Allah, the Exalted, says,
(On that day) the Day of Resurrection,
(no intercession shall avail.) meaning with Him (Allah).
(except the one for whom the Most Gracious has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him.) This is similar to His statement,
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255) It is also similar to His statement,
(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) (53:26) He also says,
(And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.) (21:28) He also says,
(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) (34:23) And He says,
(The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious allows, and he will speak what is right.) (78:38) In the Two Sahihs it is reported from the leader of the Children of Adam and the Noblest of all the creatures to Allah, Muhammad:
(I will come under the Throne and I will fall down into prostration. Then, I will be inspired to make praises (of Allah) that I am not able to recall them now. Allah will leave me in this condition as long as He wishes. Then, He will say, "O Muhammad, raise your head. Speak and you will be heard, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.'' Then, a designated group will be allowed for me (to intercede on their behalf). Allah will then enter them into Paradise and I will return (to repeat the process again). ) The Prophet mentioned doing this four times. May Allah's blessings and peace be upon him and the rest of the Prophets as well. In another Hadith it also mentions that he said,
(Allah, the Exalted, will say, "Bring out of the Fire whoever has a seed's weight of faith in his heart.'' So a large number of people will be brought out. Then He will say, "Bring out of the Fire whoever has a half of a seed's weight of faith in his heart. Bring out whoever has the weight of a speck of dust in his heart. Bring out whoever has the weight of the smallest and tiniest particle of dust of faith in his heart.'') And the Hadith continues. Concerning Allah's statement,
(He knows what happens to them and what will happen to them,) He encompasses all creation with His knowledge.
(but they will never encompass anything of His knowledge.) This is like His statement,
(And they will never encompass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills.) (2:255) Concerning Allah's statement,
(And (all) faces shall be humbled before the Ever Living, the Sustainer.) Ibn `Abbas and others said, "This means that the creatures will be humbled, submissive and compliant to their Compeller, the Ever Living, Who does not die, the Sustainer of all, Who does not sleep.'' He is the maintainer of everything. He determines the affairs of everything and preserves everything. He is perfect in His Self. He is the One Whom everything is in need of and whom nothing could survive without. Concerning His statement,
(And he who carried wrongdoing, will be indeed a complete failure.) meaning on the Day of Resurrection. For verily, Allah will give every due right to the one who deserved it. Even the ram who lost its horn will be given revenge against the one who had horns. In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Prophet said,
(Beware of wrongdoing (or oppression), for verily, wrongdoing will be darknesses on the Day of Resurrection.) And the true failure is for whoever meets Allah while associating partners with Him. Allah the Exalted says,
("Verily, associating partners with Me is the great wrongdoing.'') Allah's statement,
(And he who works deeds of righteousness, while he is a believer, then he will have no fear of injustice, nor of any curtailment.) After Allah mentions the wrongdoers and their threat, He then commends the pious people and mentions the judgement they receive. Their judgement is that they will not be wronged nor oppressed. This means that their evils will not be increased and their good deeds will not be decreased. This was stated by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others. Zulm means an increase that comes from the sins of others being placed upon the person, and Hadm means a decrease.
(113. And thus We have sent it down as a Qur'an in Arabic, and have explained therein in detail the warnings, in order that they may have Taqwa, or that it may cause them to have a lesson from it.) (114. Then High above all be Allah, the True King. And be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: "My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.'')
After Allah, the Exalted, mentions that on the Day of Judgement both the good and the evil will be recompensed and there is no avoiding it, He then explains that the Qur'an was revealed as a bringer of glad tidings and a warner in the clear and eloquent Arabic language. There is no confusion or deficiency in it.
(And thus We have sent it down as a Qur'an in Arabic, and have explained therein in detail the warnings, in order that they may have Taqwa of,) This means: so that they will leave off sins, forbidden things and lewd abominations.
(or that it may cause them to have a lesson from it.) This means: to produce acts of obedience and deeds that will bring one closer to Allah.
(Then High above all be Allah, the True King.) This means: Most Holy and Majestic is He, the True King, Who is Himself the Truth and His promise is true. Likewise, His threat is true, His Messengers are true, the Paradise is true, the Hellfire is true and everything from Him is true. His justice is that He does not punish anyone before warning them, sending Messengers to them and granting excuses to His creatures, so that no one will have any argument or doubt (on Judgment Day).
Concerning Allah's statement,
(And be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation is completed to you,) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(Move not your tongue to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to give you the ability to recite it. And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recital. Then it is for Us to made it clear (to you).) (75:16-19) It is confirmed in the Sahih on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, who said that the Messenger of Allah used to go through great pains to retain the revelation. In doing so he used to move his tongue rapidly with its recital. Then, Allah revealed this Ayah. This means that whenever Jibril would say an Ayah, the Prophet would say it with him due to his eagerness to memorize it. Then, Allah guided him to that which was easier and lighter in this matter, to relieve him of this difficulty. Allah said,
(Move not your tongue to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to give you the ability to recite it.) (75:16-17) Meaning, "We will gather it in your chest, then you will recite it to the people without forgetting anything of it.''
(And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recital. Then it is for Us to made it clear (to you).) (75:18-19) And He said in this Ayah,
(And be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation is completed to you,) This is a command to the Prophet to listen quietly: `Then, when the angel (Jibril) completes reciting to you, you recite it after him.'
(and say: "My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.'') meaning, "Give me more knowledge from You.'' Ibn `Uyaynah said, "The Prophet did not cease increasing (in knowledge) until Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, took him (i.e. he died).''
(115. And indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm willpower.) (116. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves to Adam.'' They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.) (117. Then We said: "O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.'') (118. "You will never be hungry therein nor naked.'') (119. "And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun's heat.'') (120. Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away'') (121. Then they both ate of the Tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he went astray.) (122. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.)
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Verily, man was named Insan only because he was given a covenant, but he forgot it (Nasiya).'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported the same from Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that he forgot means, "He abandoned it.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(And when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves to Adam.'') He, Allah mentions how Adam was honored and what respect was given to him. He mentions how He favored him over many of those whom He created. A discussion of this story has already preceded in Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Al-A`raf, Surat Al-Hijr and Surat Al-Kahf. It will also be mentioned again at the end of Surah Sad. In this story, Allah mentions the creation of Adam and that He commanded the angels to prostrate to Adam as a sign of honor and respect. He also explains the enmity of Iblis for the Children of Adam and for their father, Adam, before them. Due to this Allah says,
(They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.) This means that he refrained from prostrating and became arrogant.
(Then We said: "O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife...'') here wife refers to Hawwa'.
(So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.) meaning, `Do not be hasty in doing something that will get you expelled from Paradise, or else you will be fatigued, discomforted and worried, seeking your sustenance. But here, in Paradise, you live a life of ease with no burdens and no difficulties.'
(Verily, you will never be hungry therein nor naked.) The reason that Allah combined hunger and nakedness is because hunger is internal humiliation, while nakedness is external humiliation.
(And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun's heat.) These two characteristics are also opposites. Thirst is the internal heat and being parched from lack of water, while the suns heat is the external heat.
(Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: "O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away'') It has already been mentioned that he caused them to fall through deception.
(And he swore by Allah to them both: "Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.'') (7:21) It has already preceded in our discussion that Allah took a promise from Adam and his wife that although they could eat from every fruit, they could not come near a specific tree in Paradise. However, Iblis did not cease prodding them until they both had eaten from it. It was the Tree of Eternity (Shajarat Al-Khuld). This meant that anyone who ate from it would live forever and always remain. A Hadith has been narrated which mentions this Tree of Eternity. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,
(Verily, in Paradise there is a tree which a rider can travel under its shade for one hundred years and still not have passed it. It is the Tree of Eternity.) Imam Ahmad also recorded this narration. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, Allah created Adam as a tall man with an abundance of hair on his head. He looked like a clothed palm tree. Then, when he tasted (the fruit of) the tree, his clothes fell off of him. The first thing that became exposed was his private parts. So when he noticed his nakedness, he tried to run back into Paradise. However, in the process a tree caught hold of his hair (i.e. his hair was tangled in a tree), so he ripped his hair out. Then, the Most Beneficent called out to him saying, "O Adam, are you fleeing from me'' When he heard the Words of the Most Beneficent, he said, "No my Lord, but I am ashamed. If I repent and recant would You let me return to Paradise'' Allah replied, "Yes.'') This is the meaning of Allah's statement,
(Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him.) (2:37) However, this narration has a break in the chain of transmission between Al-Hasan and Ubayy bin Ka`b. Al-Hasan did not hear this Hadith from Ubayy. It is questionable as to whether this narration can be correctly attributed to the Prophet. Allah said,
(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering.) Mujahid said, "They patched the leaves on themselves in the form of a garment.'' Qatadah and As-Suddi both said the same. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,
(Musa argued with Adam and he said to him, "Are you the one who got mankind expelled from Paradise because of your sin and you caused them grief!'' Adam replied, "Are you the one whom Allah chose for His Divine Messages and His direct Speech Are you blaming me for a matter that Allah wrote upon me before He created me'') Then, the Messenger of Allah said, (Thus, Adam defeated Musa.) This Hadith has various routes of transmission in the Two Sahihs as well as the Musnad collections.
(123. He (Allah) said: "Get you down, both of you, together, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance he shall neither go astray nor shall be distressed.) (124. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder, verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.'') (125. He will say: "O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before).'') (126. (Allah) will say: "Like this Our Ayat came unto you, but you disregarded them, and so this Day, you will be neglected.'')