Allah tells us that whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth, i.e., the angels, mankind, Jinn, animals and even inanimate objects, all glorify Him. This is like the Ayah:
(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him) (17:44),
(and the birds with wings outspread) means, while they are flying they glorify their Lord and worship Him with the glorification with which they are inspired and to which they are guided. Allah knows what they are doing, and so He says:
(Of each one He knows indeed his Salah and his glorification;) meaning, He has guided every creature to its own way of worshipping Allah, may He be glorified. Then Allah tells us that He knows all of that and nothing at all is hidden from Him. He says:
(and Allah is All-Aware of what they do.) Then Allah tells us that to Him belongs the sovereignty of heaven and earth, and that He is the Ruler and Controller, the God Who is worshipped and besides Whom none other is to be worshipped, and there is none to put back His judgment.
(and to Allah is the return) means, on the Day of Resurrection, when He will judge as He wills,
(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done...) (53:31) He is the Creator and Sovereign, and His is indeed the Authority in this world and the next. To Him be praise at the beginning and in the end.
(43. See you not that Allah drives the clouds gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap of layers, and you see the rain come forth from between them; and He sends down from the sky, from mountains in it of ice, and strikes therewith whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills. The vivid flash of its (clouds) lightning nearly blinds the sight.) (44. Allah causes the night and the day to succeed each other. Truly, in this is indeed a lesson for those who have insight.)
Allah tells us that He drives the clouds from the beginning, when they are formed and are still weak. This is the "Gentle driving.''
(then joins them together,) means, He brings them together after they have been scattered.
(then makes them into a heap of layers,) means, He piles them up on top of one another.
(and you see the Wadq) meaning the rain,
(come forth from between them;) means, from the gaps between them. This is how it was understood by Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak. `Ubayd bin `Umayr Al-Laythi said: "Allah sends the scatterer ﴿wind﴾, which stirs up that which is on the surface of the earth. Then he sends the generator ﴿wind﴾, which forms the clouds. Then He sends the joiner ﴿wind﴾ which brings them together. Then He sends the fertilizer ﴿wind﴾ which fertilizes or `seeds' the clouds.'' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir.
(and He sends down from (Min) the sky, from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice,) Some of the grammarians said that the first Min describes the place from which it is coming, the second specifies from which part of the sky it comes, and the third means some kind of mountains. This is based on the view of those scholars of Tafsir who say that,
(from (Min) mountains in it of (Min) ice) means that there are mountains of hail in the sky from which Allah sends down ice. As for those who say that "mountains'' here is used as a metaphor for clouds, they think that the second Min is also used to describe the place from which the ice is coming, and is thus interchangeable with the first. And Allah knows best.
(and strikes therewith whom He wills, and averts it from whom He wills.) It may be that the phrase
(and strikes therewith) means, with what He sends down from the sky of different kinds of rain and hail. So then the phrase
(and strikes therewith whom He wills) means, by His mercy towards them, and
(and averts it from whom He wills. ) means, He withholds rain from them. Or it may be that
(and strikes therewith) means, with hail, as a punishment towards whomever He wills, striking their fruits and destroying their crops and trees. And He averts it from whomever He wills as a mercy towards them.
(The vivid flash of its lightning nearly blinds the sight.) the brightness of its lightning almost takes away their sight if the eyes follow it and try to look at it.
(Allah causes the night and the day to succeed each other.) He is controlling them, so that He takes something from the length of one and adds it to the other, which is short, until they become equal, then He does the opposite so that the one which was short becomes long and vice versa. Allah is the One Who is controlling that by His command, power, might and knowledge.
(Truly, in this is indeed a lesson for those who have insight.) means, this is an indication of His greatness, may He be exalted. This is like the Ayah:
(Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding.) (3:190) and thereafter.
(45. Allah has created every moving creature from water. Of them there are some that creep on their bellies, and some that walk on two legs, and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Verily, Allah is able to do all things.)
Allah mentions His complete and almighty power to create all the different kinds of animals with their various forms, colors and ways of moving and stopping, from one kind of water.
(Of them there are some that creep on their bellies,) like snakes and so on;
(and some that walk on two legs,) like humans and birds;
(and some that walk on four,) like cattle and all kinds of animals. Allah says:
(Allah creates what He wills.) meaning by His power, because what He wills happens and what He does not will does not happen. So he says:
(Verily, Allah is able to do all things.)
(46. We have indeed sent down manifest Ayat. And Allah guides whom He wills to the straight path.) Allah states that in this Qur'an He has revealed many clear and unambiguous rulings, words of wisdom and parables, and that He guides people of understanding, insight and intellect to ponder and understand them. He says:
(And Allah guides whom He wills to the Straight Path.)
(47. They say: "We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,'' then a party of them turn away thereafter, such are not believers.) (48. And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, lo! a party of them refuses and turns away.) (49. But if the truth is on their side, they come to him willingly with submission.) (50. Is there a disease in their hearts Or do they doubt or fear lest Allah and His Messenger should wrong them in judgment. Nay, it is they themselves who are the wrongdoers.) (51. The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: "We hear and we obey.'' And such are the successful.) (52. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, fears Allah, and has Taqwa of Him, such are the successful.)
Allah tells us about the characteristics of the hypocrites who show one thing while hiding another, and who say with their tongues,
("We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,'' then a party of them turn away thereafter,) meaning, their actions contradict their deeds, and they say that which they do not do. Allah says:
(such are not believers.)
(And when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them...) means, when they are asked to follow the guidance which Allah has revealed to His Messenger , they turn away and are too arrogantly proud of themselves to follow him. This is like the Ayah:
(Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you,) until His saying:
(you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion) (4: 60-61).
(But if the truth is on their side, they come to him willingly with submission.) means, if the ruling will be in their favor and not against them, then they will come and will listen and obey, which is what is meant by the phrase
(willingly with submission.) But if the ruling will go against him, he turns away and demands something that goes against the truth, and he prefers to refer for judgment to someone other than the Prophet so that his false claims may prevail. His acceptance in the beginning was not because he believed that it was the truth, but because it happened to be in accordance with his desires. So when the truth went against what he was hoping for, he turned away from it. Allah said:
(Is there a disease in their hearts...) meaning, their situation cannot be anything else, they must necessarily have a disease in their hearts, or else they have some doubts about the religion, or they are afraid that Allah and His Messenger will be unjust in their ruling against them. Whichever it is, it is pure disbelief, and Allah knows which of these characteristics each one of them has.
(Nay, it is they themselves who are the wrongdoers.) means, they are the evildoers who commit immoral actions, and Allah and His Messenger are innocent of the injustice and unfairness that they imagine; exalted be Allah and His Messenger above such a thing. Then Allah tells us about the attributes of the believers who respond to Allah and His Messenger and who seek no other way apart from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger. Allah says:
(The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: "We hear and we obey''.) meaning, to hear to obey. Allah describes them as having attained success, which is achieving what one wants and being saved from what one fears. So Allah says:
(And such are the successful.) Concerning the Ayah:
(they say: "We hear and we obey''.), Qatadah said: "We were told that when `Ubadah bin As-Samit, who had been present at Al-`Aqabah and at Badr, and was one of the leaders of the Ansar, was dying, he said to his nephew Junadah bin Abi Umayyah: `Shall I not tell you what you must do and what is your due' He said, `Yes.' He said: `You have to listen and obey when times are easy and when they are hard, when you feel energetic and when you do not want to, and when you feel selfish. You have to train your tongue to speak the truth. Do not go against those who are in authority, unless they openly command you to commit acts of disobedience to Allah. Whenever you are commanded to do something that goes against the Book of Allah, then follow the Book of Allah.''' Qatadah said: We were told that Abu Ad-Darda' said, "There is no Islam except through obedience to Allah, and no goodness except in Jama`ah. Sincerity is to Allah and His Messenger, and to the Khalifah and all the believers.'' He said: "And we were told that `Umar bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) used to say; `The bonds of Islam are La ilaha illallah, establishing prayer, paying Zakah and obeying those whom Allah has given authority over the affairs of the Muslims.''' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. There are very many Hadiths and reports which state that it is obligatory to obey the Book of Allah, the Sunnah of His Messenger, the Rightly-Guided Khalifahs and the Imams when they command us to obey Allah; there are too many of these reports to quote them all here.
(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger,) in what he is commanded with, and avoid what he is forbidden,
(fears Allah, ) means, for his past sins,
(and has Taqwa of Him,) regarding sins he may commit in the future.
(such are the successful.) means, those who will attain all goodness and be saved from all evil in this world and the Hereafter.
(53. They swear by Allah their strongest oaths that if only you would order them, they would leave. Say: "Swear you not; obedience is known. Verily, Allah knows well what you do.'') (54. Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way.'') Allah says about the hypocrites who had promised the Messenger and sworn that if he were to command them to go out for battle, they would go:
(Say: "Swear you not...'') meaning, do not swear this oath.
(obedience is known.) It was said that the meaning is, your obedience is known, i.e., it is known that your obedience is merely verbal and is not accompanied by action. Every time you swear an oath you lie. This is like the Ayah:
(They swear to you that you may be pleased with them...) (9:96) And Allah says:
(They have made their oaths a screen (for their evil actions).) (58:16) It is part of their nature to tell lies, even in the issues they choose, as Allah says:
(Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the people of the Scripture who disbelieve: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey any one against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.'' But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars. Surely, if they are expelled, never will they go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And if they do help them, they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) (59:11-12) Then Allah says:
(Say: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger...) meaning, follow the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.
(but if you turn away,) if you ignore what he has brought to you,
(he is only responsible for the duty placed on him), conveying the Message and fulfilling the trust.
(and you for that placed on you.) accepting that, and venerating it and doing as it commanded.
(If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance.) because he calls to the straight path,
(The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. ..) (42:53)
(The Messenger's duty is only to convey in a clear way.) This is like the Ayat:
(your duty is only to convey and on Us is the reckoning.) (13:40)
(So remind them -- you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them.) (88:21-22)
(55. Allah has promised those among you who believe and do righteous good deeds, that He will certainly grant them succession in the land, as He granted it to those before them, and that He will grant them the authority to practice their religion which He has chosen for them. And He will surely give them in exchange a safe security after their fear if they worship Me and do not associate anything with Me. But whoever disbelieved after this, they are the rebellious.)