of these pronunciations are known, but the most popular is the first. Allah said;

﴿ تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوۡاْ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ وَلَدً۬ا

(Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda, that they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.) that is, out of their high esteem for Allah, when they hear this statement of wickedness coming from the Children of Adam. The reason for this is that these are creatures of Allah and they are established upon His Tawhid and the fact that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. He has no partners, no peer, no child, no mate and no coequal. Rather, He is the One, Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures are in need of. Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوۡاْ لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ وَلَدً۬ا

(Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains Hadda, that they ascribe a son to the Most Gracious.) "Verily, the heavens, the earth, the mountains and all creatures -- except for humans and Jinns -- are frightened by the associating of partners with Allah. Creation will almost cease existing before the association of partners with Allah, due to His Greatness. Just as the idolater does not benefit by his good deeds because of associating partners with Allah, we hope that Allah would forgive the sins of those who believed in His absolute Oneness by worshipping Him alone. The Messenger of Allah said,

« لَقِّنُوا مَوْتَاكُمْ شَهَادَةَ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، فَمَنْ قَالَهَا عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ وَجَبَتْ لَهُ الْجَنَّة »

(Encourage your dying people to testify to La ilaha illallah, for whoever says it at the time of their death, they will definitely enter into Paradise.) The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, what about he who says it while in good health'' He replied,

« تِلْكَ أَوْجَبُ وَأَوْجَب »

(This will necessitate his entrance into Paradise even more.) Then he said,

« وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ جِيءَ بِالسَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرَضِينَ، وَمَا فِيهِنَّ وَمَا بَيْنَهُنَّ وَمَا تَحْتَهُنَّ، فَوُضِعْنَ فِي كِفَّةِ الْمِيزَانِ، وَوُضِعَتْ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللهُ فِي الْكِفَّةِ الْأُخْرى لَرَجَحَتْ بِهِن »

(I swear by He Whom my soul is in His Hand, if the heavens and the earths, and all that is in them, between them and under them, were brought and placed in a balance of a scale, and the testimony of La ilaha illallah was placed on the other side of the scale, the testimony would outweigh all of it.) This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and it is supported by the Hadith related to the story of the card. And Allah knows best. Ad-Dahhak said,

﴿ تَڪَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ

(Whereby the heavens are almost torn,) "This means to be split apart into pieces due to the fear of the magnificence of Allah.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,

﴿ وَتَنشَقُّ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ

(and the earth is split asunder,) "This is due to its anger on behalf of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.''

﴿ وَتَخِرُّ ٱلۡجِبَالُ هَدًّا

(and the mountains Hadda.) Ibn `Abbas said, "This means to be torn down.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "Haddan means some of it is broken by other parts of it in succession.'' Imam Ahmad reported from Abu Musa that he said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَا أَحَدَ أَصْبَرُ عَلَى أَذىً سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ إِنَّهُ يُشْرَكُ بِهِ وَيُجْعَلُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ، وَهُوَ يُعَافِيهِمْ وَيَدْفَعُ عَنْهُمْ وَيَرْزُقُهُم »

(There is no one more patient than Allah concerning something harmful that he hears. For verily, partners are associated with Him and a son is ascribed to Him, while He is the One Who gives them good health, protects them and sustains them.) This narration is also recorded in the Two Sahihs. In one wording of it he said,

« إِنَّهُمْ يَجْعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُوَ يَرْزُقُهُمْ وَيُعَافِيهِم »

(...that they attribute a son to Him, while He is the One Who sustains them and gives them good health.) Allah said;

﴿ وَمَا يَنۢبَغِى لِلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا

(But it is not suitable for the Most Gracious that He should beget a son.) Meaning that it is not befitting of Him, nor is it appropriate for His lofty majesty and greatness. There is no coequal for Him in His creation, because all creatures are His slaves. This is why He says,

﴿ إِن ڪُلُّ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّآ ءَاتِى ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ عَبۡدً۬ا لَّقَدۡ أَحۡصَٮٰهُمۡ وَعَدَّهُمۡ عَدًّ۬ا

(There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto the Most Gracious as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting.) He knows their number from the time He created them, until the Day of Resurrection, male and female, both the small and the large of them.

﴿ وَكُلُّهُمۡ ءَاتِيهِ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فَرۡدًا

(And everyone of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.) This means that there will be no helper for him and no one to save him, except Allah alone, Who has no partners. He judges His creatures as He wills and He is the Most Just, Who does not do even an atom's weight of injustice. He will not wrong anyone.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَيَجۡعَلُ لَهُمُ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وُدًّ۬ا فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرۡنَـٰهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنذِرَ بِهِۦ قَوۡمً۬ا لُّدًّ۬ا وَكَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا قَبۡلَهُم مِّن قَرۡنٍ هَلۡ تُحِسُّ مِنۡہُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ أَوۡ تَسۡمَعُ لَهُمۡ رِكۡزَۢا

(96. Verily, those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the Most Gracious will bestow love for them.) (97. So, We have made this easy in your own tongue, only that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa, and warn with it the people that are Ludda.) (98. And how many a generation before them have We destroyed! Can you find a single one of them or hear even a whisper of them)

Allah places Love of the Righteous People in the Hearts

Allah, the Exalted, informs about His believing servants, who work righteous deeds -- deeds that He is pleased with because they are in accordance with the legislation of Muhammad -- that He plants love for them in the hearts of His righteous servants. This is something that is absolutely necessary and there is no avoiding it. This has been reported in authentic Hadiths of the Messenger of Allah in various different ways. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ اللهَ إِذَا أَحَبَّ عَبْدًا دَعَا جِبْرِيلَ، فَقَالَ: يَا جِبْرِيلُ، إِنِّي أُحِبُّ فُلَانًا فَأَحِبَّهُ قَالَ: فَيُحِبُّهُ جِبْرِيلُ، قَالَ: ثُمَّ يُنَادِي فِي أَهْلِ السَّمَاءِ: إِنَّ اللهَ يُحِبُّ فُلَانًا فَأَحِبُّوهُ، قَالَ: فَيُحِبُّهُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ، ثُمَّ يُوضَعُ لَهُ الْقَبُولُ فِي الْأَرْضِ، وَإِنَّ اللهَ إِذَا أَبْغَضَ عَبْدًا دَعَا جِبْرِيلَ فَقَالَ: يَا جِبْرِيلُ إِنِّي أُبْغِضُ فُلَانًا فَأَبْغِضْهُ، قَالَ: فَيُبْغِضُهُ جِبْرِيلُ، ثُمَّ يُنَادِي فِي أَهْلِ السَّمَاءِ: إِنَّ اللهَ يُبْغِضُ فُلَانًا فَأَبْغِضُوهُ، قَالَ: فَيُبْغِضُهُ أَهْلُ السَّمَاءِ، ثُمَّ يُوضَعُ لَهُ الْبَغْضَاءُ فِي الْأَرْض »

(Verily, whenever Allah loves a servant of His, He calls Jibril and says, "O Jibril, verily I love so-and-so, so love him.'' Thus, Jibril will love him. Then, he (Jibril) will call out to the dwellers of the heavens, "Verily, Allah loves so-and-so, so you too must love him.'' Then the dwellers of the heavens love him and he will be given acceptance in the earth. Whenever Allah hates a servant of His, He calls Jibril and says, "O Jibril, verily I hate so-and-so, so hate him.'' Thus, Jibril will hate him. Then, he (Jibril) will call out amongst the dwellers of the heavens, "Verily, Allah hates so-and-so, so you too must hate him.'' Then the dwellers of the heavens hate him and hatred for him will be placed in the earth.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported narrations similar to this. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

« إِذَا أَحَبَّ اللهُ عَبْدًا نَادَى جِبْرِيلَ: إِنِّي قَدْ أَحْبَبْتُ فُلَانًا فَأَحِبَّهُ، فَيُنَادِي فِي السَّمَاءِ، ثُمَّ يُنْزِلُ لَهُ الْمَحَبَّةَ فِي أَهْلِ الْأَرْضِ، فَذَلِكَ قَوْلُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ:
﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَيَجۡعَلُ لَهُمُ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ وُدًّ۬ا

(Whenever Allah loves a servant of His, He calls Jibril (saying), "Verily, I love so-and-so, so love him.'' Then, Jibril calls out into the heavens and love for him descends among the people of the earth. That is the meaning of the statement of Allah, the Mighty and Sublime: (Verily, those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, the Most Gracious will bestow love for them.)) (19:96)This was also reported by Muslim and At-Tirmidhi and At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

The Qur'an descended to give Glad Tidings and to warn

Allah said;

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرۡنَـٰهُ

(So, We have made this easy) meaning the Qur'an.

﴿ بِلِسَانِكَ

(in your own tongue,) This is an address to Prophet Muhammad and it means that the Qur'an is in the pure, complete and eloquent Arabic language.

﴿ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(that you may give glad tidings to those who have Taqwa,) those who respond to Allah and believe in His Messenger ,

﴿ وَتُنذِرَ بِهِۦ قَوۡمً۬ا لُّدًّ۬ا

(and warn with it the people who are Ludda.) meaning, the people who have deviated away from the truth and are inclined towards falsehood. His saying,

﴿ وَكَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا قَبۡلَهُم مِّن قَرۡنٍ

(And how many a generation before them have We destroyed!) means from the nations that disbelieved in the signs of Allah and rejected His Messengers.

﴿ هَلۡ تُحِسُّ مِنۡہُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ أَوۡ تَسۡمَعُ لَهُمۡ رِكۡزَۢا

(Can you find a single one of them or hear even a whisper of them) Meaning, `have you seen any of them or even heard a whisper from them.' Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd all said, "This means any sound.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said that this means, "Do you see with your eye, or hear any sound'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Maryam. All praises and thanks are due to Allah. Following this will be the Tafsir of Surah Ta Ha, Allah willing and all praise is due to Allah.

Which was revealed at Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ طه مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ إِلَّا تَذۡڪِرَةً۬ لِّمَن يَخۡشَىٰ تَنزِيلاً۬ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقَ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ ٱلۡعُلَى ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا بَيۡنَہُمَا وَمَا تَحۡتَ ٱلثَّرَىٰ وَإِن تَجۡهَرۡ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ فَإِنَّهُ ۥ يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ وَأَخۡفَى ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ

(1. Ta Ha.) (2. We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you to cause you distress,) (3. But only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) (4. A revelation from Him Who created the earth and high heavens.) (5. The Most Gracious Istawa the Throne.) (6. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and all that is between them, and all that is under the soil.) (7. And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) (8. Allah! There is no God but Him! To Him belong the Best Names.)

The Qur'an is a Reminder and a Revelation from Allah

We have already discussed the separated letters at the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah, so there is no need to repeat its discussion here. Allah says,

﴿ مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ

(We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you to cause you distress,) Juwaybir reported that Ad-Dahhak said, "When Allah sent the Qur'an down to His Messenger, he and his Companions adh- ered to it. Thus, the idolators of the Quraysh said, `This Qur'an was only reve- aled to Muhammad to cause him distress.' Therefore, Allah revealed,

﴿ طه مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ إِلَّا تَذۡڪِرَةً۬ لِّمَن يَخۡشَىٰ

(Ta Ha. We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you to cause you distress, but only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) The matter is not like the people of falsehood claim. Rather, whomever Allah gives knowledge to, it is because Allah wants him to have an abundance of good. This like what is confirmed in the Two Sahihs on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ يُرِدِ اللهُ بِهِ خَيْرًا يُفَقِّهْهُ فِي الدِّين »

(Whomever Allah wants good for, then He gives him the understanding of the religion.) Mujahid commented on Allah's statement,

﴿ مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ

(We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you to cause you distress,) "This is like His statement,

﴿ مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنۡهُ‌ۚ وَأَقِيمُواْ

(So recite as much of the Qur'an as may be easy (for you).) (73:20) For, the people used to hang ropes at their chests (to hang on to when tired) in the prayer.'' Qatadah said,

﴿ مَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لِتَشۡقَىٰٓ

(We have not sent down the Qur'an unto you to cause you distress,) "No, by Allah, He did not make it a thing of distress. Rather, He made it a mercy, a light and a guide to Paradise.'' Allah said,

﴿ إِلَّا تَذۡڪِرَةً۬ لِّمَن يَخۡشَىٰ

(But only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) Allah revealed His Book and sent His Messenger as a mercy for His servants, so that the person who reflects may be reminded. Thus, a man will benefit from what he hears of the Book of Allah, it is a remembrance in which Allah revealed what He permits and prohibits. His saying,

﴿ تَنزِيلاً۬ مِّمَّنۡ خَلَقَ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ ٱلۡعُلَى

(A Revelation from Him (Allah) Who has created the earth and high heavens. ) means, `This Qur'an, which has come to you, O Muhammad, is a revelation from your Lord. He is the Lord of everything and its King. He is Most Able to do whatever He wills. He created the earth with its low depths and dense regions. He created the lofty heavens with their high altitudes and subtleties.' It has been reported in a Hadith, which At-Tirmidhi and others graded as authentic, that the density of each sky of the heavens is the distance of five hundred years travel and the distance between it and the next heaven is also five hundred years. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ ٱسۡتَوَىٰ

(The Most Gracious Istawa the Throne.) A discussion concerning this has already preceded in Surat Al-A`raf, so there is no need to repeat it here. The safest path to take in understanding this, is the way of the Salaf (predecessors). Their way was to accept that which has been reported concerning this from the Book and the Sunnah without describing it, reinterpreting it, resembling it to creation, rejecting it, or comparing it to attributes of the creatures. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَمَا بَيۡنَہُمَا وَمَا تَحۡتَ ٱلثَّرَىٰ

(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and all that is between them, and all that is under the soil.) This means all of this is owned by Him and in His grasp. It is all under His control, will, intent and judgement. He created all of this, He owns it and He is the God of all of it. There is no true God other than He and no Lord other than He. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمَا تَحۡتَ ٱلثَّرَىٰ

(and all that is under the soil.) Muhammad bin Ka`b said, "This means that which is beneath the seventh earth.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِن تَجۡهَرۡ بِٱلۡقَوۡلِ فَإِنَّهُ ۥ يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ وَأَخۡفَى

(And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) This means that He Who revealed this Qur'an, has also created the high heavens and the earth and He knows that which is secret and what is even more hidden. As Allah says,

﴿ قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِى يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ غَفُورً۬ا رَّحِيمً۬ا

(Say: "It has been sent down by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'') (25:6) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿ يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ وَأَخۡفَى

(He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) "The secret is what the son of Adam hides within himself, and

﴿ وَأَخۡفَى

(that which is yet more hidden. ) is the deeds of the son of Adam, which are hidden before he does them. Allah knows all of that. His knowledge encompasses that which has passed and that which is in the future and it is one, complete knowledge. In this regard, all of the creatures are as one soul to Him. That is the meaning of His statement,

﴿ مَّا خَلۡقُكُمۡ وَلَا بَعۡثُكُمۡ إِلَّا ڪَنَفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ‌ۗ

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.) (31:28) Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ

(Allah! There is no God but Him! To Him belongs the Best Names.) This means, `He Who revealed this Qur'an to you (O Muhammad), He is Allah, there is no God except Him. He is the Owner of the Best Names and the most lofty attributes.'

﴿ وَهَلۡ أَتَٮٰكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَىٰٓ إِذۡ رَءَا نَارً۬ا فَقَالَ لِأَهۡلِهِ ٱمۡكُثُوٓاْ إِنِّىٓ ءَانَسۡتُ نَارً۬ا لَّعَلِّىٓ ءَاتِيكُم مِّنۡہَا بِقَبَسٍ أَوۡ أَجِدُ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ هُدً۬ى

(9. And has there come to you the story of Musa) (10. When he saw a fire, he said to his family: "Wait! Verily, I have seen a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom, or find some guidance at the fire.'')

A Discussion of the Message of Musa

From this point, Allah begins to mention the story of Musa, how revelation began to come to Him, and Allah's speaking directly to him. This occurred after Musa had completed the time agreed upon between he and his father-in-law that he would herd sheep. He was traveling with his family, and it has been said that he was headed for the land of Egypt, after having been away from it for more than ten years. He had his wife with him and he became lost on the way during a cold, wintery night. Therefore, he settled down, making a camp between some mountain passes and mountains that were covered with snow, sleet, dense clouds, darkness and fog. He began to try to make a fire with a kindling device he had with him, in order to produce some light, as was customary. However, it would not kindle anything and it even stopped giving off sparks. While he was in this condition, he saw a fire from the side of the mountain. It appeared to him to be a fire glowing from the right side of the mountain from where he was. He then announced the good news to his family saying,

﴿ إِنِّىٓ ءَانَسۡتُ نَارً۬ا لَّعَلِّىٓ ءَاتِيكُم مِّنۡہَا بِقَبَسٍ

(Verily, I have seen a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand) This means a flame from a fire. In another Ayah he said,

﴿ أَوۡ جَذۡوَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلنَّارِ

(or a burning firebrand.) (28:29) This is a coal that has a burning flame.

﴿ لَّعَلَّكُمۡ تَصۡطَلُونَ

(that you may warm yourselves. ) ﴿28:29 This proves that it was in fact cold weather at that time. Concerning his statement,

﴿ بِقَبَسٍ

(some burning brand) This proves that it was dark. In reference to his statement,

﴿ أَوۡ أَجِدُ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ هُدً۬ى

(or find some guidance at the fire.) This means someone who can guide me to the road. This proves that he lost the road. This is as Ath-Thawri reported from Abu Sa`id Al-A`war, from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ أَوۡ أَجِدُ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ هُدً۬ى

(or find some guidance at the fire.) "This means someone who will guide me to the road. They were cold and had lost their way. Then, when he (Musa) saw the fire he said, `Either I will find someone who can guide us to the road, or at least I can bring you all some fire that you can kindle with.' ''

﴿ فَلَمَّآ أَتَٮٰهَا نُودِىَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰٓ إِنِّىٓ أَنَا۟ رَبُّكَ فَٱخۡلَعۡ نَعۡلَيۡكَ‌ۖ إِنَّكَ بِٱلۡوَادِ ٱلۡمُقَدَّسِ طُوً۬ى وَأَنَا ٱخۡتَرۡتُكَ فَٱسۡتَمِعۡ لِمَا يُوحَىٰٓ إِنَّنِىٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۟ فَٱعۡبُدۡنِى وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِذِڪۡرِىٓ إِنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ ءَاتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخۡفِيہَا لِتُجۡزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا تَسۡعَىٰ فَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكَ عَنۡہَا مَن لَّا يُؤۡمِنُ بِہَا وَٱتَّبَعَ هَوَٮٰهُ فَتَرۡدَىٰ

(11. And when he came to it (the fire), he was called by name: "O Musa!'') (12. "Verily, I am your Lord! So take off your shoes; you are in the sacred valley, Tuwa.'') (13. "And I have chosen you. So listen to that which will be revealed (to you)'') (14. "Verily, I am Allah! There is no God but Me, so worship Me, and perform Salah for My remembrance.'') (15. "Verily, the Hour is coming -- and I am almost hiding it -- that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives.'') (16. "Therefore, let not the one who believes not therein, but follows his own lusts, divert you therefrom, lest you perish.'')