;
The Magicians admonish Fir`awn

The clear intent of this is to be a completion of what the magicians admonished Fir`awn with. They warned him of the vengeance of Allah and His eternal and everlasting punishment. They also encouraged him to seek Allah's eternal and endless reward. They said,

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ مَن يَأۡتِ رَبَّهُ ۥ مُجۡرِمً۬ا

(Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal,) This means, whoever meets Allah on the Day of Judgment while being a criminal.

﴿ فَإِنَّ لَهُ ۥ جَهَنَّمَ لَا يَمُوتُ فِيہَا وَلَا يَحۡيَىٰ

(then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live.) This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ لَا يُقۡضَىٰ عَلَيۡهِمۡ فَيَمُوتُواْ وَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنۡهُم مِّنۡ عَذَابِهَاۚ كَذَٲلِكَ نَجۡزِى كُلَّ ڪَفُورٍ۬

(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die, nor shall its torment be lightened for them. Thus do We requite every disbeliever!) (35:36) Allah also said,

﴿ وَيَتَجَنَّبُہَا ٱلۡأَشۡقَى ٱلَّذِى يَصۡلَى ٱلنَّارَ ٱلۡكُبۡرَىٰ ثُمَّ لَا يَمُوتُ فِيہَا وَلَا يَحۡيَىٰ

(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die nor live.) (87:11-13)

﴿ وَنَادَوۡاْ يَـٰمَـٰلِكُ لِيَقۡضِ عَلَيۡنَا رَبُّكَ‌ۖ قَالَ إِنَّكُم مَّـٰكِثُونَ

(And they will cry: "O Malik (Keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord made an end of us.'' He will say: "Verily, you shall abide forever.'') (43:77) Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَمَّا أَهْلُ النَّارِ الَّذِينَ هُمْ أَهْلُهَا، فَإِنَّهُمْ لَا يَمُوتُونَ فِيهَا وَلَا يَحْيَوْنَ، وَلكِنْ أُنَاسٌ تُصِيبُهُمُ النَّارُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ فَتُمِيتُهُمْ إِمَاتَةً حَتَّى إِذَا صَارُوا فَحْمًا أُذِنَ فِي الشَّفَاعَةِ فَجِيءَ بِهِمْ ضَبَائِرَ ضَبَائِرَ، فَبُثُّوا عَلَى أَنْهَارِ الْجَنَّةِ، فَيُقَالُ: يَا أَهْلَ الْجَنَّةِ أَفِيضُوا عَلَيْهِمْ، فَيَنْبُتُونَ نَبَاتَ الْحِبَّةِ تَكُونُ فِي حَمِيلِ السَّيْل »

(The dwellers of Hellfire, who are those who deserve it, they will not die in it, nor will they be living. Rather, they will be a people who will be punished by the Fire due to their sins. It will be gradually killing them and devouring them until they become burnt coals. Then, intercession will be allowed and they will be brought (out of Hell) group by group and they will be spread on the rivers of Paradise. It will then be said, "O people of Paradise, pour (water) over them.'' Then, they will start to grow like the growing of a seed on the muddy banks of a flowing river.) A man among the people said, "It is as if the Messenger of Allah lived in the desert.'' This is how Muslim recorded this narration in his Sahih. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَمَن يَأۡتِهِۦ مُؤۡمِنً۬ا قَدۡ عَمِلَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ

(But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds,) whoever meets his Lord on the Day of Judgment as a believer in his heart, then verily, his intentions in his heart will be affirmed to be true by his statements and deeds.

﴿ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمُ ٱلدَّرَجَـٰتُ ٱلۡعُلَىٰ

(for such are the high ranks,) Paradise, which has the highest levels, the most tranquil rooms and the nicest homes. Imam Ahmad reported from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Prophet said,

« الْجَنَّةُ مِائَةُ دَرَجَةٍ مَا بَيْنَ كُلِّ دَرَجَتَيْنِ كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ، وَالْفِرْدَوْسُ أَعْلَاهَا دَرَجَةً، وَمِنْهَا تَخْرُجُ الْأَنْهَارُ الْأَرْبَعَةُ، وَالْعَرْشُ فَوْقَهَا، فَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُ اللهَ فَاسْأَلُوهُ الْفِرْدَوْس »

(Paradise has one hundred levels and between each level is a distance like the distance between the sky and the earth. Al-Firdaws is the name of the highest of its levels. From it springs the four rivers and the Throne is above it. Therefore, when you ask Allah, then ask Him for Al-Firdaws.) This narration was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ أَهْلَ عِلِّيِّينَ لَيَرَوْنَ مَنْ فَوْقَهُمْ كَمَا تَرَوْنَ الْكَوْكَبَ الْغَابِرَ فِي أُفُقِ السَّمَاءِ لِتَفَاضُلِ مَا بَيْنَهُمْ قَالُوا: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ تِلْكَ مَنَازِلُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ قَالَ: بَلى، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ رِجَالٌ آمَنُوا بِاللهِ وَصَدَّقُوا الْمُرْسَلِين »

(Verily, the people of the `Illiyyin will see those who are above them just as you see the fading star in the horizon of the sky, due to the different status of virtue between them.) The people said, "O Messenger of Allah, these are the dwellings of the Prophets.'' He replied, (Of course. And I swear by the One Whom my soul is in His Hand, (it is for) men who had faith in Allah and they believed the Messengers.) In the Sunan collections this narration is mentioned with the additional wording,

« وَإِنَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ لَمِنْهُمْ وَأَنْعَمَا »

(And verily Abu Bakr and `Umar are of them and they will be most favored.) His saying,

﴿ جَنَّـٰتُ عَدۡنٍ۬

(Adn Gardens,) meaning established as a residence. It is merely used here in reference to the high ranks mentioned previously.

﴿ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا‌ۚ

(under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever,) meaning that they will abide in it for eternity.

﴿ وَذَٲلِكَ جَزَآءُ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ

(and such is the reward of those who purify themselves.) One who purifies himself from dirt, filth and associating partners with Allah. This is the person who worships Allah alone, without ascribing partners to Him, and he follows the Messengers in the good they came with all that they claim.

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰٓ أَنۡ أَسۡرِ بِعِبَادِى فَٱضۡرِبۡ لَهُمۡ طَرِيقً۬ا فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ يَبَسً۬ا لَّا تَخَـٰفُ دَرَكً۬ا وَلَا تَخۡشَىٰ فَأَتۡبَعَہُمۡ فِرۡعَوۡنُ بِجُنُودِهِۦ فَغَشِيَہُم مِّنَ ٱلۡيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَہُمۡ وَأَضَلَّ فِرۡعَوۡنُ قَوۡمَهُ ۥ وَمَا هَدَىٰ

(77. And indeed We revealed to Musa: "Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid.'') (78. Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea ﴿Al-Yamm completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.) (79. And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.)

The Children of Israel leave Egypt

Allah, the Exalted, informs that He commanded Musa to journey at night with the Children of Israel, when Fir`awn refused to release them and send them with Musa. He was to take them away from Fir`awn's captivity. Allah expounds upon this in Surahs other than this noble Surah. Musa left with the Children of Israel, and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that not a single one of them remained in Egypt. Fir`awn became extremely furious. He sent callers into all of the cities to gather together his army from all of his lands and provinces. He said to them,

﴿ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ لَشِرۡذِمَةٌ۬ قَلِيلُونَ وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَنَا لَغَآٮِٕظُونَ

(Verily, these indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) (26:54-55) Then when he gathered his army and organized his troops, he set out after them and they followed them at dawn when the sun began to rise.

﴿ فَلَمَّا تَرَٲٓءَا ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِ

(And when the two hosts saw each other) (26:61) This means that each person of the two parties was looking at the other party.

﴿ فَلَمَّا تَرَٲٓءَا ٱلۡجَمۡعَانِ قَالَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ مُوسَىٰٓ إِنَّا لَمُدۡرَكُونَ قَالَ كَلَّآ‌ۖ إِنَّ مَعِىَ رَبِّى سَيَہۡدِينِ

(The companions of Musa said: "We are sure to be overtaken.'' (Musa) said: "Nay, verily, with me is my Lord. He will guide me.'') (26:61-62) Musa stopped with the Children of Israel and the sea was in front of them and Fir`awn was behind them. Then, at that moment, Allah revealed to Musa,

﴿ فَٱضۡرِبۡ لَهُمۡ طَرِيقً۬ا فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ يَبَسً۬ا

(And strike a dry path for them in the sea.) So Musa struck the sea with his stick and he said, "Split for me, by the leave of Allah.'' Thus, it split, and each separate part of the water became like a huge mountain. Then, Allah sent a wind to the land of the sea and it burned the soil until it became dry like the ground that is on land. For this reason Allah said,

﴿ فَٱضۡرِبۡ لَهُمۡ طَرِيقً۬ا فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ يَبَسً۬ا لَّا تَخَـٰفُ دَرَكً۬ا

(and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken...) This means being caught by Fir`awn.

﴿ وَلَا تَخۡشَىٰ

(nor being afraid.) meaning, "Do not be afraid of the sea drowning your people.'' Then, Allah, the Exalted, said,

﴿ فَأَتۡبَعَہُمۡ فِرۡعَوۡنُ بِجُنُودِهِۦ فَغَشِيَہُم مِّنَ ٱلۡيَمِّ

(Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea (Al-Yamm) completely overwhelmed them) Al-Yamm means the sea.

﴿ مَا غَشِيَہُمۡ

(and covered them up.) meaning, covered them up with a thing that was well-familiar to them in such a situa- tion, as Allah states;

﴿ وَٱلۡمُؤۡتَفِكَةَ أَهۡوَىٰ فَغَشَّٮٰهَا مَا غَشَّىٰ

(And He destroyed the overthrown cities. So there covered them that which did cover.) (53:53-54) As Fir`awn pursued them into the sea, misled his people and did not lead them to the path of correct guidance, likewise, he will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them in to the Hellfire. And evil indeed is the place to which they are led.

﴿ يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ قَدۡ أَنجَيۡنَـٰكُم مِّنۡ عَدُوِّكُمۡ وَوَٲعَدۡنَـٰكُمۡ جَانِبَ ٱلطُّورِ ٱلۡأَيۡمَنَ وَنَزَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡمَنَّ وَٱلسَّلۡوَىٰ
﴿ كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـٰتِ مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ وَلَا تَطۡغَوۡاْ فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غَضَبِى‌ۖ وَمَن يَحۡلِلۡ عَلَيۡهِ غَضَبِى فَقَدۡ هَوَىٰ وَإِنِّى لَغَفَّارٌ۬ لِّمَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا ثُمَّ ٱهۡتَدَىٰ

(80. O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you manna and quail,) (81. (Saying) eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) (82. And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then Ihtada.)

A Reminder for the Children of Israel of

Allah's Favors upon Them Allah reminds of His tremendous favors upon the Children of Israel and His numerous blessings. He saved them from their enemy, Fir`awn, and He relieved their eyes by drowning him and his hosts all at one time while they watched. Allah said,

﴿ وَأَغۡرَقۡنَآ ءَالَ فِرۡعَوۡنَ وَأَنتُمۡ تَنظُرُونَ

(And We drowned Fir`awn people while you were looking.) (2:50) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura'. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.' Then, the Prophet said,

« نَحْنُ أَوْلَى بِمُوسَى فَصُومُوه »

(We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.) Muslim also recorded this narration in his Sahih. Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa and the Children of Israel on the right side of the Mountain, after the destruction of Fir`awn. This is the Mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa and He told Musa's people to look at it when they requested to see Allah. It is also the same Mountain upon which Musa was given the Tawrah, while at the same time the Children of Israel began worshipping the (statue of a) calf, as Allah relates in the forth coming Ayat. The manna and quails have previously been discussed in Surah Al-Baqarah and other Surahs. Manna was a sweet substance that descended upon them from the sky and the quail (Salwa) was a type of bird that would fall down to them. They would fill every pot with them as ample provisions until the following day. This was a kindness and a mercy from Allah upon them. It was a manifestation of Allah's good treatment of them. For this reason Allah says,

﴿ كُلُواْ مِن طَيِّبَـٰتِ مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ وَلَا تَطۡغَوۡاْ فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غَضَبِى‌ۖ

(Eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, "Eat from this sustenance which I have provided for you, and do not transgress against My sustenance by taking it without necessity or you will be opposing what I have commanded you.''

﴿ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غَضَبِى‌ۖ

(lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, "I will become angry with you.''

﴿ وَمَن يَحۡلِلۡ عَلَيۡهِ غَضَبِى فَقَدۡ هَوَىٰ

(And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means that he will indeed be made miserable.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَإِنِّى لَغَفَّارٌ۬ لِّمَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا

(And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds,) meaning, "Whoever turns to Me in repentance, then I will accept his repentance regardless of whatever sin he did.'' Allah, the Exalted, even accepts the repentance of the Children of Israel who worshipped the calf. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ تَابَ

(who repents,) This means to turn away from what one was involved in of disbelief, associating partners with Allah, disobedience of Allah or hypocrisy. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَءَامَنَ

(and believes) This means the person's belief in his heart.

﴿ وَعَمِلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا

(and does righteous deeds,) his action with his bodily limbs. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ ثُمَّ ٱهۡتَدَىٰ

(and then Ihtada.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means that he then does not doubt.'' Qatadah said,

﴿ ثُمَّ ٱهۡتَدَىٰ

(and then Ihtada.) "This means he adheres to Islam until he dies.'' We see here that there is a specific order in which these things are presented. This is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ ثُمَّ كَانَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَتَوَاصَوۡاْ بِٱلصَّبۡرِ وَتَوَاصَوۡاْ بِٱلۡمَرۡحَمَةِ

(Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to perseverance and patience and recommended one another to pity and compassion.) (90:17)

﴿ وَمَآ أَعۡجَلَكَ عَن قَوۡمِكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ قَالَ هُمۡ أُوْلَآءِ عَلَىٰٓ أَثَرِى وَعَجِلۡتُ إِلَيۡكَ رَبِّ لِتَرۡضَىٰ قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدۡ فَتَنَّا قَوۡمَكَ مِنۢ بَعۡدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ ٱلسَّامِرِىُّ فَرَجَعَ مُوسَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ قَوۡمِهِۦ غَضۡبَـٰنَ أَسِفً۬ا‌ۚ قَالَ يَـٰقَوۡمِ أَلَمۡ يَعِدۡكُمۡ رَبُّكُمۡ وَعۡدًا حَسَنًا‌ۚ أَفَطَالَ عَلَيۡڪُمُ ٱلۡعَهۡدُ أَمۡ أَرَدتُّمۡ أَن يَحِلَّ عَلَيۡكُمۡ غَضَبٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ فَأَخۡلَفۡتُم مَّوۡعِدِى قَالُواْ مَآ أَخۡلَفۡنَا مَوۡعِدَكَ بِمَلۡكِنَا وَلَـٰكِنَّا حُمِّلۡنَآ أَوۡزَارً۬ا مِّن زِينَةِ ٱلۡقَوۡمِ فَقَذَفۡنَـٰهَا فَكَذَٲلِكَ أَلۡقَى ٱلسَّامِرِىُّ فَأَخۡرَجَ لَهُمۡ عِجۡلاً۬ جَسَدً۬ا لَّهُ ۥ خُوَارٌ۬ فَقَالُواْ هَـٰذَآ إِلَـٰهُڪُمۡ وَإِلَـٰهُ مُوسَىٰ فَنَسِىَ أَفَلَا يَرَوۡنَ أَلَّا يَرۡجِعُ إِلَيۡهِمۡ قَوۡلاً۬ وَلَا يَمۡلِكُ لَهُمۡ ضَرًّ۬ا وَلَا نَفۡعً۬ا

(83. "And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa) (84. He said: "They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.'') (85. (Allah) said: "Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.'') (86. Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow (Asif). He said: "O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise Did then the promise seem to you long in coming Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, that you broke your promise to me'') (87. They said: "We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the people, then we cast them, and that was what As-Samiri suggested.'') (88. Then he took out for them a calf which was mooing. They said: "This is your god, and the god of Musa,'' but he had forgotten.) (89. Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good)