The clear intent of this is to be a completion of what the magicians admonished Fir`awn with. They warned him of the vengeance of Allah and His eternal and everlasting punishment. They also encouraged him to seek Allah's eternal and endless reward. They said,
(Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal,) This means, whoever meets Allah on the Day of Judgment while being a criminal.
(then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live.) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die, nor shall its torment be lightened for them. Thus do We requite every disbeliever!) (35:36) Allah also said,
(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die nor live.) (87:11-13)
(And they will cry: "O Malik (Keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord made an end of us.'' He will say: "Verily, you shall abide forever.'') (43:77) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The dwellers of Hellfire, who are those who deserve it, they will not die in it, nor will they be living. Rather, they will be a people who will be punished by the Fire due to their sins. It will be gradually killing them and devouring them until they become burnt coals. Then, intercession will be allowed and they will be brought (out of Hell) group by group and they will be spread on the rivers of Paradise. It will then be said, "O people of Paradise, pour (water) over them.'' Then, they will start to grow like the growing of a seed on the muddy banks of a flowing river.) A man among the people said, "It is as if the Messenger of Allah lived in the desert.'' This is how Muslim recorded this narration in his Sahih. Concerning Allah's statement,
(But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds,) whoever meets his Lord on the Day of Judgment as a believer in his heart, then verily, his intentions in his heart will be affirmed to be true by his statements and deeds.
(for such are the high ranks,) Paradise, which has the highest levels, the most tranquil rooms and the nicest homes. Imam Ahmad reported from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Prophet said,
(Paradise has one hundred levels and between each level is a distance like the distance between the sky and the earth. Al-Firdaws is the name of the highest of its levels. From it springs the four rivers and the Throne is above it. Therefore, when you ask Allah, then ask Him for Al-Firdaws.) This narration was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, the people of the `Illiyyin will see those who are above them just as you see the fading star in the horizon of the sky, due to the different status of virtue between them.) The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, these are the dwellings of the Prophets.'' He replied, (Of course. And I swear by the One Whom my soul is in His Hand, (it is for) men who had faith in Allah and they believed the Messengers.) In the Sunan collections this narration is mentioned with the additional wording,
(And verily Abu Bakr and `Umar are of them and they will be most favored.) His saying,
(Adn Gardens,) meaning established as a residence. It is merely used here in reference to the high ranks mentioned previously.
(under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever,) meaning that they will abide in it for eternity.
(and such is the reward of those who purify themselves.) One who purifies himself from dirt, filth and associating partners with Allah. This is the person who worships Allah alone, without ascribing partners to Him, and he follows the Messengers in the good they came with all that they claim.
(77. And indeed We revealed to Musa: "Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid.'') (78. Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea ﴿Al-Yamm﴾ completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.) (79. And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.)
Allah, the Exalted, informs that He commanded Musa to journey at night with the Children of Israel, when Fir`awn refused to release them and send them with Musa. He was to take them away from Fir`awn's captivity. Allah expounds upon this in Surahs other than this noble Surah. Musa left with the Children of Israel, and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that not a single one of them remained in Egypt. Fir`awn became extremely furious. He sent callers into all of the cities to gather together his army from all of his lands and provinces. He said to them,
(Verily, these indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) (26:54-55) Then when he gathered his army and organized his troops, he set out after them and they followed them at dawn when the sun began to rise.
(And when the two hosts saw each other) (26:61) This means that each person of the two parties was looking at the other party.
(The companions of Musa said: "We are sure to be overtaken.'' (Musa) said: "Nay, verily, with me is my Lord. He will guide me.'') (26:61-62) Musa stopped with the Children of Israel and the sea was in front of them and Fir`awn was behind them. Then, at that moment, Allah revealed to Musa,
(And strike a dry path for them in the sea.) So Musa struck the sea with his stick and he said, "Split for me, by the leave of Allah.'' Thus, it split, and each separate part of the water became like a huge mountain. Then, Allah sent a wind to the land of the sea and it burned the soil until it became dry like the ground that is on land. For this reason Allah said,
(and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken...) This means being caught by Fir`awn.
(nor being afraid.) meaning, "Do not be afraid of the sea drowning your people.'' Then, Allah, the Exalted, said,
(Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea (Al-Yamm) completely overwhelmed them) Al-Yamm means the sea.
(and covered them up.) meaning, covered them up with a thing that was well-familiar to them in such a situa- tion, as Allah states;
(And He destroyed the overthrown cities. So there covered them that which did cover.) (53:53-54) As Fir`awn pursued them into the sea, misled his people and did not lead them to the path of correct guidance, likewise, he will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them in to the Hellfire. And evil indeed is the place to which they are led.
(80. O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you manna and quail,) (81. (Saying) eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) (82. And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then Ihtada.)
Allah's Favors upon Them Allah reminds of His tremendous favors upon the Children of Israel and His numerous blessings. He saved them from their enemy, Fir`awn, and He relieved their eyes by drowning him and his hosts all at one time while they watched. Allah said,
(And We drowned Fir`awn people while you were looking.) (2:50) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura'. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.' Then, the Prophet said,
(We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.) Muslim also recorded this narration in his Sahih. Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa and the Children of Israel on the right side of the Mountain, after the destruction of Fir`awn. This is the Mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa and He told Musa's people to look at it when they requested to see Allah. It is also the same Mountain upon which Musa was given the Tawrah, while at the same time the Children of Israel began worshipping the (statue of a) calf, as Allah relates in the forth coming Ayat. The manna and quails have previously been discussed in Surah Al-Baqarah and other Surahs. Manna was a sweet substance that descended upon them from the sky and the quail (Salwa) was a type of bird that would fall down to them. They would fill every pot with them as ample provisions until the following day. This was a kindness and a mercy from Allah upon them. It was a manifestation of Allah's good treatment of them. For this reason Allah says,
(Eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, "Eat from this sustenance which I have provided for you, and do not transgress against My sustenance by taking it without necessity or you will be opposing what I have commanded you.''
(lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, "I will become angry with you.''
(And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means that he will indeed be made miserable.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds,) meaning, "Whoever turns to Me in repentance, then I will accept his repentance regardless of whatever sin he did.'' Allah, the Exalted, even accepts the repentance of the Children of Israel who worshipped the calf. Concerning Allah's statement,
(who repents,) This means to turn away from what one was involved in of disbelief, associating partners with Allah, disobedience of Allah or hypocrisy. Concerning Allah's statement,
(and believes) This means the person's belief in his heart.
(and does righteous deeds,) his action with his bodily limbs. Concerning Allah's statement,
(and then Ihtada.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means that he then does not doubt.'' Qatadah said,
(and then Ihtada.) "This means he adheres to Islam until he dies.'' We see here that there is a specific order in which these things are presented. This is similar to Allah's saying,
(Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to perseverance and patience and recommended one another to pity and compassion.) (90:17)
(83. "And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa) (84. He said: "They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.'') (85. (Allah) said: "Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.'') (86. Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow (Asif). He said: "O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise Did then the promise seem to you long in coming Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, that you broke your promise to me'') (87. They said: "We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the people, then we cast them, and that was what As-Samiri suggested.'') (88. Then he took out for them a calf which was mooing. They said: "This is your god, and the god of Musa,'' but he had forgotten.) (89. Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good)