(Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels) on the Day of Resurrection to judge the early and the latter creations. Allah shall then reward each according to his or her deeds; and whoever does good shall see it, and whoever does evil shall see it. This is why Allah said:
((Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allah return all matters (for decision).)
Similarly, Allah said:
(Nay! When the earth is ground to powder. And your Lord comes with the angels in rows. And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him) (89:21-23) and:
(Do they then wait for anything other than that the angels should come to them, or that your Lord (Allah) should come, or that some of the signs of your Lord should come (i. e., portents of the Hour, e.g., rising of the sun from the west)!) (6:158)
Abu Ja`far Razi reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah narrated that:
(Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them over the shadows of the clouds and the angels) means, the angels will descend on the shadows of clouds, while Allah comes as He wills. Some of the reciters read it,
Do they then wait for anything other than that Allah should come to them and also the angels over the shadows of the clouds. This is similar to Allah's other statement:
(And (remember) the Day when the heaven shall be rent asunder with clouds, and the angels will be sent down, with a grand descending.) (25:25)
(211. Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them. And whoever changes Allah's favor after it has come to him, ﴿e.g., renounces the religion of Allah (Islam) and accepts Kufr (disbelief)﴾ then surely, Allah is severe in punishment.) (212. Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who have Taqwa, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah gives (of His bounty, blessings, favors, and honors on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit.)
Allah mentioned that the Children of Israel, were witnesses to many clear signs that attest to the truth of Moses regarding what he was sent with for them. They witnessed his hand (when it became lit with light), his parting the sea, his striking the rock (and water flowed from the rock), the clouds that shaded them during the intense heat, the manna and the quails, and so forth. These signs attested to the existence of the Creator and the truth of Moses by whose hand these signs appeared. Yet, so many among them changed Allah's favor, by preferring disbelief to faith and by ignoring Allah's favors,
(And whoever changes Allah's favor after it had come to him, then surely, Allah is severe in punishment.)
Similarly, Allah said about the disbelievers of Quraysh:
(Have you not seen those who have changed the blessings of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction Hell, in which they will burn, ـ and what an evil place to settle in!) (14:28, 29)
Then Allah states that He has made the life of this world beautiful for the disbelievers who are satisfied with it, who collect wealth, but refrain from spending it on what they have been commanded, which could earn them Allah's pleasure. Instead, they ridicule the believers who ignore this life and who spend whatever they earn on what pleases their Lord. The believers spend seeking Allah's Face, and this is why they have gained the ultimate happiness and the best share on the Day of the Return. Therefore, they will be exalted above the disbelievers at the Gathering Place, when they are gathered, during the resurrection and in their final destination. The believers will reside in the highest grades in the utmost highs, while the disbelievers will reside in the lowest of lows (in the Fire).
This is why Allah said:
(And Allah gives to whom He wills without limit.)
This Ayah indicates that Allah gives sustenance to whomever He wills of His servants without count or limit in this and the Hereafter. A Hadith has stated (that Allah said):
(O son of Adam! Spend (in Allah's cause) and I (Allah) will spend on you.) The Prophet said:
(O Bilal! Spend and do not fear deprivation from the Owner of the Throne.)
(...and whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah's cause), He will replace it.) (34:39) In addition, it is reported in the Sahih (that the Prophet said):
(Every day two angels come down from heavens and one of them says, `O Allah! Compensate every person who spends in Your cause,' and the other (angel) says, `O Allah! Destroy every miser.') Also in the Sahih:
(The son of Adam says, `My money, my money!' Yet, what is your money except that which you eat and use up, wear and tear, and spend in charity and thus keep (in your record). Other than that, it will go away and will be left for the people (the inheritors).)
In addition, Imam Ahmad reported that the Prophet said:
(The Dunya (life of this world) is the residence of those who have no residence, the wealth of those who have no wealth, and it is harvested by those who have no sense of reason.)
(213. Mankind was one community and Allah sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent down the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred, one to another. Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path).
Ibn Jarir reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "There were ten generations between Adam and Nuh, all of them on the religion of Truth. They later disputed so Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.'' He then said that this is how `Abdullah read the Ayah:
The people were one Ummah and they then disputed.
Al-Hakim recorded this in his Mustadrak and said, "Its chain of narrators is Sahih, but they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not record it.'' Abu Ja`far Razi reported that Abu Al-`Aliyah said that Ubayy bin Ka`b read the Ayah as:
The people were one Ummah and they then disputed and Allah sent the Prophets as warners and bringers of glad tidings.
`Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that Allah's statement:
(Mankind was one community) means; "They all had the guidance. Then:
They disputed and Allah sent Prophets.
The first to be sent was Nuh."
`Abdur-Razzaq reported that Abu Hurayrah commented on:
(Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed.) saying that the Prophet said:
(We are the last (nation), but the first (foremost) on the Day of Resurrection. We are the first people to enter Paradise, although they (Jews and Christians) have been given the Book before us and we after them. Allah has guided us to the truth wherever they disputed over it. This is the day (Friday) that they disputed about, Allah guided us to it. So, the people follow us, as tomorrow is for the Jews and the day after is for the Christians.)
Ibn Wahb related that `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that his father said about the Ayah:
(Then Allah by His leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed.)
They disputed about the day of Congregation (Friday). The Jews made it Saturday while the Christians chose Sunday. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to Friday. They also disputed about the true Qiblah. The Christians faced the east while the Jews faced Bayt Al-Maqdis. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the true Qiblah (Ka`bah in Makkah). They also disputed about the prayer, as some of them bow down, but do not prostrate, while others prostrate, but do not bow down. Some of them pray while talking and some while walking. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth. They also disputed about the fast; some of them fast during a part of the day, while others fast from certain types of foods. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth. They also disputed about Ibrahim. The Jews said, `He was a Jew,' while the Christians considered him Christian. Allah has made him a Haniyfan Musliman. Allah has guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.
They also disputed about `Isa. The Jews rejected him and accused his mother of a grave sin, while the Christians made him a god and the son of God. Allah made him by His Word and a spirit from (those He created) Him. Allah guided the Ummah of Muhammad to the truth.''
Allah then said:
(...by His leave) meaning, `By His knowledge of them and by what He has directed and guided them to,' according to Ibn Jarir. Also:
(And Allah guides whom He wills) means from among His creation. (Allah said:)
(...to the straight way) meaning, He commands the decision and the clear proof. Al-Bukhari and Muslim reported that `A'ishah narrated that when Allah's Messenger used to wake up at night to pray, he would say:
(O Allah, the Lord of (angels) Jibril, Mika'il and Israfil, Creator of the heavens and earth and Knower of the seen and the unseen. You judge between Your servants regarding what they have disputed in, so guide me to what have been the subject of dispute of the truth by Your leave. Indeed, You guide whom You will to the straight path.)
A Du`a reads:
(O Allah! Show us the truth as truth, and bestow adherence to it on us. Show us the evil as evil, and make us stay away from it, and do not confuse us regarding the reality of evil so that we will not be led astray by it, and make us leaders for the believers.)
(214. Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah'' Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!)
(Or think you that you will enter Paradise) before you are tested and tried just like the nations that came before you This is why Allah said:
(...without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments) meaning, illnesses, pain, disasters and hardships. Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Murrah Al-Hamdani, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi`, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that
(Al-Ba'sa') means poverty. Ibn `Abbas said that
(...and Ad-Darra') means ailments.
(and were so shaken) for fear of the enemy, and were tested, and put to a tremendous trial. An authentic Hadith narrated that Khabbab bin Al-Aratt said, "We said, `O Messenger of Allah! Why do you not invoke Allah to support us? Why do you not supplicate to Allah for us?' He said:
(The saw would be placed on the middle of the head of one of those who were before you (believers) and he would be sawn until his feet, and he would be combed with iron combs between his skin and bones, yet that would not make him change his religion.)
He then said:
(By Allah! This matter (religion) will spread (or expand) by Allah until the traveler leaves San`a' to Hadramawt (both in Yemen, but at a great distance from each other) fearing only Allah and then the wolf for the sake of his sheep. You are just a hasty people.)
And Allah said:
(Alif-Lam-Mim. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested And We indeed tested those who were before them. And Allah will certainly make (it) known (the truth of) those who are true, and will certainly make (it) known (the falsehood of) those who are liars.) (29:1-3)
The Companions experienced tremendous trials during the battle of Al-Ahzab (the Confederates). Allah said:
(When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (of doubts) said: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!'') (33:10-12)
When Heraclius asked Abu Sufyan, "Did you fight him (Prophet Muhammad)'' He said, "Yes.'' Heraclius said, "What was the outcome of warfare between you'' Abu Sufyan said, "Sometimes we lose and sometimes he loses.'' He said, "Such is the case with Prophets, they are tested, but the final victory is theirs.''
(...without (such) (trials) as came to those who passed away before you) meaning, their way of life. Similarly, Allah said:
(Then We destroyed men stronger (in power) than these ـ and the example of the ancients has passed away (before them)) (43: 8) and:
(...were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah.'')
They pleaded (to Allah) for victory against their enemies and invoked Him for aid and deliverance from their hardships and trials. Allah said:
(Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!)
(Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along with every hardship is relief.) (94:5, 6)
So just as there is hardship, its equal of relief will soon arrive. This is why Allah said:
(Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!)
(215. They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend. Say: "Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al-Masakin (the poor) and the wayfarer, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.'')