Allah denounces those who take other gods instead of Him:
(Or have they taken gods from the earth who raise the dead) meaning, can they bring the dead back to life and bring them forth from the earth They cannot do any of that, so how can they make them rivals to Allah and worship them alongside Him Then Allah tells us that if there were another god besides Him, the heavens and the earth would be ruined:
(Had there been therein gods) means, in the heavens and the earth,
(then verily, both would have been ruined.) This is like the Ayah:
(No son did Allah beget, nor is there any god along with Him. Then each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have tried to overcome others! Glorified be Allah above all that they attribute to Him!) (23:91). And Allah says here:
(Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, above all that they associate with Him!) meaning, glorified be He above what they say about Him having offspring or partners; glorified and exalted and sanctified be He far above all the lies that they fabricate.
(He cannot be questioned about what He does, while they will be questioned.) He is the Ruler Whose rule cannot be overturned and none can object to it, because of His might, majesty, pride, knowledge, wisdom, justice and subtlety.
(while they will be questioned.) means, He is the One Who will ask His creation about what they did. This is like the Ayah:
(So, by your Lord, We shall certainly call all of them to account. For all that they used to do.) (15:92-93)
(And He protects (all), while against Whom there is no protector) (23:88)
(24. Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say: "Bring your proof. This is the Reminder for those with me and the Reminder for those before me.'' But most of them know not the Truth, so they are averse.) (25. And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no God but I, so worship Me.'')
(Or have they taken for worship gods besides Him Say:) -- O Muhammad --
(Bring your proof.) your evidence for what you are saying.
(This is the Reminder for those with me) means, the Qur'an.
(and the Reminder for those before me) means, the previous Books, unlike what you claim. Each Book was revealed to each Prophet who was sent with the message that there is no god except Allah, but you idolators do not recognize the truth, so you turn away from it. Allah says:
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "There is no god but I. ..'') This is like the Ayat:
(And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: "Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious'') (43:45)
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah, and avoid Taghut (all false deities).'') (16:36) Every Prophet who was sent by Allah called people to worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate. The natural inclination of man (Al-Fitrah) also bears witness to that. The idolators have no proof and their dispute is of no use before their Lord; on them is wrath, and for them will be a severe torment.
(26. And they say: "The Most Gracious has begotten children.'' Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) (27. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command.) (28. He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.) (29. And if any of them should say: "Verily, I am a god besides Him,'' such We should recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense the wrongdoers.)
Here Allah refutes those who claim that He has offspring among the angels -- exalted and sanctified be He. Some of the Arabs believed that the angels were the daughters of Allah, but Allah says:
(Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) meaning, the angels are servants of Allah who are honored by Him and who hold high positions of noble status. They obey Him to the utmost in all their words and deeds.
(They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command.) meaning, they do not initiate any matter before Him or go against His commands; on the contrary, they hasten to do as He commands, and He encompasses them with His knowledge so that nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him.
(He knows what is before them, and what is behind them,)
(and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased.) This is like the Ayat:
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255)
(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits) (34:23). There are many Ayat which say similar things.
(And they for fear of Him) means, because they fear Him.
(And they stand in awe. And if any of them should say: "Verily, I am a god besides Him,'') meaning, whoever claims to be a god instead of Allah, i.e., alongside Allah,
(such We should recompense with Hell. Thus We recompense the wrongdoers.) meaning, everyone who says this. This is a conditional sentence, and the condition stated does not necessarily have to take place. This is like the Ayat:
(Say: "If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of worshippers.'') (43:81)
(If you join others in worship with Allah, (then) surely, (all) your deeds will be in vain, and you will certainly be among the losers.) (39:65)
(30. Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were joined together as one united piece, then We parted them And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe) (31. And We have placed on the earth firm mountains, lest it should shake with them, and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided.) (32. And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs). (33. And He it is Who has created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon, each in an orbit floating.)
Here Allah tells of His perfect might and power in His creation and subjugation of all things.
(Have not those who disbelieve known) means, those who deny His Divine nature and worship others instead of Him, do they not realize that Allah is the One Who is Independent in His powers of creation and is running the affairs of all things with absolute power So how can it be appropriate to worship anything else beside Him or to associate others in worship with Him Do they not see that the heavens and the earth were joined together, i.e. in the beginning they were all one piece, attached to one another and piled up on top of one another, then He separated them from one another, and made the heavens seven and the earth seven, placing the air between the earth and the lowest heaven. Then He caused rain to fall from the sky and vegetation to grow from the earth. He says:
(And We have made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe) meaning, they see with their own eyes how creation develops step by step. All of that is proof of the existence of the Creator Who is in control of all things and is able to do whatever He wills.
Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from his father from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas was asked; "Did the night come first or the day'' He said, "Do you think that when the heavens and the earth were joined together, there was anything between them except darkness Thus you may know that the night came before the day. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Umar said that a man came to him and questioned him about when the heavens and earth were joined together then they were parted. He said, "Go to that old man (Shaykh) and ask him, then come and tell me what he says to you.'' So he went to Ibn `Abbas and asked him. Ibn `Abbas said: "Yes, the heavens were joined together and it did not rain, and the earth was joined together and nothing grew. When living beings were created to populate the earth, rain came forth from the heavens and vegetation came forth from the earth.'' The man went back to Ibn `Umar and told him what had been said. Ibn `Umar said, "Now I know that Ibn `Abbas has been given knowledge of the Qur'an. He has spoken the truth, and this is how it was.'' Ibn `Umar said: "I did not like the daring attitude of Ibn `Abbas in his Tafsir of the Qur'an, but now I know that he has been given knowledge of the Qur'an.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "The heavens and the earth were attached to one another, then when the heavens were raised up, the earth became separate from them, and this is their parting which was mentioned by Allah in His Book.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, "They were joined together, then they were separated by this air.''
(And We have made from water every living thing. ) meaning, the origin of every living thing is in water. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "I said: O Messenger of Allah, when I see you I feel happy and content, tell me about everything.'' He said,
(Everything was created from water.) "I said, tell me about something which, if I do it, I will enter Paradise.'' He said:
(Spread (the greeting of) Salam, feed others, uphold the ties of kinship, and stand in prayer at night when people are sleeping. Then you will enter Paradise in peace.) This chain of narration fulfills the conditions of the Two Sahihs, apart from Abu Maymunah, who is one of the men of the Sunans, his first name was Salim; and At-Tirmidhi classed him as Sahih.
(And We have placed on the earth firm mountains,) means, mountains which stabilize the earth and keep it steady and lend it weight, lest it should shake with the people, i.e., move and tremble so that they would not be able to stand firm on it -- because it is covered with water, apart from one-quarter of its surface. So the land is exposed to the air and sun, so that its people may see the sky with its dazzling signs and evidence. So Allah says,
(lest it should shake with them, ) meaning, so that it will not shake with them.
(and We placed therein broad highways for them to pass through,) means, mountain passes through which they may travel from region to region, country to country. As we can see, the mountains form barriers between one land and another, so Allah created gaps -- passes -- in the mountains so that people may travel from here to there. So He says:
(that they may be guided.)
(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded.) means, covering the earth like a dome above it. This is like the Ayah,
(With Hands We constructed the heaven. Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.) (51:47)
(By the heaven and Him Who built it.) (91:5)
(Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no rifts in it) (50:6). The building and making described here refers to the raising of the dome, as when the Messenger of Allah said,
(Islam is built on five.) i.e., five pillars, which can only refer to a tent as familiar among the Arabs.
(safe and well-guarded.) means, high and protected from anything reaching it. Mujahid said, "Raised up.''
(Yet they turn away from its signs.) This is like the Ayah:
(And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth they pass by, while they are averse therefrom) (12:105). They do not think about how Allah has created it, so vast and high, and adorned it with heavenly bodies both stationary and moving by night and day, such as the sun which completes its circuit in one day and night, until it completes its allotted time, which no one knows except Allah, Who created it and subjugated it and directed its course. Then Allah says, drawing attention to some of His signs,
(And He it is Who has created the night and the day,) meaning, the one with its darkness and stillness, and the other with its light and human interaction; sometimes the one is longer while the other is shorter, then they switch.
(and the sun and the moon,) the sun with its own light and its own path and orbit and allotted time, and the moon which shines with a different light and travels on a different path and has its own allotted time.
(each in an orbit floating.) means, revolving. Ibn `Abbas said, "They revolve like a spinning wheel, in a circle.'' This is like the Ayah:
((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96)
(34. And We granted not to any human being immortality before you; then if you die, would they live forever) (35. Everyone is going to taste death, and We shall test you with evil and with good by way of trial. And to Us you will be returned.)