(That they may witness things that are of benefit to them,) Ibn `Abbas said, "Benefits in this world and in the Hereafter.'' Benefits of the Hereafter includes Allah's pleasure. Material benefits in this world include sacrificial animals and trade.'' This was also the view of Mujahid and others, that the benefits come in this world and in the Hereafter. This is like the Ayah:
(There is no sin on you if you seek the bounty of your Lord) [2:198].
(and mention the Name of Allah on appointed days, over the beast of cattle that He has provided for them (for sacrifice).) Shu`bah and Hushaym narrated from Abu Bishr from Sa`id from Ibn `Abbas, "The appointed days are the ten days (of Dhul-Hijjah). Al-Bukhari narrated this with a disconnected chain in a manner denoting his approval of it. Something similar was narrated from Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, Mujahid, Qatadah, `Ata', Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata' Al-Khurasani and Ibrahim An-Nakha`i. Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet said:
(No deeds are more virtuous than deeds done on these days.) They said, "Not even Jihad for the sake of Allah'' He said,
(Not even Jihad for the sake of Allah, unless a man goes out risking himself and his wealth for the sake of Allah, and does not come back with anything.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(There are no days that are greater before Allah or in which deeds are more beloved to Him than these ten days, so increase your Tahlil, Takbir, and Tahmid during these days.) Al-Bukhari said, "Ibn `Umar and Abu Hurayrah used to go out in the marketplace during the ten days and say Takbir, and the people would say Takbir when they said Takbir.'' These ten days include the day of `Arafah. It was recorded in Sahih Muslim that Abu Qatadah said, "The Messenger of Allah was asked about fasting on the day of `Arafah, and he said,
(I hope by Allah that it will be an expiation for the previous year and the coming year.) These ten days include the day of An-Nahr (Sacrifice), which is the greatest day of Hajj, and it was recorded in a Hadith that it is the most virtuous day to Allah.
(over the beast of cattle that He has provided for them.) means, camels, cattle and sheep, as Allah explained in Surat Al-An`am:
(eight pairs) [6:143]
(Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor having a hard time.) It was recorded that when the Messenger of Allah offered his sacrifice, he commanded that part of each animal should be taken and cooked, and he ate some of the meat and drank some of the broth.
(Then eat thereof) Hushaym narrated from Husayn, from Mujahid, "This is like the Ayat:
(But when you finish the Ihram, you may hunt) [5:2]
(Then when the (Jumu`ah) Salah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land) [62:10]. This was the view favored by Ibn Jarir in his Tafsir.
(the poor having a hard time.) `Ikrimah said, "This means the one who is in desperate need whose poverty is apparent, and the poor person who is too proud to ask others for help.'' Mujahid said, "The one who does not stretch forth his hand (to ask for help).''
(Then let them complete their prescribed duties) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means ending Ihram by shaving one's head, putting on one's ordinary clothes, trimming one's nails and so on.'' This was also reported from him by `Ata' and Mujahid. This was also the view of `Ikrimah and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi.
(and perform their vows,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, this means any vows made about sacrificing a camel.
(and circumambulate the `Atiq House. ) Mujahid said, "This means the Tawaf which is obligatory on the day of Sacrifice.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hamzah said, "Ibn `Abbas said to me: `Have you read in Surat Al-Hajj where Allah says:
(and circumambulate the `Atiq House.) The end of rituals is the Tawaf around the `Atiq House.''' I say, this is what the Messenger of Allah did. When he came back from Mina on the day of Sacrifice, he began with stoning the Jamrah, stoning it with seven pebbles, then he offered his sacrifice and shaved his head, then he departed and circumambulated the House.'' In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The people were commanded to end their visit to the Ka`bah by circumambulating the House, but menstruating women are exempt from this.
(the `Atiq House) the area from behind Al-Hijr, because this was originally part of the Ka`bah built by Ibrahim, but the Quraysh excluded it from the House (when they had to rebuild it) because they were short of funds. The Messenger of Allah included it in his Tawaf and said that it is part of the House. He did not acknowledge the two Shami corners, because they were not built precisely upon the original foundations of Ibrahim. Qatadah narrated that Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented on the Ayah,
(and circumambulate the `Atiq House.) "Because it is the first House established for mankind.'' This was also the view of `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. It was recorded that `Ikrimah said, "It was called Al-Bayt Al-`Atiq because it survived (U`tiqa) from the flood at the time of Nuh.'' Khusayf said, "It was called Al-Bayt Al-`Atiq because it was never conquered by any tyrant.''
(30. That and whoever honors the sacred things of Allah, then that is better for him with his Lord. The cattle are lawful to you, except those (that will be) mentioned to you. So shun the Rijs of the idols, and shun false speech.) (31. Hunafa' Lillah, not associating partners unto Him; and whoever assigns partners to Allah,
Allah says: `This is what We have commanded you to do in the rituals (of Hajj), and this is the great reward that the person who does that will gain.'
(whoever honors the sacred things of Allah,) means, whoever avoids disobeying Him and does not transgress that which is sacred, and regards committing sin as a very serious matter,
(then that is better for him with his Lord.) means, he will attain much good and a great reward for doing that. Just as the one who does acts of obedience will earn a great reward, so too, the one who avoids sin will earn a great reward.
(The cattle are lawful to you, except those (that will be) mentioned to you.) means, `We have made permissible for you all the An`am (cattle etc.),' and Allah has not instituted things like Bahirah or a Sa'ibah or a Wasilah or a Ham.
(except those mentioned to you.) the prohibition of Al-Maytah, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering (that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols) and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns -- and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal -- unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) - and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An-Nusub. This was the view of Ibn Jarir, who recorded it from Qatadah.
(So shun the Rijis of the idols, and shun false speech.) From this it is clear what Ar-Rijs means, i.e., avoid the abomination, which means idols. Shirk is mentioned in conjunction with false speech, as in the Ayah:
(Say: "(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners with Allah for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge''.) (7:33) This includes bearing false witness. In the Two Sahihs it was reported from Abu Bakrah that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Shall I not tell you about the worst of major sins) We said, "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.'' He said:
(Associating others with Allah, disobeying one's parents.) He was reclining, then he sat up and said:
(and indeed giving false statements, and indeed bearing false witness...) and he kept on repeating it until we wished that he would stop.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Khuraym bin Fatik Al-Asadi said, "The Messenger of Allah prayed As-Subh (Al-Fajr), and when he had finished, he stood up and said:
(Bearing false witness is on a par with the association of others with Allah.) Then he recited this Ayah:
(So shun the Rijs of the idols, and shun lying speech. Hunafa' Lillah, not associating partners unto Him;)
(Hunafa' Lillah) means, sincerely submitting to Him Alone, shunning falsehood and seeking the truth. Allah says:
(not associating partners unto Him;) Then Allah gives a likeness of the idolator in his misguidance and being doomed and being far away from true guidance, and says:
(and whoever assigns partners to Allah, it is as if he had fallen from the sky,) meaning,
(the birds caught him in midair,)
(or the wind had thrown him to a far off place.) means, remote and desolate, dangerous for anyone who lands there. Hence it says in the Hadith of Al-Bara':
(When the angels of death take the soul of the disbeliever in death, they take his soul up to the heaven, but the gates of heaven are not opened for him; on the contrary, his soul is thrown down from there.) Then he recited this Ayah. The Hadith has already been quoted in our explanation of Surah Ibrahim. Allah gives another parable of the idolators in Surat Al-An`am, where He says:
(Say: "Shall we invoke others besides Allah, that can do us neither good nor can harm us, and shall we turn back on our heels after Allah has guided us -- like one whom the Shayaلtin have made to go astray in the land in confusion, his companions calling him to guidance (saying): `Come to us.''' Say: "Verily, Allah's guidance is the only guidance.'') (6:71)
(32. Thus it is, and whosoever honors the Sha`a'ir of Allah, then it is truly from the Taqwa of the hearts.) (33. In them are benefits for you for an appointed term, and afterwards they are brought for sacrifice to the `Atiq House.)
(and whosoever honors the Sha`a'ir of Allah,) means, His commands.
(then it is truly from the Taqwa of the hearts.) This also includes obeying His commands in the best way when it comes to offering sacrifices, as Al-Hakam said narrating from Miqsam, from Ibn `Abbas: "Honoring them means choosing fat, healthy animals (for sacrifice).'' Abu Umamah bin Sahl said: "We used to fatten the Udhiyyah in Al-Madinah, and the Muslims used to fatten them.'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. In Sunan Ibn Majah, it was recorded from Abu Rafi` that the Messenger of Allah sacrificed two castrated, fat, horned rams. Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah recorded from Jabir: "The Messenger of Allah sacrificed two castrated, fat, horned rams.'' It was said, "The Messenger of Allah commanded us to examine their eyes and ears, and not to sacrifice the Muqabilah, the Mudabirah, the Sharqa, nor the Kharqa'.'' This was recorded by Ahmad and the Sunan compilers, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih. As for the Muqabilah, it is the one whose ear is cut at the front, Mudabirah is the one whose ear is cut at the back, the Shurqa is the one whose ear is split, as Ash-Shafi`i said. The Kharqa' is the one whose ear is pierced with a hole. And Allah knows best. It was recorded that Al-Bara' said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(Four are not permitted for sacrifice: those that are obviously one-eyed, those that are obviously sick, those that are obviously lame and those that have broken bones, which no one would choose.) This was recorded by Ahmad and the Sunan compilers, and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih.
(In them are benefits for you) meaning, in the Budn (sacrificial camels) you find benefits such as their milk their wool and hair, and their use for riding.
(In them are benefits for you for an appointed term,) Miqsam reported that Ibn `Abbas said: "Until you decide to offer them as a sacrifice.'' It was recorded in the Two Sahihs from Anas that the Messenger of Allah saw a man driving his sacrificial camel and said,
(Ride it.) The man said, "It is a sacrificial camel.'' He said,
(Ride it, woe to you!) the second or third time. According to a report recorded by Muslim from Jabir, the Messenger of Allah said:
(Ride it gently accor- ding to your needs.)
(and afterwards they are brought for sacrifice to the `Atiq House.) meaning, they are eventually brought to the `Atiq House -- which is the Ka`bah -- as Allah says:
(An offering, brought to the Ka`bah) (5:95)
(And detained the Hady, from reaching their place of sacrifice) (48:25)
(34. And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies, that they may mention the Name of Allah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food. And your God is One God, so you must submit to Him Alone. And give glad tidings to the Mukhbitin.) (35. Whose hearts are filled with fear when Allah is mentioned, and the patient who bear whatever may befall them, and who perform the Salah, and who spend out of what We have provided for them.)
Allah tells us that sacrifice and shedding blood in the Name of Allah has been prescribed for all nations. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies,) "Festivals.'' `Ikrimah said, "Sacrifices.''
(And for every nation We have appointed religious ceremonies,) Zayd bin Aslam said, "This means Makkah; Allah did not appoint religious ceremonies anywhere else for any nation.''
(that they may mention the Name of Allah over the beast of cattle that He has given them for food.) It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that Anas said, "The Messenger of Allah brought two fat, horned rams; he said Bismillah and Allahu Akbar, then he put his foot on their necks.
(And your God is One God, so you must submit to Him Alone.) Your God is One, even though the Laws of the Prophets may vary and may abrogate one another. All of the Prophets called mankind to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate.
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but I, so worship Me.) (21:25). Allah says:
(so you must submit to Him Alone.) meaning, submit to His commands and obey Him in all sincerity.
(And give glad tidings to the Mukhbitin.) Mujahid said about Mukhbitin, "Those who find contentment in their faith.'' Ath-Thawri said, "Those who find contentment in their faith and who accept the decree of Allah and submit to Him.'' It is better to interpret it by what comes next, which is:
(Whose hearts are filled with fear when Allah is mentioned,) meaning, their hearts fear Him.
(and the patient who bear whatever may befall them) meaning, of afflictions.
(and who perform the Salah,) they fulfill the duties which Allah has enjoined upon them, the duty of performing the obligatory prayers.
(and who spend out of what We have provided for them.) the good provision which Allah has given them. They spend on their families and servants, and on the poor and needy; they treat people kindly while remaining within the limits set by Allah. This is in contrast to the hypocrites, who are the opposite of all this, as we have discussed in the Tafsir of Surah Bara'ah; to Allah be praise and blessings.
(36. And the Budn, We have made them for you as among the symbols of Allah, wherein you have much good. So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice). Then, when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat thereof, and feed the Qani` and the Mu`tarr. Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful.)
Here Allah reminds His servants of the blessing which He has bestowed on His servants, by creating the Budn for them and making them one of His symbols. For He has decreed that they should be brought to His Sacred House; indeed, they are the best of that which may be offered as a sacrifice to Allah, as He says:
(Violate not the sanctity of the Sha`a'ir of Allah, nor of the Sacred Month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlanded people or animals, and others, nor the people coming to the Sacred House) (5:2)
(And the Budn, We have made them for you as among the symbols of Allah,) Ibn Jurayj said: "Ata' commented on this Ayah, `Cattle and camels.''' A similar view was also reported from Ibn `Umar, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and Al-Hasan Al-Basri. Mujahid said: "Al-Budn means camels.'' According to Muslim, Jabir bin `Abdullah and others said, "The Messenger of Allah commanded us to share in offering the sacrifice, a Budn (camel) for seven people, and one cow for seven people.''
(wherein you have much good. ) means, reward in the Hereafter.
(So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice).) It was reported from Al-Muttalib bin `Abdullah bin Hantab that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, "I prayed with the Messenger of Allah on `Id Al-Adha. When he finished, he brought a ram and slaughtered it, saying,
(Bismillah, and Allahu Akbar. O Allah, this is on behalf of me and anyone of my Ummah who has not offered a sacrifice.) This was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi. Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded from Yazid bin Abi Habib from Ibn `Abbas that Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah sacrificed two rams on the day of `Id, and when he lay them down to sacrifice them, he said:
(I turn my face to the One Who created the heavens and the earth, being true and sincere in faith submitting myself to Him Alone, and I am not of the idolators. Verily, my prayer, my sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists for, with no partner or associate for Him. Thus am I commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims. O Allah, from You and to You, on behalf of Muhammad and his Ummah.) Then he said, `Bismillah' and `Allahu Akbar' and slaughtered them.'' It was reported from `Ali bin Al-Husayn from Abu Rafi` that when the Messenger of Allah wanted to offer a sacrifice, he would buy two fat, horned, fine rams. When he had prayed and addressed the people, he would bring one of them to where he was standing in the prayer place, and would sacrifice it himself with a knife, then he would say:
(O Allah, this is on behalf of all of my Ummah, whoever bears witness of Tawhid of You and bears witness that I have conveyed.) Then he would bring the other ram and sacrifice it himself, and say,
(This is on behalf of Muhammad and the family of Muhammad.) He would give them to the poor and he and his family would eat from it as well. This was recorded by Ahmad and Ibn Majah. Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Zabiyan from Ibn `Abbas,
(So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice). ) "When they are standing on three legs, with the left foreleg tied up. He says Bismillah and Allahu Akbar, La ilaha illallah, Allahumma Minka wa Laka (In the Name of Allah and Allah is Most Great; there is no God but Allah. O Allah, from You and to You).'' In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that Ibn `Umar came to a man who had made his camel kneel down in order to sacrifice it. He said, "Make it stand up fettered, (this is) the Sunnah of Abu Al-Qasim (i.e. the Prophet Muhammad ).''
(Then, when they are down on their sides,) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, "This means, when it has fallen to the ground.'' This was narrated from Ibn `Abbas, and a similar view was narrated from Muqatil bin Hayyan. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,
(Then, when they are down on their sides,) "Meaning, when they have died.'' This is what was meant by the comment of Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid, for it is not permitted to eat from the sacrifice when it has been slaughtered until it has died and its movements have ceased. It was reported in a Marfu` Hadith:
(Do not rush until you are sure that the animal is dead. ) Ath-Thawri narrated in his Jami` that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that, and he supported it with the Hadith of Shaddad bin `Aws in Sahih Muslim:
(Allah has prescribed proficiency in all things. If you kill, kill well; and if you slaughter, slaughter well. Let each one of you sharpen his blade and let him spare suffering to the animal he slaughters.) It was recorded that Abu Waqid Al-Laythi said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(Whatever is cut from an animal while it is still alive is Maytah (dead flesh).) This was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih.
(eat thereof, and feed Qani` and the Mu`tarr...) This is a command which implies that this is permissible. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Qani` is the one who is content with what he is given and he stays in his house, and the Mu`tarr is the one who comes to you and rubs shoulders with you so that you will give him some meat, but he does not ask for it. '' This was also the view of Mujahid and Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Qani` is the one who is too proud to ask, and Mu`tarr is the one who does ask.'' This was also the view of Qatadah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and Mujahid, according to one report narrated from him. And the opposite was also suggested. This Ayah has been quoted as evidence by those scholars who said that the sacrifice should be divided into three: a third for the one who offers the sacrifice to eat from, a third to be given as gifts to his friends, and a third to be given in charity to the poor, because Allah says:
(eat thereof, and feed the poor who does not ask, and the beggar who asks.) But there is no evidence in this Ayah for this view. According to a Sahih Hadith, the Messenger of Allah said to the people:
(I used to forbid you to keep the meat of the sacrifice for more than three days, but now eat from it and keep it as you see fit.) According to another report:
(Eat some, keep some and give some in charity.) According to another report:
(Eat some, feed others, and give some in charity.) As for the animal skins, it was recorded in Musnad Ahmad from Qatadah bin An-Nu`man in the Hadith about the sacrifice:
(Eat and give in charity, and make use of the skins, but do not sell them.) (Note) It was recorded that Al-Bara' bin `Azib said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(The first thing that we should do on this day of ours (`Id) is to pray, then we return and offer the sacrifice. Whoever does that will have followed our Sunnah. Whoever slaughters his animal before the prayer, this is just meat which he has brought for his family, it is not a sacrifice at all.) This was recorded by (Al-Bukhari and Muslim). And in Sahih Muslim, it is mentioned that one is not to offer the sacrifice until the Imam (leader) has offered his. It is prescribed to offer the sacrifice on the day of Nahr and the following three days of Tashriq, because of the Hadith of Jubayr bin Mut`im who said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The days of Tashriq are all (for) sacrifice.) This was recorded by Ahmad and Ibn Hibban.
(Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful.) means, for this reason.
(Thus have We made them subject to you) means, `We have subjugated them to you, i.e., We have made them submissive towards you, so that if you wish you can ride them, or if you wish you can milk them, or if you wish you can slaughter them,' as Allah says:
(Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands have created, the cattle, so that they are their owners.) (36:71) until He said:
(Will they not then be grateful) (36:73) And Allah says in this Ayah:
(Thus have We made them subject to you that you may be grateful.)
(37. It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is Taqwa from you that reaches Him. Thus have We made them subject to you that you may proclaim Allah's greatness for His guidance to you. And give glad tidings to the doers of good.)
Allah says: this sacrifice is prescribed for you so that you will remember Him at the time of slaughter, for He is the Creator and Provider. Nothing of its flesh or blood reaches Him, for He has no need of anything other than Himself. During the time of Jahiliyyah, when they offered sacrifices to their gods, they would put some of the meat of their sacrifices on their idols, and sprinkle the blood over them. But Allah says:
(It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn Jurayj said, "The people of the Jahiliyyah used to put the meat of their sacrifices and sprinkle the blood on the House, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "We have more right to do that.'' Then Allah revealed the words:
(It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is Taqwa from you that reaches Him.) That is what He will accept and reward for, as mentioned in the Sahih,
(Allah does not look to your appearance or your colors, but He looks to your hearts and deeds.) And in the Hadith; (Indeed charity falls in the Hand of Ar-Rahman before it falls in the hand of the one asking.)
(Thus have We made them subject to you) meaning, `for this purpose We have subjugated the Budn for you,'
(that you may proclaim Allah's greatness for His guidance to you.) means, that you may glorify Him for guiding you to His religion and His way which He loves and is pleased with, and has forbidden you to do all that He hates and rejects.
(And give glad tidings to the doers of good.) means, `give good news, O Muhammad, to those who do good,' i.e., whose deeds are good and who remain within the limits prescribed by Allah, who follow that which has been prescribed for them, who believe in the Messenger and follow that which he has conveyed from his Lord.
(Note) The Udhiyyah is Sunnah Mustahabbah One animal is sufficient on behalf of all the members of one household. Ibn `Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah continued to offer sacrifice for ten years.'' This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi. Abu Ayyub said: "At the time of the Messenger of Allah , a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and all the members of his household, and they would eat from it and feed others, until the people started boasting ﴿by sacrificing more than one﴾ and things reached the stage that you see now.'' This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who graded it Sahih, and by Ibn Majah. `Abdullah bin Hisham used to sacrifice one sheep on behalf of his entire family; this was recorded by Al-Bukhari. Concerning how old the sacrificial animal should be, Muslim recorded from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Do not sacrifice any but mature animals, and if that is not possible, then sacrifice a young sheep.)
(38. Truly, Allah defends those who believe. Verily, Allah likes not any treacherous ingrate.)